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高中英语语法:高中英语主谓一致详解


在英语句子里,谓语受主语支配,其动词必 须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这就叫主谓 一致。寻其规律,大致可归纳为三个原则,即 语法一致、逻辑意义一致和就近一致原则。

一、语法一致原则 语法上一致就是谓语动词和主语在单、复数形式上保持一致。 1. 以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主 语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复

数形式。 如:His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. What he said is very important for us all. The children were in the classroom two hours ago. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. 注意:由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单 数形式,但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列 结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。 如:What I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.

2. 由连接词and或both …… and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复 数形式的谓语动词。 如:Lucy and Lily are twins. She and I are classmates. The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. Both she and he are Young Pioneers. 注意: (1)若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物或同一概念时,它 后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。 如:The writer and artist has come. Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. (2)由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every more than a (an)/one , many a (an)修饰时,其谓语动词要 用单数形式。 如:Every student and every teacher was in the room. No boy and no girl likes it.

3. 主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短 语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数 形式。 如:Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

4. either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词 和由some, any, no, every构成的复合不定代词, 都作单数看待。 如:Each of us has a new book. Everything around us is matter. 若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词 就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动 词用单数或复数都可以。 如:None of us has (have) been to America.

5. 在定语从句时,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时, 其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 如:He is one of my friends who are working hard. He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.
6. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数; 如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。 这些词有family, class, crowd,committee, population,audience等。 如:Class Four is on the third floor. Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor. 注意:people, police, cattle等名词一般都用作复数。 如:The police are looking for the lost child.

7. 由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名 词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后 面名词的数而定。 如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. The rest of the lecture is wonderful. 50% of the students in our class are girls.
注意:a number of―许多”,作定语修饰复数名词,谓语 用复数;the number of―……的数量”,主语是number, 谓语用单数。

8. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。
如:There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts.

二、逻辑意义一致原则 逻辑意义一致就是谓语动词的数必须和主语的意义一致(因有 时主语形式为单数,但意义为复数;有时形式为复数,但意义为单 数)。 1. what, who, which, any, more, all等代词可以是单数,也 可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。 如:Which is your bag? Which are your bags? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing. 2. 表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时, 谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个 整体。 如:Thirty minutes is enough for the work.

3. 若英语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复 数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。 如:“The Arabian Nights‖ is an interesting story-book. 4. 表数量的短语“one and a half‖后接复数名词作主语时, 其谓语动词可用单数形式。 如:One and a half apples is left on the table.

5. 算式中表示数目(字)的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语 动词采用单数形式。 如:Twelve plus eight is twenty. Fifty-six divided by eight is seven.

6. 一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works等,都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意 义为单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 如:The paper works was built in 1990. I think physics isn?t easy to study. 7. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes,jeans 等词作主语时,谓语用 复数,但如果这些名词前有a (the) pair of等量词修饰时,谓语动 词用单数。 如:My glasses are broken. The pair of shoes under the bed is his. 8. ―定冠词the + 形容词或分词”,表示某一类人时,动词用复数。 9.aircraft,deer , fish ,means ,species ,series ,works ,sheep 作主语时根据意义决定 如:The sheep is big. The sheep are eating grass.

10.population作主语时,谓语用单数,当涉 及人口组成时,用复数。 11.a (large) quantity of 修饰可数或不可数名词, 其

短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
如:A large quantity of people is needed here. 注意:quantities一般用复数。 如:Quantities of food (nuts) were on the table. 短语in quantity, in large quantities 意为 “大量”; in small quantities 意为“少量”。

12. a great deal of, a large amount of 修饰不可数名词, 其短语作主语时, 谓语动词通常用单数; large

amounts of 修饰不可数名词, 其短语作主语时, 谓
语动词通常用复数。 如: A large amount of (A great deal of) damage was done in a very short time. Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.

三、就近一致原则 在英语句子中,有时谓语动词的人称和数与最近的主语 保持一致。 1. 当两个主语由either …… or, neither …… nor, whether …… or ……, not only …… but also连接时,谓语动 词和邻近的主语一致。 如:Either the teacher or the students are our friends. Neither they nor he is wholly right. Is neither he nor they wholly right?

2. there be句型的be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果 其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保 持一致。 如:There are two chairs and a desk in the room. 注意:Here引导的句子用法同上。 如:Here is a map and a handbook for you.

高考解析 1. Listening to loud music at rock concerts ____caused hearing loss in some teenagers. (2010 湖南卷) A. is B. are C. has D. have 答案:C 解析:根据动名词短语作主语,句子的谓 语动词用单数形式,由此排除B、D两项, 根据主语与caused的主动关系,排除A项。

2. Such poets as Shakespeare_____widely read, of whose works,however, some____ difficult to understand. (2010 四川卷) A. are;are B. is;is C. are;is D. is:are 答案:A 解析:主句中的主语应为poets,谓语动词用 复数,其后的非限制性定语从句的主语应 为some of whose works,谓语动词也应是 复数。故选A。

3. Barbara is easy to recognize as she‘s the only one of the women who ____ evening dress. (2010 全国Ⅱ卷) A.wear B.wears C.has worn D.have worn 答案:B 解析:首先the only one of …为先行词时, 定语从句修饰的是one,即one是主语,而非 后面的复数women,根据主谓一致的原则, 谓语动词应该用复数,排除A,D。另外, 从is可以看出句子是要表示一种习惯,因此 要用一般现在时,排除C,故选A。

Choose the best answers.
1. Nobody but Betty and Mary ____ A late for class yesterday. A. was B. were C. has been D. have been A soon. 2. A woman with some children ____ A. is coming B. are coming C. has come D. have come 3. Everything, including the clothes, ____ B stolen that evening. A. is B. was C. are D. were

4. No one except my parents ____ B anything about this. A. know B. knows C. is known D. are known 5. The teacher as well as the students ____ A the book already. A. has read B. have read C. are reading D. is reading 6. All but one ____ B in the accident. A. was killed B. were killed C. will be killed D. are killed

7. One or two days ___ B enough to see the city. A. are B. is C. am D. be 8. Neither my wife nor I myself ____ C able to persuade my daughter to change her mind. A. is B. are C. am D. be 9. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ B tired of having one examination after another. A. is B. are C. am D. be 10. Not the teacher, but the students ____ B looking forward to seeing the film. A. is B. are C. am D. be

11. The elderly who lost their children in the war ______ C good care of in the village now. A. has been taken B. were taken C. have been taken D. will be taken
12. A library with five thousand books ___ A to the nation as a gift. A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered 13. When and where to build the new factory ___ A yet. A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided

14. The number of people invited ___ fifty, but a number of them ___ C absent for different reasons. A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were 15. E-mail, as well as telephones, ___ A an important part in daily communication. A . is playing B. have played C. are playing D. play C covered 16. ____ of the land in that district ____ with trees and grass. A. Two fifth; is B. Two fifth; are C. Two fifths; is D. Two fifths; are

17. No one but her parents _____ B it. A. know B. knows C. is knowing D. are knowing 18. The results of the examination ___that you have all made great _____ A . A. show; progress B. shows; progress C. show; progresses D. shows; progresses A a new pair of shoes for you. 19. Here _____ A. is B are C. have D. has

20. —How ____ B your family? —Very well, thank you. A. is B. are C. was D. were 21. It is said that the girl and her brother _____ C from Africa. A. has come B. comes C. come D. had come 22. The team _____ A so large that there are not enough gifts for all members. A. is B. are C. was D. were 23. ―If anybody _______ to buy the book, please put A down _______ name,‖ said the mother to her sons. A. wants; his B. want; their C. will buy; his D. wants; their


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