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Unit 3 Period Three


Period Three

Learning about Language

Ⅰ.单词 1.jog vi.慢跑;vt.轻推;轻撞 2.seaside_adj.&n.海边(的);海滨(的) 3.net n.网;网状物;网络 network n.网织品;网状组织 4.target n.目标;靶子;受批评的对象 5.tide n.潮(汐)

;潮水;潮流 Ⅱ.短语 hold_up 举起;支撑;阻挡

1.to pull something along behind you 对译:拉在你后面的东西 [归纳拓展] pull vt.拉;拔;拖;vi.拉;拖;拔;n.拉;拉绳;拉力;牵引力;拖 pull out 离开;撤离;拔出;渡过难关;恢复健康;把(车,船)等驶出 pull down 摧毁;推翻;拉下来;使??下跌 pull up 拔起;停下来;阻止 pull together 齐心协力 pull over 把??开到路边;靠岸 [语境感悟] (1)Sam and John are pulling the rope. 山姆和约翰在拔河。 (2)She went into the garden to pull a few onions for dinner.

她去园子里拔了几个洋葱准备做饭。 (3)The policeman signaled to him to pull_over.

警察示意他把车停靠在路边。 (4)Can you pull the nail out_of my shoe? 你可以把我鞋上的钉子拔出来吗? 2.First,not only target fish are caught in the net,but many other sea animals are found hanging there. 对译:首先,不仅发现网里有目标鱼,还发现有许多其他的海洋动物挂在那儿。 [归纳拓展] target n.靶;目标;指标;vt.将??指向;使??朝向;把??作为目标 be a target of/for 成为(批评或嘲笑等的)对象

target,aim,goal (1)target 指射击的靶,军事攻击目标。引申指被攻击、批评或嘲笑的目标;为??订指标。 (2)aim 从本义“靶子”引申而来,侧重比较具体而明确的目标,但常指短期目标。也可作动 词,意为“瞄准,以??为目标”。 (3)goal 指经过考虑和选择,需经坚持不懈的努力奋斗才能达到的最终目标。 [语境感悟] (1)He says it is time to set an even more ambitious target. 他说,现在是时候设定一个更雄心勃勃的目标了。 (2)The embassy is an obvious target for terrorist attacks. 大使馆是恐怖分子攻击的明显目标。 (3)Living without an aim_ is like sailing without a compass. 生活没有目标就好像航海没有指南针。 (4)If we lose sight of the goal,we fail to be Communists. 如果忘记了这个目标,我们就不再是共产党员了。 (5)The company has targeted a profit for the year. 公司已经规定了今年的利润指标。

Ⅰ.完成句子 1.The coal production is_targeted_for 100 million tons this year. 今年煤的生产指标为 1 亿吨。 2.He is too proud and should be_pulled_down. 他傲气十足,应该让他收敛一点。 3.Mills have iron pillars all over the place holding_up the roof.

工厂里到处都有铁柱子支撑着屋顶。 Ⅱ.单句语法填空 1.The dangerous building in the middle of the street is being pulled down. 2.Hold on a moment and I will go to your rescue. 3.The company says that the growth of 10% is on target.

复习被动语态(Ⅱ) ——v.ing 的被动形式

观察体验 1.That building being_repaired_is our library. 正在维修的那座大楼是我们的图书馆。 2.Having_been_invited,Mr.Li went there to make a speech though he was busy. 被邀请后,李先生尽管很忙,还是去那儿做了演讲。 3.You can’t eat anything before being_operated_on. 在动手术之前你不能吃任何东西。 语法精析 动词ing 形式包括现在分词和动名词两种形式,因而其被动结构也有这两种形式。从时态上 讲,动词ing 形式的被动语态有一般时和完成时两种,即 being done 和 having been done。 动名词的被动形式在句中可作主语和宾语; 现在分词的被动形式在句中可作补语、 定语和状 语。 一、结构 主动语态 一般时 完成时 二、意义 1.一般时表示一个被动的动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生。 She insisted on being given the hardest work. 她坚持被派给最艰苦的工作。 2.完成时表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。 I appreciated having been given the chance to study abroad two years ago. 我非常感谢两年前获得了去国外学习的机会。 三、功能 writing having written 被动语态 being written having been written

1.主语 Being laughed at in public is a terrible experience. 在公共场合被嘲笑是一次非常不愉快的经历。 2.宾语 I forget once being taken to the sea when I was young. 我忘了小时候曾被带到海边过。 注意:want,need,require 的主语是物,表示“需要”时,用动名词的主动式表示被动,也 可用不定式的被动式表达。 This sentence needs improving. =This sentence needs to be improved. 这个句子需要改。 3.定语 The meeting being held now is very important. 现在正在召开的会议非常重要。 动词ing 形式的被动形式表示一个被动的动作正在进行; 过去分词表示一个被动的动作已经 发生;不定式的被动式表示将来的一个被动的动作。 a meeting being held now 现在正在举行的会议 a meeting held yesterday 昨天举行的一个会议 a meeting to be held tomorrow 明天将会举行的会议 4.宾补 He often watched the boats being unloaded. 他常常看到轮船卸货。 5.状语 Being asked to give a performance,she couldn’t very well refuse. 有人在请她表演一个节目,她不好拒绝。

Ⅰ.用所给词的适当形式填空 1.I still remember being_taken(take) to Paris when I was ten. 2.Having_been_shown(show) around the lab,we were taken to see the library. 3.Afraid of being_attacked(attack) by sharks,people dare not go swimming in the sea. 4.The bridge being_built(build) now will be completed in three months. 5.Don’t be angry with me for not_having_been_invited(not, invite) to the party. 6.Having_been_given(give) such a good chance, you might as well make full use of it. 7.The little girl was really terrified of being_left(leave) alone in that dark house.

8.What worried the child most was his not_being_allowed(not, allow) to visit his mother in the hospital. 9 . While we’re developing industry and agriculture, we must prevent the earth from being_polluted(pollute). 10.Not_having_been_told(not, tell) when the play started, he came late to the theatre and missed the first scene. Ⅱ.完成句子 1.Would you mind being_laughed_at(被嘲笑)in public? 2.The question is far from being_settled(解决). 3. Having_been_given_such_a_good_chance(这么好的机会给了你), how could you not value it at all? 4.He asked who was the man being_operated_on(正在被做手术). 5.As we approached the village,we saw new_houses_being_put_up(正在盖新房). 6.Being_defeated(被打败) in the match made me sad.

Ⅰ.阅读理解 A James Cleveland Owens was the son of a farmer and the grandson of black slaves.His family moved to Cleveland when he was 9;there,a school teacher asked the youth his name. “J.C.,” he replied. She thought he had said “Jesse”,and he had a new name. Owens ran his first race at age 13.After high school,he went to Ohio State University.He had to work part time so as to pay for his education.As a secondyear student,in the Big Ten games in 1935,he set even more records than he would in the Olympic Games a year later. A week before the Big Ten meet,Owens accidentally fell down a flight of stairs.His back hurt so much that he could not exercise all week,and he had to be helped in and out of the car that drove him to the meet.He refused to listen to the suggestions that he give up and said he would try, event by event.He did try,and the results are in the record book. The stage was set for Owens’ victory at the Olympic Games in Berlin the next year,and his success would come to be regarded as not only athletic(体育的) but also political.Hitler did not congratulate any of the AfricanAmerican winners. “It was all right with me,”he said years later,“I didn’t go to Berlin to shake hands with him,anyway.”

Having returned from Berlin, he received no telephone call from the President of his own country, either.In fact,he was not honored by the United States until 1976,four years before his death. Owens’ Olympic victories made little difference to him.He earned his living by looking after a school playground,and accepted money to race against cars,trucks,motorcycles,and dogs. “Sure,it bothered me,” he said later,“But at least it was an honest living.I had to eat.” In time,however,his gold medals changed his life.“They have kept me alive over the years,” he once said,“Time has stood still for me.That golden moment dies hard.” 1.Owens got his other name “Jesse” when ________. A.he went to Ohio State University B.his teacher made fun of him C.his teacher took “J.C.” for “Jesse” D.he won gold medals in the Big Ten meet 答案 C 解析 细节理解题。从第二、三段可得到信息。 2.In the Big Ten meet,Owens ________. A.hurt himself in the back B.succeeded in setting many records C.tried every sports event but failed D.had to give up some events 答案 B 解析 细节理解题。由第五段,特别是最后两句可知在运动会上,Owens 创了很多纪录。 3.We can infer from the text that Owens was treated unfairly in the US at that time because ________. A.he was not of the right race B.he was the son of a poor farmer C.he didn’t shake hands with Hitler D.he didn’t talk to the US President on the phone 答案 A 解析 推理判断题。通读文章可知,由于种族问题 Owens 受到了不公正的待遇。 4.When Owens says “They have kept me alive over the years.” he means that the medals ________. A.have been changed for money to help him live on B.have made him famous in the US C.have encouraged him to overcome difficulties in life

D.have kept him busy with all kinds of jobs 答案 C 解析 句意理解题。由文章最后一段可知。 B Too much TVwatching can harm children’s ability to learn and even reduce their chances of getting a college degree, new studies suggest in the latest effort to examine the effects of television on children. One of the studies looked at nearly 400 northern California thirdgraders.Those with TVs in their bedrooms scored about eight points lower on math and language arts tests than children without bedroom TVs. A second study, looking at nearly 1,000 grownups in New Zealand, found lower education levels among 26yearolds who had watched lots of TV during childhood.But the results don’t prove that TV is the cause and don’t rule out that already poorly motivated youngsters(年轻人) may watch lots of TV.Their study measured the TV habits of 26yearolds between ages 5 and 15.Those with college degrees had watched an average of less than two hours of TV per weeknight during childhood,compared with an average of more than 2.5 hours for those who had no education beyond high school. In the California study,children with TVs in their rooms but no computer at home scored the lowest,while those with no bedroom TV but who had home computers scored the highest.While this study does not prove that bedroom TV sets caused the lower scores,it adds to accumulating findings that children shouldn’t have TVs in their bedrooms. 5.According to the northern California study,the lowscoring group might ________. A.have watched a lot of TV B.not be interested in math C.be unable to go to college D.have had computers in their bedrooms 答案 A 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段第二句“Those with TVs in their bedrooms scored about eight points lower on math and language arts tests than children without bedroom TVs.”可得出答案。 6.What is the researchers’ understanding of the New Zealand study results? A.Poorly motivated 26yearolds watch more TV. B.Habits of TV watching reduce learning interest. C.TV watching leads to lower education levels of the 15yearolds. D.The connection between TV and education levels is difficult to explain. 答案 D

解析 细节理解题。根据第三段第二句“But the results don’t prove that TV is the cause and don’t rule out that already poorly motivated youngsters(年轻人) may watch lots of TV.”可得出 答案。 7.What can we learn from the last paragraph? A.More time should be spent on computers. B.Children should be forbidden from watching TV. C.TV sets shouldn’t be allowed in children’s bedrooms. D.Further studies on highachieving students should be done. 答案 C 解析 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段,尤其是第一句可知,加利福尼亚的研究表明,卧室 有电视机的孩子成绩最差,卧室没有电视机而家里有电脑的孩子成绩最好。 8.What would be the best title for this text? A.Computer or Television B.Effects of Television on Children C.Studies on TV and College Education D.Television and Children’s Learning Habits 答案 B 解析 标题归纳题。 通读全文可知, 文章主要通过两项研究分析了儿童看电视所造成的影响。 文章第一句话是主题句,所以 B 项作为标题是最佳的。 Ⅱ.完形填空 If you want to learn a new language,the very first thing to think about is why.Do you need it for a __1__ reason,such as your job or your studies?__2__ perhaps you’re interested in the __3__, films or music of a different country and you know how much it will help to have a __4__ of the language. Most people learn best using a variety of __5__,but traditional classes are an ideal (理想的) start for many people.They __6__ an environment where you can practice under the __7__ of someone who’s good at the language.We all lead __8__ lives and learning a language takes __9__.You will have more success if you study regularly, so try to develop a __10__.It doesn’t matter if you haven’t got long.Becoming fluent in a language will take years,but learning to get by takes __11__. Many people start learning a language and soon give up.“I’m too __12__,” they say.Yes, children do learn languages more __13__ than adults,but research has shown that you can learn a language at any __14__.And learning is good for the health of your brain,too.I’ve also heard people __15__ about the mistakes they make when __16__.Well,relax and laugh about your mistakes __17__ you are much less likely to make them again.

Learning a new language is never __18__.But with some work and devotion,you’ll make progress.And you’ll be __19__ by the positive reaction of some people when you say just a few words in __20__ own language.Good luck! 1.A.technical C.practical 答案 C 解析 根据后面的“such as your job or your studies”可知, 此处是“实际的”原因。 technical 技术的;political 政治的;practical 实际的;physical 物理的,身体的。 2.A.After C.Though 答案 D 解析 你需要一门外语是实际的原因还是你对一个不同国家的________, 电影或者音乐感兴 趣?由语境可知, 此处要用表示选择关系的词, 故选 D 项。 after 在??之后; so 因此; though 然而,可是;or 或者。 3.A.literature C.agriculture 答案 A 解析 该词应该与后面的“films or music”并列, 故选 A 项。 literature 文学; transport 交通; agriculture 农业;medicine 医药。 4.A.view C.form 答案 B 解析 ??而且你知道有了这门语言知识将会有多大的帮助。a knowledge of...对??的知 识。 5.A.paintings C.methods 答案 C 解析 很多人用各种各样的方法学得很好。method 方法,符合语境。 6.A.protect C.respect 答案 D 解析 它们(传统的课堂)提供一种环境??。 protect 保护; change 改变; respect 尊敬; provide 提供。 7.A.control B.command B.change D.provide B.regulations D.computers B.knowledge D.database B.transport D.medicine B.So D.Or B.political D.physical

C.guidance 答案 C

D.pressure

解析 根据后面的“who’s good at the language”可知,此处意为“你可以在一个擅长这门 语言的人的指导下进行练习”。control 控制;command 命令;guidance 指导;pressure 压力。 8.A.busy C.simple 答案 A 解析 后面说的是时间的问题,由此可以推断,我们都过着繁忙的生活,学习外语的时间可 能不太多。busy 忙的;happy 快乐的;simple 简单的;normal 正常的。 9.A.courage C.energy 答案 B 解析 间”。 10.A.theory C.routine 答案 C 解析 如果你有规律地学习的话你将会有更多的成功, 因此尽量形成一个常规。 theory 理论; business 生意,买卖;routine 常规,惯例;project 工程,计划,方案。根据“regularly”一 词可知答案为 C。 11.A.some risks C.some notes 答案 B 解析 由语境可知,but 前后为转折关系,故设空处与 take years 表达的意思相对,故选 B 项。 12.A.old C.weak 答案 A 解析 很多开始学习语言的人很快就放弃了。 他们会说“我太老了。 ”后面与 children 相比, 故此处是指自己年龄太大了。old 年老的;nervous 紧张的;weak 虚弱的;tired 疲倦的。 13.A.closely C.privately 答案 B 解析 孩子们学习语言的确比成年人快,但是??。closely 密切地;quickly 快地;privately B.quickly D.quietly B.nervous D.tired B.a lot less D.a lot more B.business D.project 根据后面的 “regularly”“haven’t got long”“take years” 可知此处指的是 “ 时 B.time D.place B.happy D.normal

私下地;quietly 静静地。 14.A.age C.distance 答案 A 解析 但是研究表明你可以在任何年龄学习语言。 前面讲的是成人和孩子学习语言, 即“年 龄”问题,故答案为 A。 15.A.worry C.think 答案 A 解析 我还听说有的人担心________时候犯错误。 worry about 担忧; hesitate about 犹豫; think about 考虑;quarrel about 就??争吵。 16.A.singing C.bargaining 答案 D 解析 整篇文章讲的就是学习语言的问题,故答案为 D 项。 17.A.if C.but 答案 B 解析 放松一下,大笑你犯的错误,那么你就不大可能再次犯这些错误了。“祈使句+and +简单句”是一个固定句式,意为“??那么??”。 18.A.tiresome C.interesting 答案 D 解析 学习一门新的外语绝不是简单的。但是有了努力和专心你就会取得进步。tiresome 令 人生厌的,无聊的;hard 困难的;interesting 有趣的;easy 容易的。 19.A.blamed C.interrupted 答案 B 解析 当你只用________自己的语言说了几个词他们就有肯定的反应的时候, 你会非常惊讶 的。blame 责备;amaze 使惊讶;interrupt 打断;inform 通知。 20.A.their C.our 答案 A 解析 此处指你用一门外语,即“他们”自己的语言。 B.his D.your B.amazed D.informed B.hard D.easy B.and D.before B.working D.learning B.hesitate D.quarrel B.speed D.school

Ⅲ.语法填空 Sarah:Welcome to the program.This afternoon I’m standing in the middle of the northern Black Forest,with Rainer Sanger. Rainer:Good afternoon,Sarah. Sarah:Rainer,you’re very 1.concerned(concern) about this area of the forest,aren’t you? Can you tell us why? Rainer : Well , much of the forest 2.was_wiped (wipe) out in the terrible storm last winter,3.as/which you can see.Many of the trees are 4.dead(die),and more are dying because 5.of the damage.We believe that the government isn’t doing enough right now 6.to_make (make) this beautiful forest get into its former state. Sarah:I see.But have you spoken to the government about this? Rainer:We have tried,7.but each time they say that they haven’t got enough money.They are always using money as the excuse.It’s getting really 8.disappointing(disappoint)! Sarah: But it’s not just an excuse, is it?They clearly don’t have enough money for everything and the storm was 9.an unexpected occurrence. Rainer: Of course, we appreciate that, and the point is 10.that actually we aren’t asking for much money.We would just like to get their guidance—we can provide volunteers to work on the forest.


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