—串联要素法 写作方法—串联要素法 记叙文的概要, 一般包括记叙文的六个 要素(who; when; where; what; how; why), 也就是考生应先通读阅读短文，找出这六 个要素,然后用自己的话将这六个要素串成 一两句话即可。
当然, 不一定每篇记叙文都包含这六个 要素,但“某人做了某事, 结果如何”是应当 包括的。因此, 要写好概要,
须找到以下两 个问题的答案： (1) 谁做了什么？(who did what) (2) 结果如何？(what was the result) 如果是夹叙夹议的文章, 还要加上这个 故事给人们的启示或教育。
［例1］(2011年广东) 阅读下面短文, 然后按要求写一篇150词左右 的英语短文。 When Samfirst got to his boarding school with his parents, he was very happy. He thought he would be able to go home every weekend. When he was told he would not, he started crying because the thought of not seeing his parents was driving him crazy.
He was given uniforms and all other things that he would need for the term. He started crying when it was time for his parents to leave. He was then taken to the dorm, where he saw other children happy. He tried as much as he could to fit in but could not because his mind was at home. He started feeling homesick(想家)and wanted to go homes as soon as possible.
He got sick soon because he could not eat the school food. He could not concentrate in the classroom. All he could think was being at home with his family. He had no mobile phone or other means to get in touch with his parents. He was angry and felt lonely. He thought his parents hated him and that was why they left him in a boarding school. ［写作内容］ 1. 以约30个词概括上文的主要内容； 2. 以约120个词讲述一次你(或你的朋友)想 家的经历。
解题过程 第一步, 根据［写作内容2］, 快速获取大意。 解题前, 可以通过［写作内容2］和材料文 体,快速准确地把握阅读材料的主要内容并 形成概要的基本框架。如本题阅读［写作 内容2］,并扫视材料可知是记叙文, 于是可 推知,本文的概要框架应是：Sam想家的时 间、地点、原因、影响和结果。
第二步：阅读材料，回答以下两个问题。 (1) 谁做了什么？Sam got to a boarding school and he felt homesick.
(2) 结果如何？He got sick. He was angry with his parents and felt lonely.
第三步：用自己的话将其串联起来。参考范文 如下： 范文1：Sam could not get used to the life of the boarding school, and he thought his parents hated him and left him in it, which made him sick, angry and lonely. 范文2：In the passage, the writer talks about Sam’s experience of homesickness. He suffered a lot and felt dissatisfied with his parents after being left in a boarding school.
［例2］ (2011年广州一模) 阅读下面短文, 然后按要求写一篇150词左 右的英语短文。—内容略 ［写作内容］ 1. 以约30个词概括这篇演讲稿的主要内容； 2. 然后以约120个词写一篇读后感, 说明“诚 信的重要性”。
[解题过程] 第一步, 根据[写作内容2] , 快速获取大 意。[写作内容2]说明“诚信的重要性”， 扫读原文可以发现该文章是夹叙夹议的记 叙文, 那么我们可以形成概要框架: 作者讲 述了一个故事来说明诚信的重要性。这样, 就有了方向和思路了。
第二步：阅读材料, 回答以下三个问题。 (1) 谁做了什么？The writer tells a story of an overseas Chinese student. The student had been caught without a ticket in the subway three times. (2) 结果如何？He was not even allowed the chance for an interview. (3) 说明了什么？Honesty is the best policy.
第三步：用自己的话将其串联起来。参考 范文如下： 范文1：Today I read an instructive speech, in which the speaker argues honesty is the best policy by telling the story of an overseas Chinese student who couldn’t find a job because of dishonesty.
范文2：The writer tells a story about a Chinese student with an excellent academic achievement couldn’t find a job in Germany because of his dishonesty to skip the subway tickets, which shows honesty is the best policy.
The author happened to pick up an umbrella on a bus and tried to find its owner. She was pleased to find the owner and also got a job offered by the owner of the umbrella.
练习2：阅读下面的短文, 然后以约30个词 概括这篇短文的主要内容。—短文略
(范文1) In the passage the writer uses the story of the award-winning farmer who shares his best corn deed with his neighbours to teach us that we all can benefit when we co-operate and share with each other.
(范文2) The writer teaches us that we all benefit more when we co-operate and share with each other by telling the story of the award-winning farmer who shares his corn seeds with his neighbours.
作业1：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。
On a recent Sunday, I was buying groceries in a supermarket when I heard the sound of a car accident. It was close but not very close, so I continued shopping. As I took a right turn on Munadhama Street, I saw a man lying on the ground in a small pool of blood. He wasn’t dead.
The idea of stopping to help or to take him to a hospital crossed my mind, but I didn’t dare. Cars passed without stopping. Pedestrians and shop owners kept doing what they were doing, pretending nothing had happened. I was still looking at the wounded man and blaming myself for not stopping to help. Other shoppers peered at him from a distance, sorrowful and sympathetic, but did nothing.
I went on to another grocery store, staying for about five minutes while shopping for tomatoes, onions and other vegetables. During that time, the man managed to sit up and wave to passing cars. No one stopped. No one did anything. No one lifted a finger. The wounded died alone in the street. The only reaction came from a woman in the grocery store. In a low voice, she said, “My God, bless his soul.” An offer of aid could have saved the man’s life.
作业1： From the passage we know that the author witnessed a car accident and found no one helped the injured man. As a result, the man died on the street, which made the author feel guilty.
作业2：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略 作业2： The writer tried to tell us the importance of setting goals through a beaver’s story. After the beaver built a house for the winter, it set another goal to chew down a big tree and succeeded by working hard.
我们根据说明文的不同类型, 分别给出 三种参考模板： 1. 描写某事物的性质功用。即“对象+性 质功用+利好”： (In the passage) the writer introduces... (对象)to us, especially its...(性质或功用), from which we know...(对象带来的利好).
2. 针对某个问题提出解决方法或措施。 即“问题+解决方法”： The passage tells us...(问题), including...(方法1), ...(方法2)and...(方 法3).
3. 介绍某现象及其原因和结果。即“现象+ 原因+结果”： (The author/writer said/talks about)...(现 象)of..., because /but...(原因/本质1), and... (原因/本质2).
在高考读写任务中, 多为说明某种社会 现象的说明文。
阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概括这段短文的 内容。 Eye care is an important factor in all of our lives. Without eyes, we seem to be able to do nothing. But, what can we do to take care of eyes? Firstly, we should eat healthy foods. Secondly, don’t sit before a computer screen or TV for too long time and take regular rest at intervals so as to relax the eye muscles. Thirdly, having enough sleep is the best rest for eyes.
Besides those notices, you should be aware of some threats to eyes in daily lives. Excessive exposure to bright sunlight is harmful to eyes, therefore, when going out, especially in summer time, put on a pair of qualified sunglasses. Stay away from smoking. Some ingredients in cigarettes are carcinogenesis(致癌的).
Last but not least, take regular medical examines to check out the potential eye disease and prevent its deterioration(退化). Eyes are the most important sense organs and one should use proper eye care products to avoid further irritations (刺激)and ensure longevity at ease.
[解题过程] 本文在指出眼睛重要后, 紧接着提出问题“为 保护眼睛, 我们可以做些什么呢”, 然后分三点说 明应该做些什么。因此, 我们可以套用“问题+解 决方法”模式： Our eyes are important for us, so the author tells us how to take care of our eyes, including eating healthy food, giving them enough time to rest, knowing some threats, and taking frequent eye examinations.
(“对象+性质功能+利好”模式)The writer introduces the idea of a balloon robot, especially how it helps to guide people to their destination without being connected to the Internet, from which we know it may become popular in the future.
练习2：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略
(“问题+解决方法”模式)The passage tells us how to be a good friend, including listening more to friends’ talking, offering help when necessary, staying with them and making plans together.
练习3：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略 (“现象+原因”模式)The author talks about the popularity of advertisements, because they can bring convenience to people but the negative effects should not be ignored.
作业1：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略 The passage introduces some examples to show that chemistry is everywhere in our life, especially its good effects, from which we know we should understand it more to help ourselves live better.(对象+ 功能)
作业2：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略 The passage tells us how to stay healthy with our pets, including washing hands often, wearing gloves while cleaning the pets or their cages, taking them for examinations regularly and giving them proper food, etc. (问题+解决方法)
作业3：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略
The passage said Chinese Education Ministry has paid close attention to selfprotection education among school students because some knowledge about selfprotection may help one survive in case of emergency.(现象+原因)
议论文通常包括论点、论据和结论, 因此写议论文的概要主要是找出主题句 (the topic sentences)、支撑句(supporting sentences)和结论句(conclusion sentences)。 其中最主要的是找准主题句。 概要模板：论点+论据(+结论)
(2011珠海一模)阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个 词概括该文的主要内容。
Getting up early has been regarded as a good habit since ancient times. Many years ago, people thought that if we went to bed early and get up early, we would be energetic the whole day. So, getting up early is of great importance to us all.
In fact, morning is the best time of a day. In the morning, the air is the freshest and people are usually in the best conditions. Many of us may have the experiences that we memorize some things more quickly and accurately in the morning than any other time of the day. If we do some morning exercise or only take a short walk in the morning, we can build our bodies and become much healthier.
Also we will have enough time to make a plan and get ready for our work or study of the day if we get up early. However, if we get up late, we will probably have to do everything in a great hurry. Let us remember getting up early is a good habit and try our best to keep it. If we stick to getting up early every day, we will certainly benefit a lot from it.
[解题过程] 第一步，根据文体, 找出要点。略读短文, 本文是典型的议论文, 第一段为议点, 第二、 三自然段为论据, 最后一段为结论, 首尾呼 应。论点、论据和结论分别为：
论 点 论 据
Getting up early has been regarded as a good habit (1)we memorize some things more quickly and accurately in the morning (2)build our bodies and become much healthier (3)have enough time to make a plan and get ready for our work or study of the day getting up early is a good habit and try our best to keep it
第二步, 用自己的话将其表达出来。参考 范文为： (范文1) The passage mainly tells us getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot. It enables us to have a better memory, healthier body and better preparation for the day.
(范文2) The passage tries to tell us that getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot, including a better memory, healthier body and better preparation for the day. (范文3) The passage tells us that getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot. It enables us to have a better memory, healthier body and better preparation for the day.
阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概括该文 的主要内容。—短文略 Communication skills play an increasingly important role in our modern society. It is easier for a good communicator to expresses himself and persuades others to accept his ideas, so he is often a leader.
作业1：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略 The author holds the view that newspapers still play an important part in our lives, and lists some advantages of newspapers, although the new media like TV and the Internet are becoming more and more popular.
作业2：阅读下面短文, 然后以约30个词概 括该文的主要内容。—短文略 A good education plays an essential part in one’s life, which can release our potential and help us gain better-paid jobs. Therefore, everyone is supposed to receive higher education.
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