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Using language


Unit 1

Great scientists
Using language

Revision
Past Participle

A broken heart

polluted water

crowded people\buses

/>an injured person

Feeling
pleased /delighted excited terrified/ frightened puzzled surprised astonished satisfied worried ---

club

Shout out

your feelings
disappointed \ discouraged

神舟6号

神舟6号

神舟6号

费俊龙聂海胜被授予 英雄航天员荣誉称号

Pre-listening

What job do they do? They are astronauts. What personality is needed?

?

intelligent strict
positive brave patient personality

unselfish
perseverant energetic careful passionate

pleasant

determined polite hard-working co-operative

confident creative

Father of the Chinese space programme
Can they make such great achievements just on their own? There are a lot of great scientists behind them. One of the best-known is Qian Xuesen.

It was Qian Xuesen who sent the first Chinese rocket up into space.

Listening
What do you know about Qian Xuesen? Before you listen to the tape, look at the picture and the exercises and predict the content of the listening.

rocket

astronomy astronomer astronaut space programme space industry space institute space flight space ship satellite

KEY WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
astronomer

天文学家

Mars
institute

火星
学会; 协会; 研究院

I have no idea. = I don’t know.
astronaut admire 宇航员 欣赏; 钦佩

Right you are!

Answer key for Exercise 2:
Main Idea: It is about the role of Qian Xuesen in the development of space technology in China.

3 Questions
1. What did Qian Xuesen study first? He first studied at university to be an engineer. 2. What experience did he get in America that was very useful for China?
Work on rocket 3. What was Qian Xuesen’s main achievement when he returned to China? He began his institute in China to design and build rockets to go into space.

4 Fill in the chart.
China’s achievements Steve Smith’s in space ambitions 1. Chinese astronauts in space 2. Chinese satellites in space
1. become a rocket scientist 2. be the first to land

on mars and put Qian
Xuesen’s picture there

Listening text
A GREAT CHINESE SCIENTIST Father of the Chinese space programme Yu Ping is talking to her friend Steve Smith about Qian Xuesen and his work as a rocket scientist. Part 1

YP: What do you want to be when you grow up, Steve? SS: I want to be an astronomer and visit stars. I wish to visit Mars one day. YP: I think I’d like to work in the space industry too. I’d like to be a rocket scientist like Qian Xuesen. SS: What did he have to do to become a rocket scientist?

YP: Well, he first studied at university to

be an engineer. Later he went to
America to study for his doctor’s degree. It was then he began to work on rockets there. SS: So it was lucky for our space programme that he came back to China.

YP: Very much so. There was no work on

space rockets in China before he
began his institute to design and

build rockets to go into space.

Part 2 SS: Do you think he wanted to travel

into space in one of his rockets?
YP: I have no idea but I believe he looked forward to the first space flight by a Chinese astronaut.

SS: Yes. Now that China has sent
satellites into space. I hope

we’ll be the first to land on Mars.
That would really be something special and if I were that astronaut I would put Qian Xuesen’s picture on Mars to show how much we admire his work.

YP: Indeed. He is rightfully called the father of the Chinese space programme. He is my hero and he is why I want to be a

rocket scientist.

SS: Well, we’d better get on with our

homework. We need good grades
to get into university.

YP: Right you are. See you, then.
SS: See you.

Speaking

In groups discuss a scientific job you might choose in the future.

These questions may help you:
? What kind of scientific job do you want to do? ? What personality will be needed? ? What work experience would be useful? ? Why are you so interested in this job? ? What education will you need? ? How long will the training take? ? How will you prepare for this career?

Theses expressions may help you: I always wanted to…because…

The experience I will need is …
I need to practise … I think I’m good at … so … I will need some training in … I might find it difficult to … My greatest problem will be to …

I will need to be/become
patient, creative, hard-working, co-operative,

confident, brave, positive, pleasant, polite,
determined, energetic, strict with, …

Sample conversation:
MIKE: What do you want to do when

you grow up?
LI RU: I want to build robots. I will have to do a physics and mathematics degree in China.

After that I hope to go abroad to Reading University in England where you can study all about robots. There is a special cybernetics (控制论) department there.

MIKE: What personality will be needed
for that job?

LI RU: They have a lot of uses: for
example, in making cars on

a production line or doing
other repetitive jobs.

MIKE: What personality will be
needed for that job?

LI RU: I think I need to be patient. For my ideas will take a long time to develop. I also need to be creative enough to have good ideas. MIKE: What experience will be most useful to you?

LI RU: I think technology and

engineering projects. I hope
to work in a factory in my holidays. MIKE: What kind of person makes a good inventor?

LI RU: I think someone who is happy to persevere at something and learns from his mistakes. MIKE: Thank you. I think designing robots sounds fun.

Reading and Writing Nicolaus Copernicus born: in Poland in 1473

died : May 24, 1543

He was one of the first
scientists to use

mathematical observations
to collect information.

He believed the sun is the
center of the universe and the earth and other planets went around it.

Nine Planets in the Solar System

Saturn Jupiter

Pluto Neptune

Venus

Earth Uranus

Mercury

Mars

Copernicus

or?

Before Copernicus’ theory A diagram showing the solar system with the earth at its centre

Showing Copernicus’ theory A diagram showing the solar system with the sun at its centre

Brief Introduction of Copernicus
Birth: February 19, 1473 Death: May 24, 1543 Place of Birth: Toruń, Poland Career: 1491-1494 Studied mathematics at Krakó w Academy 1496 Went to Italy to study astronomy and law at the University of Bologna

1514 Wrote Commentariolus, an outline of his astronomical ideas, but did not circulate it widely 1543 Published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial)

Mind map of the text
Paragraph 1: the background of Copernicus’ study Paragraph 2: the cause of Copernicus’ study Paragraph 3: the procedure of Copernicus’ study Paragraph 4: the result of Copernicus’ study

Paragraph 5: Copernicus’ theory replaced the Christian idea and proved correct.

True or False? 1. At Copernicus’ time, Christian Church was in charge of many western countries. T 2. Copernicus noticed that observed from the earth, some planets appear in front of or behind the earth. F 3. Copernicus didn’t show his new theory to his friends until he completed it. T

4. His friends were not interested in his ideas. F 5. Since he was not afraid of being attacked by the Church, Copernicus published his book as soon as he finished working on it. F 6. Newton, Einstein, and Hawking are all scientists who made contribution to the study of the universe. T

Read the text carefully, then answer these questions.

1. Why would he not tell about his theory? (Para 1) Because the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. 2. What was his theory about? (Para 1)
All his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.

3. What had the astronomers noticed in
the sky? (Para 2) They had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others. 4. When did Copernicus complete his theory? (Para 3) Between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete.

5. How did he explain changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars? When did he publish his idea? (Para 4) He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round it and this explain changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. He published it as he lay dying in 1543.

6. Why do people think that there is a direct link between his ideas and the work of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking?
Because his theory is now the base on which all our ideas of the universe are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the Universe. He showed this was obviously wrong.

Summary confused because he found the Copernicus was _________ system earth was not the centre of the solar ________,
only if you put the sun there did the movements ___________

sense . He of the other planets in the sky make ___________.
kept improving his new theory until he felt it
was __________ completed in 1514. He suggested that the

spinning as it went round the sun. earth was _________

His friends were ___________ enthusiastic and encouraged

him to publish his ideas, but Copernicus

attacked was cautious ________ he didn’t want to be_________
by Christian Church. In fact, he was right.

rejected his theory, saying it The Church _________
was against God’s idea.

Bruno was born five years after Copernicus died. He stuck to the Sun-centered Theory, which was against the Church’s will. In 1600, he was burnt to death.

Language Points
1. Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. 虽然他曾经试着不去理睬那些数字,然而

他所有的数学计算都得出同样一个结论:
地球不是太阳系的中心。

lead to 引起; 造成; 导致 This will probably lead to trouble in the future. This led to his conclusion that she was guilty. Too much work and too little rest often lead to illness.

All roads lead to Rome. 条条大道通罗马。
The discovery of new evidence led to _______. C A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught

lead to + n\doing

2. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. 只有你把太阳放在中心位置上,天空中 其他行星的运动才能说得清楚。
“only + 副词/介词短语/状语从句” 位于句首, 句子要倒装。
=The movements of the other planets in the sky make sense only if you put the sun there.

Only then did I realize the importance of knowledge. Only in this way can we work out the maths problem. Only if your identity has been checked, _____. D A. you are allowed in B. you will be allowed in C. will you allow in D. will you be allowed in

Only when ____ D the truth, ______ to realize that she was wrong. A. did Mary hear; did she begin B. Mary hear; she began C. did Mary hear;she began D. Mary heard; did she begin

only if 只有; 只要
The company will succeed only if it have

sufficient backing.
Only if the teacher gives a permission can I enter the lab. If only he comes early.
如果??就好了

make sense 有意义, 有道理, 说得通 1) What you say makes no sense. 你说的话没有道理。 2) It would make sense to leave early. 还是早点走好。(明智的, 合理的)

3) Can you make sense of this poem?
你看得懂这首诗吗?(理解或弄懂)

3. Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. would have done 1)表示对过去的某种情况进行猜测,或
本来要做某事却因某种原因未做成,通常

用来说明某一情况,但不象should或
ought to 那样含有责备之意。如:

I guess the poet would have been about 20

when she wrote the poem.
Another worker wouldn’t have acted like that. 2) 相关知识总结: needn’t have + 过去分词,表示做了不必 做的事,译为“其实没必要??” should have + 过去分词, 表示应该做某事 但实际上未做, 译为“本应该??” should not have + 过去分词, 表示本不应该 做某事但实际上做了, 译为“本不应该??”

4. work on 1) 从事 She is working on a new novel. (= She is writing a new novel.) 2) 继续工作 They’ll work on till sunset. 他们将继续工作,直到日落。 3) 致力于?? He has been working on a new novel for over a year now. 近一年多来,他一直在写一部新小说。

5. complete vt. & adj. 完成;完整的,完成的 The workers haven’t completed the

house yet. (vt.)
When will the work be complete? (adj.) 6. enthusiastic: having or demonstrating enthusiasm adj. 热心的,满腔热情的 enthusiastic support 热情的支持 be enthusiastic about 对某事充满热情

7. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. 他把太阳固定在太阳系的中心位置上, 而行星 则围绕着太阳转, 只有月球仍然绕着地球转。 with the planets going round it是with + 宾语 + 宾语补足语的结构, 在句中作状语。这一 结构在句中常作定语或状语, 作宾补的可以 是介词短语、过去分词、形容词、副词或 动词不定式等。现将其基本形式归纳如下:

(1) With + n./pron.+介词短语 He sat there with a smile on his face. (2) With + n./pron.+副词 With Mr. Smith away, we’ve got more room. (3) With + n./pron. +不定式 With so much work to do, he could not go home. (4) With + n./pron. +现在分词 The street was quiet with no buses running. (5) With + n./pron. +过去分词 In came a man with his hands tied back. (6) With + n./pron.+形容词 He wore a shirt, with the neck open, showing his bare chest.

◆ As a scientist, one should be brave. But Copernicus was afraid of being attacked by the Christian Church. So he had hidden his theory for so many years. What do you think of this?
Agree:

1. He was cautious. If he had published his ideas, he would have been killed just as Bruno who was burned to death because his theory was against the Christian Church.

2. Every time when a new idea appears,

there are always rejections. It’s normal.
Scientists should have patience to spread their truth. 3. It made no sense for him to publish his theory in a hurry. He was just cautious not a coward. He should protect himself first.

Disagree: 1. Copernicus was very coward. He should speak out his discovery and let the world know the truth earlier. 2. Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. 3. As a scientist, you must have the courage to publish your findings. No matter how people oppose them, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong.

Dear Nicolaus Copernicus,
Beginning: Tell Copernicus who you are and why you want him to publish his ideas.

Paragraph 1: Reason 1 and evidence

Paragraph 2: Reason 2 and evidence

Summing up: Ask him to think
again about publishing his ideas

One possible version:
Dear Nicolaus Copernicus, I am a student studying astronomy and I would very much like to read your new theory about the solar system. I hope you will publish it for several reasons. I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the center of the universe. It is also odd that the brightness of some stars seems to change. So I agree with you that we need a new theory.

I know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many years. Now you must have the courage to publish them. Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. I know you worry about what will happen if you publish your new theory. No matter how people oppose it, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong. So I hope you will feel you can publish your new theory. Yours sincerely, Lin Qi

1. Finish your letter after class. 2. Revise the words and language points in this unit. 3. Finish “Summing up”.


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