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高考英语专题复习课件:完形填空(公开课)


高考完型填空专题讲座
技巧点拨

为什么我们在这一题型上总是失分较多?
1.没有严格遵循答题步骤: 多数同学考试时担心时间紧,在没有弄清 短文的中心和文章的情节线索的情况下匆忙答题. 事实上我们用在这一题上的时间可以达到15-18分 钟. 切记:一定要用2-3分钟时间进行缺词阅读,弄清 文章大意和基本脉络后再着手逐个填空. 2. 不注意积

累答题技巧: a. 忽略文章中上下文之间的照应关系; b. 遇到长句不注意分析句子结构,在语义模糊 时抱碰运气的心理随意作出选择.

模棱两可处和看不懂,该怎么办?

? ? ? ?

似懂非懂,找寻答案就如大海掏针 从头到尾充满了暗示 猜也要猜得有理有据 命题是艺术,解题就是技术;命题是设计 陷阱,技巧就是识破陷阱

不看文章和题干,让你轻松选答案(民间药方)
(2010辽宁卷) ? 36 A worried B sad C surprised D nervous ? 52 A Largely B Generally C Gradually D Probably ? 47 As I found out , there is ______46,often no perfect equivalence( ) between two ___47 in two languages. My aunt even goes so far as to ___48 that a Chinese "equivalent" can never give you the ___49 meaning of a word in English! ? 47 A words B srill C ideas D characters

词汇题

高考完形 填空考什么? 篇章结构

句际关系

完型填空特点:
1. 题材常为说明文或夹叙夹议的文章. 2.内容完整,逻辑性强,语言结构严谨. 3.考察近义词语细微差别的辨析. 4.考察重点多为实词:名/代/动词/形容/副 词等. 5.关注语境背景知识,侧重上下关联,暗示 判断能力. 6.侧重于篇章,体现语用判断和内在逻辑.

考纲解读 完形填空是一种综合测试,涉及的知识面很广,是用来测 试考生的阅读理解能力和综合应用语言的能力。具体表现在以 下几个方面: (1)词语辨析能力 (2)语法结构分析能力 (3)语篇理解能力 (4)逻辑推理能力 (5)文化背景透析能力 (6)作者意图剖析能力 (7)生活常识综合运用能力

解题方法:(科学药方)
总的原则: “先完意,后完形”。 八字方针:上下求索,瞻前顾后。 三步曲:读——填——读

完形填空的解题步骤
把握整体 具体分析

跳过空格,通读全文, 把握大意 结合选项,综合考虑,初定答案 瞻前顾后,先易后难, 个个击破 再读全文,反复检查

三步答题
Step1 Skip(跳读) the passage to get the general idea and pay attention to the first sentence. In the cloze test, there is no blank in the first sentence (首句). It helps us to know the topic of the whole passage. (完形填空首句不挖空,帮助进入语境)

Step2 Reread and choose the best answer for each blank by using some methods. (在把握语篇大意的基础上,借助于一些恰当 的方法选择最佳答案)

Four methods(四种常用的方法):
1、context (上下文语境) 2、word distinctions or collocations (词语辨析和固定搭配) 3、information given in the passage (利用文章中的信息---原词复现、近义词和 反义词等) 4、cultural background and common sense (文化背景和常识)

Step3 Read the passage again and check the

answers.

(将所选定的词放到文章中复读检查)

Tips: 1. the tense and the voice,the accord between subject and predicate (时态语态,主谓语在上下文的中是否一致) 2. grammar and collocations (语法和习惯用法的搭配在上下文中是否一致) 3. the connection between sentences and paragraphs (段与段,句与句之间的衔接是否连贯) 4. the meaning of the whole passage (整体上检查结构、语义及逻辑是否一致,上下 文的衔接是否合理)

完形填空
九大解题技巧

1. 利用首句来解题
I did very badly at school. My headmaster thought I was 36 and when I was 14, he said, “You’re never going to be 37(anything) but a failure. ” 36.A. bright B. useless C. simple D. hopeful

2. 根据上下文语境,合理推断来解题
Our father was a struggling 36(lawyer) , but I always knew he was 37 . He never criticized us, but used 38 to bring out our best. 37. A. strict B. honest C. special D. learned 38. A. help B. peace C. smile D. praise

Practice His big stomach has always ballooned out between his T-shirt and trousers. Although his family often 43 about that, Ed refused to buy a 44 T-shirt or to lose weight.
43. A. cared C. quarreled 44. A. clean C. larger B. forgot D. joked B. straight D. darker

3. 利用语篇的标志性的词语解题
常见的标志性的词语有以下几种: 结构层次:firstly, secondly, thirdly; 逻辑关系:thus, therefore, so; 递进关系:besides, what’s more, further; 转折关系:but, while, however等。

She told the front-desk clerk she had had a(n) __1_vacation,__ but was heart-broken about losing several rolls of Kodak color film she had not yet developed. 1.A. disappointing B. wonderful C. uncomfortable D. important

4. 根据逻辑推理解题
…and the officers then began to eat their meal , saying that the mushrooms had a very strange__37_quite pleasant taste.

37. A. besides C. and

B. but D. or

Practice Students generally appreciate these special 50 opportunities. They are almost always fun and interesting, and professors 51 them too because students learn so much in just a few short months. 50. A. working C. teaching 51. A. hold C. dislike B. living D. learning B. like D. discover

5. 根据常识和文化背景的角度来选择
The amount of usable water has always been of great interest in the world. 36(Owning) springs and streams sometimes means control , particularly in the 37 areas like the desert. A.dry B.distant C.deserted D.wild

6.从语法角度来解题
I went into a caféand asked for a coffee. 21 I was waiting for my drink, I realized that there were other people in the place , but I sensed 22 (loneliness). A.Before B.Since C.Although D.While

7.从词汇辨析和固定搭配方面来解题
1) He was only fourteen and was not good at swimming__1_.So he shouldn’t have gone into that place. 1.A.after all B.in all C.at all D. for all
2) So I tried hard with my writing and went to college . My first novel 45 while I was at college. 45. A. came on B. came in C. came out D. came back

8.利用词汇的复现解题
How does a tooth go bad? The 51 begins in a little crack in the enamel (珐琅)covering of the tooth. This happens after germs and bits of food have collected there. Then the decay slowly spreads inside the tooth. In the end, poison goes into blood, and we may feel quite ill. 51. A. destruction B. decay C. fault D. hurt
上文中讲蛀牙如何产生。 空51和红体单词在 意义上是一致的, 属于同义词复现现象。

9.利用语气副词的情景解题
….I raised the pistol and fired. The animal fell backwards with an angry cry. Father took the ___38____ smoking pistol from my hand , and fired another shot, which killed the gorilla. 38. A. still B. yet C. even D. already

summary
研究首尾——找主题 上下联系——寻信息 左顾右盼——找搭配 思前想后——觅逻辑 语境分析——辨词义 集中精力——破难题 回读检查——补漏洞

完形填空之

实战训练

36. A. through B. across (08江西) The three C. down D. up youths leaned over the metal rails along the sea- 37.A.loading B.unloading 语境 C.covering D.uncovering wall and watched a few fishermen pull in their 理解 38. A. way B. revolution nets. About thirty 原词重现 metres 词义 C. process D. era 39. A. ask B. expect away, a boat pulled 用法 C. attempt D. hope alongside the slippery 40. A. happen B. fail steps leading 36 to the C. have D. seem sea. 41. A.ambitious语境-词义 “Hey, look!” exclaimed 排除法 B. experienced C. potential Rahim. “Those two men D.energetic are 37 heavy rocks. I 词义辨析 thought we no longer do 42. A. take B. fetch C. carry D. bring muscle labour in this 43. A. shoulder B. back technological 38 . ”“you don’t 39 常识 a C. chest D. arms

常识 Some of the rock’s 词义 44.A. on B. against weight is set 44 his C.toward D. under head, some on the right 45.A.supported 词义辨析 转折关系 hand and some on the B.grasped C. placed D.strengthened left hand. His body 46.A. but B. however isn’t bent. His legs are C. so D. therefore 语境理解 well 45 . ” 47.A.chemistry “You’re right, Josh. B. physics C. biology He may have a small 词义 D. psychology build. 46 he certainly 语境 48.A. control B.affect 语境 well knows his job. Dear C.remove D. replace me! And to think we 49.A. agreed B. proposed have been studying C. refused D. denied 47 ! ” Rahim thought 50.A. can’t B. about all that was mustn’t happening. Suddenly,原词重现 he C. won’t D. needn’t said, “Technology

常识 “You can get a computer 51. A. point out to 51 multiple-choice B. take out assessments, but you C. hand out cannot get the computer 常识-语境 D. print out 52. A. dirty B. clean to produce of assess C.old D. new essays, can you?” 词义-句型 53. A. caught asked Michael. B. arranged C. left “Well, the washing D. convinced machine leaves my shirt 原 54.A. exciting 词 collar quite as 52 as B. mysterious 重 ever --- that’s domestic 现 C. technological technology for you! ” D. modern 55.A. That B. This said Rahim. C. They D.There “One day, perhaps, 固定句型 there won’t be anybody

Are dreams of any use to the dreamer or to anybody else? We may remember left the traveler who __1_______ the ship Waratah at Durban because of his terrible _2_______. The Waratah later dreams disappeared entirely, with board everyone on _3________. The traveler’s dreams helped him and saved him from death _4__________, but they didn’t help the other people. Why was this man treated differently _5___________ from everyone else?

1. A. left C. drove 2. A. ideas B. suggestions C. dreams 3. A. board C. sea 4. A. life

B. got D. enter

D. words B. ship D. deck B. death

C. illness
5. A. similarly B. differently

D. disease

C. strangely
D. unfortunately

once had Another man _6_____ a dream about the Black Forest in Germany. In his

句型
6. A. alone
C. still 7. A. while

B. once
D. even B. as

dream he was walking in C. before whe the forest _7______ two men 8. A. floor n ran out and tried to throw C. soil ground He ran him to the _8_______. off as fast as he could, but
9. A. which

D. when
B. earth D. ground

B. that
D. who B. separate

they followed. He reached where he saw two 10. A. same a place _9_____ C. divided separate roads in front of _10________ him, one to the right and
11. A. take C. carry

C. where

D. crossed
B. bring D. go

the other to the left. Which take road ought he to _11______ ?

宾语

下文有暗示

灵活的解题技巧
Problem solving strategies 上下文语境(context) 常识背景(common sense) 习惯搭配(phrases & idioms) 词义辨析 (comparison) 语法分析(grammar analysis) 逻辑分析 (logical analysis ) 排除法 (exclusive method )

He heard the two men
behind him, getting nearer _12____ and at the same time he

下文有暗示
12. A. next to B. in front of C. beside 13. A. house C. left 14. A. accepted B. received D. behind B. hotel D. right

heard a voice in his ear. It
told him to go to the right _13__ , and he did so. hotel. He ran on

and soon came to a small
received He was _14________ here kindly and given a room, and so he was saved _15__ from the two men. That

C. refused
15. A. killed B. murdered

D. closed

C. saved

D. robbed

was the dream.

Twenty years later he was 16. A. exactly B. really really in the Black Forest _16_______ C. sincerely D. actually happened in the 17. A. happened and as it _17_________
dream long before, two men ran out and tried to throw him a place with two roads as in remembered the the dream.He_18__________
B. performed C. acted B. remembered C. missed B. left D. got D. chose

down. He ran off, and came to 18. A. forgot

D. noticed dream and took the road to 19. A. arrived reached the right. He soon _19_______a

small hotel, was taken in, and
so was safe.

C. reached

His dream of 20. A. ago C. later before twenty years _20_________ had

B. before
D. after

Saved his life.

第13题答案

第11题答案


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