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2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 冠词???????????????????? 一、

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳:二、名词和主谓一致??????????????

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 代词???????????

????????? 三、

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 形容词和副词???????????????? 四、

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳:五、动词和短语动词??????????????

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 六、 动词的时态和语态?????????????

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 非谓语动词????????????????? 七、

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 情态动词和虚拟语气 情态动词??????? 八、

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 句子的种类????????????????? 九、

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 名词性从句????????????????? 十、

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 十一、 状语从句?????????????????

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 十二、 定语从句?????????????????

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 十三、 强调句??????????????????

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 十四、 省略句??????????????????

2 0 1 3 高考英语考点语法单选超级归纳: 十五、 倒装句??????????????????
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一、冠词 冠词分为不定冠词(a, an) ,定冠词(the) ,和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法 1 2 3 4 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same A plane is a machine that can fly. A boy is waiting for you.有个男孩在等你。 We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age. — Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有 5 类似性质的人或事 —Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here. A. 不填 B. a C. the D. one

That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋) 6 7 8 用于固定词组中 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time This room is rather a big one. She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化) 成功的人或事 a failure 失败的人或事 a shame 带来耻辱的人或事 a pity 可惜或遗憾的事 a must 必需必备的事 a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识



II. 定冠词的用法 In many places in China, ___ bicycle is still ___ popular means of 1 表示某一类人或物 transportation. A. a; the 2 3 4 5 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或 事 用于演奏乐器 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” (对比上文的不定 6 冠词用法 5) 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的 8 9 名词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French The compass was invented in China.
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B. /; a

C. the; a

D. the; the

the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded —Could you tell me the way to ____ Johnsons, please? —Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in the village. A. the; the B. the; a C. /; the D. the; /


He is the taller of the two children.

10 11 12 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代 用于表示度量单位的名词前 用于方位名词,身体部位名词 III. 不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名 1 等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代) I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.

2 3 4 5

I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? March, Sunday, National Day, spring Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. We went right round to the west coast by ______ sea instead of


与 by 连用表示交通方式的名词前

driving across ______ continent. A. the; the B.不填;the C. the; 不填 D. 不填;不填

7 8

以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 表示泛指的复数名词前

husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals. 二、名词和主谓一致

I. 名词的种类 专有名词 国名地名人名, 团体机构 名称 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 成功的事 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词 个体名词 ①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②—How about the Christmas evening party? —I should say it was a success. 例 句 普通名词 不可数名词 物质名词

物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 意 铁 熨斗 玻璃 义 名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 ①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass.
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②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 抽象名词与个体名词的转换 ①—I’d like______information about the management of your hotel,please. —Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be helpful A.some,a B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词

具有动作意义的抽象名 ②They sent us word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词) 词加用与某些动词(如: A.a B.an C./ D.the have 等)连 ③Could we have word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词) 用, 表示某一次短暂的动 A.a B.an C./ D.the 作 类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try ①Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a must in____international trade today. A.a, / B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should have______at school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. A.The time B.A time C.Time D.Times

表示知识和时间的抽象 名词转换为普通名词时 可以用来表示 其中的一部分

①Oh, John. _____you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise 抽象名词转换为普通名 C.What a pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise 词可用来表示“一次、一 ②She looked up when I shouted. 阵、一种”具体的行为、 A.in a surprise B.in the surprise C.in surprise D.in some surprise 事件、现象或结 其它例子: gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant The 果。 这时名词前往往有形 surprise 容词修饰 ③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an unusual II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es(参看有关语法书) 。英语里有些 名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表 规 1 2 3 4 5 则 man-men, mouse-mice 例 词 woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese,

改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 单复数相同 只有复数形式 一些集体名词总是用作复数 部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作

sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee,

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复数(成员) 6 复数形式表示特别含义 加-s 7 表示“某国 人” 单复数同形 以-man 或-woman 结尾的改为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 8 合成名词 无主体名词时将最后一部分变 为复数 将两部分变为复数 规则 情 况 government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs( 海 关 ), forces( 军 队 ), times( 时 代 ), spirits( 情 绪 ), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants III. 主谓一致 举 例 His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. What he said is very important for us all. 由 what 引导的主语从句, 后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式, 但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构 时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。 what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come. Every student and every teach is in the classroom. Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it. Each of us has a new book. Is everyone here today? Somebody is speaking in class. Everything around us is matter 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单 数。若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可 以。 None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America. Those who want to go please write their names on the blackboard. He is one of my friends who are working hard. He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.

以 单 数 名 词 或 代 词 动 词不 定 式 短 语,动名词短语或从句作主语时, 谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为 复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。

由连接词 and 或 both?and 连接起 来的主语后面,要用复数形式的谓 语动词。但若所连接的两个词是指 同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。 由 and 连接的并列单数主语前如果 分别有 no, each, every 或 more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时, 其谓 语 动 词 要 用 单 数 形 式 。 either, neither, each, every 或 no+单数名词 和由 some, any no, every 构成的复合 不定代词,都作单数看待。. 在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时,其谓语动词的 数应与句中先行词的数一致。 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致

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如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它 的谓语动词用单数形式; 如果它指 的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数 形式 The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. His family has moved to the south .(他的一家) His family are watching TV.(他的家人) Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生) There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 50 percent of the students in our class are girls. 此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复数) ,但 the number of +复数名词的数就得依 number 而定(用单数) 。 A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred. There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. Between the two hills stands a monument. Which is your bag? Are any of you good at English? All can be done has been done. All have been taken out. Which are your bags? Has any of you got a pen? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing.

由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+名词构成的短语以及由分数或百 分数+名词构成的短语作主语时,其 谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名 词的数而定。

在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其 后的主语一致 What, who, which, any, more, all 等 代词可以是单数,也可是复数, 主 要靠意思来决定。 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的 复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单 数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在 概念上是一个整体。 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名 等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用 单数形式。 表数量的短语“one and a half”后面 接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词 要用单数形式。 一些学科名词是以-ics 结尾,如: mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等。都属于形式上是复 数的名词, 实际意义为单数名词, 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单 数形式。 trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等词作主语时,谓语 用复数, 但如果这些名词前有 a(the) pair of 等量词修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数。 “定冠词 the+形容词或分词” ,表示 某一类人动词用复数;若表示某一 类东西时,动词用单数。

逻 辑 意 义 一 致 原 则

Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. Twenty pounds is too dear. 如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形式 Forty kilos of water are used every day. The United States is smaller than China. “The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book.

One and a half apples is left on the table.

The paper works was built in 1990.这家造纸厂建于 1990 年。 I don’t think physics is easy to study.

My glasses are broken. The pair of shoes under the bed is his.

The old are taken good care of there. The beautiful gives pleasure to all.

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当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether or 连接 时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一 致,即就近一致。 Either the teacher or the students are our friends. Neither he nor they are wholly right. Neither they nor he is wholly right. Is neither he nor they wholly right?

就 近 /远 一 致 原 则

there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. 取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由 There is a desk and two chairs in the room. and 连接的两个主语,则应与靠近 的那个主语保持一致,即就近一致。 主语后面跟有 with, together with, Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. except, but, like, as well as, no less A woman with a baby was on the bus. than, rather than, more than, Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. besides, along with, including, in She, like you and Tom, is very tall. addition to 等引起的短语, 谓语动 The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak Japanese. No one except my teachers knows anything about it. 词要跟主语一致,即就远一致。 三、代词

I. 代词可以分为以下八大类 主格 宾格 1 人称代 词 形容词性物主 代词 名词性物主代 词 2 3 4 5 6 7 类 别 反身代词 指示代词 疑问代词 关系代词/连接代词 不定代词 相互代词 区 别 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them my, your, his, her, its, our, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either each other,one another 例 句 ①We’ve been looking at the houses but haven’t found ___ we like yet. A.one B.ones C.it D.them ②Cars do cause us some health problems — in fact far more serious _______ than mobile phones do. A.one B.ones C.it D.those —Your coffee smells great! —It’s from Mexico.Would you like ________? A.it B.some C.this D.1ittle II. 不定代词用法注意点

one, some, any 和 it

one 可以泛指人或者事(东 西) ,其复数为 ones

some 可用于疑问句中,表示 盼望得到肯定的答复,或者 表示建议,请求等

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some 和 any 修饰可数名词 单数时, some 表示某个, any 表示任何一个 ①I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. ②—Which of the three ways shall I take to the village? —________way as you please. A.Each B.Every C.Any D.Either —There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and borrow ? —No, I’d rather buy in the bookstore. A.it;one B.one;one C.one;it D.it;it ①There’s ________cooking oil in the house. Would you go to the corner store and get ________. A.1ittle,some B.1ittle,any C.a little,some D.a little,any some 多用于肯定句,any 多 用于疑问句和否定句 ②We had three sets of garden tools and we seemed to have no use for ________. A.none B.either C.any D.each ③He doesn’t have _________ furniture in his room --just an old desk. A. any B. many C. some D. much ①Each student has a pocket dictionary. Each (of us) has a dictionary. = We each have a dictionary. ②Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. ①There is no water in the bottle. ②How much water is there in the bottle? None. ③None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties.

one 指同类中的一个, 指代 it 同一种类的东西。此外 it 还 可以作形式主语、形式宾语 和用于强调句型中。

each 和 every

each 强调个别,代表的数可 以是两个或两个以上,而 every 强调整体,所指的数必 须是三个或三个以上 no 等于 not any,作定语。 none 作主语或宾语,代替不 可数名词,谓语用单数,代 替可数名词,谓语单复数皆 可以 other 泛指“另外的,别的” 常与其他 词连用,如:the other day, every other week, someother reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外 一个,复数为 the others

none 和 no

① Both sides have accused contract. A. another B. the other

of breaking the C. neither D. each

other 和 another

②Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam.

①We had a picnic last term and it was a lot of fun,so let’s have another 指 “又一个, 另一个” ______ one this month. 无所指, A. other the B. some C. another D. other 复数形式是 others, “别 泛指 ②The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some 的人或 others. 事” ③Some like football, while others like basketball.

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①—Do you want tea or coffee? — ______, mind. A. none B. neither D. all I really don't C. either

either 和 neither

前者意思为:两者都(两者 中任何一方都) 后者意 ; 思为:两者都

②It was hard for him to learn English in a family, in which _____ of the parents spoke the language. A. none B. neither C. both D. each 四、形容词和副词

I. 形容词 1.形容词的位置:形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况下后置 1 2 3 4 5 6 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成的 复合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修 饰的名词之后 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等作定语时后置 和空间、时间、单位连用时 成对的形容词可以后置 形容词短语一般后置 nobody absent, everything possible the best book available, the only solution possible the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with ______to take his adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills.(NMET2000) A.Brave enough students B.Enough breave students C.Students brave enough D.Students enough brave


enough 修饰名词时可以前置也可以后置,但修饰形 容词或副词时要后置

注意:多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序 熟记口诀就可以顺利解题:限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别往后靠。 规则:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(小)+ shape(形状)+ age(年龄、时间)+ color (颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ purpose(目的)+ 名词。 ▲This ________ girl is Linda’s cousin. (05 北京卷) A. pretty little Spanish B. Spanish little pretty C. Spanish pretty little D. little pretty Spanish 2.复合形容词的构成 1 kind-hearted world-famous 形容词+名词 名词+形容词 6 +ed 2 3 4 5 形容词+形容词 形容词+现在分 词 副词+现在分词 副词+过去分词 dark-blue ordinary-looking hard-working newly-built 7 8 9 10 名词+现在分词 名词+过去分词 数词+名词+ed 数词+名词 peace-loving snow-covered three-egged twenty-year

3.形容词(短语)作伴随状语 As he looked at the goat, it rolled over, dead. 当他看着山羊的时候,山羊翻了个身,死了。 Afraid of difficulties, they prefer to take the easy road.由于害怕困难,他们宁愿走好走的路。 II.副词的分类:

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1 2 3 4 时间副 词 地点副 词 方式副 词 程度副 词 soon, now, early, finally, once, recently here, nearby, upwards, above hard, well, fast, excitedly, really outside, slowly, 5 6 7 8 频度副词 疑问副词 连接副词 关系副词 always, often, frequently, seldom, never how, where, when, why how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile when, where, why

almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather

III. 形容词和副词的比较等级 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加 -er 和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 项 目 例 句 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as… 双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用 “比较级 (+ than)” 的结构表示。要注意题干中将比较的另 一方阴藏起来的情况。 表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原 级 + than”的结构表示 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型 She is as tall as her mother. I am not as/ so good a player as you are. This picture is more beautiful than that one. I have never seen such a more interesting film (than this one). This room is less beautiful than that one. The harder you work, the more progress you will make

I have never spent a more worrying day. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思 我从来没有度过这样令人烦恼的一天。 (意为:我度过了最为令人烦恼的一天。 ) 表达法一:A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比 那座旧楼大(高)三倍。 表达法二:A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. 倍数的表达 Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 表达法三:A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. 注意: 可以修饰比较级的词有: 1. much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal; 2. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect, superior,junior 等.

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五、动词和短语动词 知识网络 行为动词(实义动词) ①及物动词(带宾语) :study, develop; ②不及物动词(不带宾语)work, swim, go, come ③状态动词(相对静止)contain, exist, own, prefer, belong ④动作动词:延续性(work, stay) ;非延续性(marry, go, come) 连系动词(汉语中没有这种词类) 助动词(与动词原形或分词构成复合谓语) be(am,is,are),do(does,did);have(has);will,would,shall 情态动词 can(could),may(might),must,shall(should) 动词+副词所构成的短语动词分及物的和不及物的两类 Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏灯都关掉。 (及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们都已离去,哈里出现了。 (不及物) 注意: ① 如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开 She turned off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉了所有还在亮着的灯。 ② 如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间 She gave them away.她送掉了它们。 ③同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异 ring back 回电话 ring off 挂断电话 ring up 打电话 put away 放好 put on 穿,上演 put up 挂起,举起。 短语动词常见的构成方式 ④不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上有很大的差异 break out 发生,爆炸 carry out 进行,开展 go out 熄灭 及其注意点 hand out 分发 let out 放出 look out 当心 sell out 卖完 set out 出发, take out 取出 work out 算出 动词+介词(及物) I'm looking for my glasses. 我在找我的眼镜。 注意:① 当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。 ② 同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。 look after 照料,look at 看,look for 寻找 动词+副词+介词 I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。 注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三种搭配都是及物的, 如变成被动语态,不可漏掉介词。In this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉 after) 这样一来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。 考点聚焦及解题点拨 (单个动词)同义词近义词 辨析 从三个方面考虑:词的恰切含义、搭配(与介词、名词或非谓语动词的搭配)和用 法(是及物动词还是不及物动词)


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状态系动词 be 持续系动词 keep,remain,stay,continue,lie,stand,rest 表象系动词 seem,appear 感官/感觉系动词 look,smell,taste,sound,feel 变化系动词 become,grow,get,turn,fall,go,come 终止系动词 prove,turn out 解答这类试题的关键首先是弄清题意,然后是分析句子结构,由此可判断出该动词 是否用作系动词,最后确定所要填入的答案。特别关注:go hungry,come true,turn writer give sb. sth=give sth.to sb 但是我们只能说:suggest sth. to sb. 熟记常考的短语动词的意义 sell, write, wash, wear 等词的主动形式后跟副词表示被动意义 happen, occur,take place, break out, come out, belong to 等无被动形式 buy sb. sth.=buy sth. for sb explain sth.to sb. read sth. to sb.


接双宾语的动词 短语动词的辨析 容易被我们忽视的知识 点

六、动词的时态和语态 1. 常用常考的动词时态和用法: (以 do 为例) 名称 构成 用法 1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、 科学事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在 时表示将来。 I’ll go there after I finish my work. If it rains tomorrow,I won’t go there. 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里, go,come 等少数动词的 一般在时表示正在发生的动作。 There goes the bell.铃响了。 There comes the bus.汽车来了。 Here she comes.她来了。 表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况,或过 去某一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。 She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow. 从明天起他要做老师。 My father is coming to see me this Saturday. 这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。 The Changjiang River is flowing into the east. 长江江水滚滚向东流。 The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。 1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作 (这一过去时间须用时间状语表示) He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday.


do/does,( 连系动词 is/am/are )


did,( 连系动词 was/were)


is/am/are doing


was/were doing

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2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行 They were still working when I left. 3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生 I was writing while he was watching TV. 4.表示过去将来动作 He said she was arriving the next day. 1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果,说话 时已 完成的动作。 I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往 和“for...”, “since...”表述的一段时间状语连用。 He has learned English for six years. They have worked here since they left college. 3.表示“曾经到过某地 (人已回来) ”用“have/has been to”, 表示“到某地去了(还未回来)”用“have/has gone to”。 —Where is Li Hua? -He has gone to the reading-room. —She knows a lot about Shanghai. -She has been there. 4.短暂动词(即瞬间动词) , join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry, finish,complete,begin,start,break out 等,在完成时态 中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。不能 说:He has joined the army for three years. 要翻译“他已参军已经三年了。”可采用 ①“ago 法” He joined the army three years ago. ②“延续法” He has been in the army for three years. ③“since 法” It is/has been three years since he joined the army. 1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。 He had shut the door before the dog came up. Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到 另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。 At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words. He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3.常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词的 过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match. 用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和 by 短 语,when,before 引起的时间状语连用。


has/have done


had done


will/shall have done

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We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term. 用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在(还要继 续下 去)的动作。He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00. 表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一 个过去时刻才完成,还将继续下去。 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况 (详见下面 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较) 1.相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发生的动作或存在的状 态 He told me he would go to Beijing.他告诉我他将去北京。 I was told that he was going to return home. 有人告诉我他准备回家。 2. would do(表示过去的习惯)总是,总会,常常 He would sit silent for hours. 他常常接连好几个小时默默地坐着。 法 例 句


has/have been doing


had been doing will/shall do is/am/are going to do is/am/are(about)to do



would/should do was/were going to do was/were(about)to do

2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较 将来时 1 be + doing 进行时表 将来 be about to + 动词原 形 be to + 动词原形 一般现在时表将来 用 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词 可用进行时表示按计划即将发生的动作 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动 作,后面一般不跟时间状语 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事 情,可用一般现在时表示将来 区 别 He is moving to the south. Are they leaving for Europe? I was about to leave when the bell rang. The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the school gate at noon. The meeting starts at five o’clock. The plane leaves at ten this evening.


3 4

3.容易混淆的时态比较 项 目 例 句 We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. What do you suppose _______ to her? A. was happening B. happens C. has happened D. happened 说明:说话者强调 Jane 目前的状况. Mr. Lee, who ________ as a carpenter for over 10 years, is now a very famous statesman in this country. A. has worked B. had worked C. worked D. works (只说明他过去当过木匠不涉及到现在)

一般过去时与现 在完成时的比较

现在完成时强调过去 动作对现在产生的影 响或造成的结果

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一般过去时只表达过 去的动作或状态 Hello, I ____ you were in London. How long _________ here? A. don’t know; were you B. hadn’t known; are you C. haven’t known; are D. didn’t know; have you been 说明:didn’t know 强调见面前不知道 I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住) I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 (知道那本书的内容) —Hi, Tracy, you look tired. —I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted 说明:强调动作从过去到现在的延续 I don’t really work here. I ____ until the new secretary _______. A. just help out; comes B. have just helped out; will come C. am just helping out; comes D. will just help out; has come 说明:指目前一段时间正在发生的动作, until 引导的是时间状语从句, 动词需用一般现在时。 — Hey, look where you are going! — Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _______. A. I’m not noticing. B. I wasn’t noticing. C. I haven’t noticed. D. I don’t notice. 说明:对话的后者显然是在解释刚才不小心冒犯对方时正在做的事情. Tom________ into the house when no one ___________. A. slipped; was noticing B. had slipped; noticed C. slipped; had noticed D. was slipping; noticed 说明: 和 notice 为同时发生的动作, slip 因此 B、 为错误选项, C slipped 指过去有结果的动作(他溜进去了) ,when no one was noticing 指他溜 进去的一刹那发生的情况(没有人注意) 。 .He ______ a book about China last year, but I don’t know if he ______ it. A.wrote; has finished B. was writing; has finished C. was writing; had finished D. wrote; will finish 说明:正确选项为 B. 从 I don’t know if he has finished it.推断,他去年 一直在写。 常用被动 语态 过去进行 时 现在完成 时 过去完成 时 将来完成 时 含有情态 动词的 构 成

着重表示动作的结果 时,用现在完成时 现在完成时与现 在完成进行时的 比较 着重表示动作一直在 进行,即动作的延续 性时,则用现在完成 进行时

现在进行时与过 去进行时的比较

现在进行时表示现在 某个时候或某段时间 正在进行的动作

过去进行时表示某个 时候或某段时间正在 进行的动作

一般过去时只表达过 去的动作或状态 一般过去时与过去进 行时的比较 过去进行时表示某个 时候或某段时间正在 进行的动作 II. 动词的被动语态 常用被 构 成 动语态 1 一般现 am/is/are done 在时 2 一般过 was/were done 去时 3 一般将 shall/will be done 来时 4 过去将 should/would be done 来时 5 现在进 am/is/are being done 行时

6 7 8 9 10

was/were being done have/has been done had been done will/would have been done can/must/may be done

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被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉 其中介副词。固定结构 be going to, used to,have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 Trees should not be planted in summer. The boy was made fun of by his classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示: It is believed that… It is generally considered that… It is said that… It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that… 被动语态的句型 1.常见句式是:主语(受动者)+be+过去分词+(by+施动者) :He was scolded by the English teacher. 2.主语+get+过去分词+其它成分:The boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because of her faults. 使用这种结构不能带有“by+施动者” 3.带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也 可以是间接宾语。 She lent me a bike.?被动:①I was lent a bike(by her). ②A bike was lent to me(by her). 4.情态动词+be+过去分词:This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 5.双重被动式:主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式+其它成分 These magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room. The murderer was ordered to be shot. 下面主动形式常表示被动意义 1. 不 及 物 动 词 与 状 语 连 用 , 用 以 表 示 主 语 的 品 质 和 状 态 。 常 见 动 词 是 : cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash 等。 This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。 These books sell well.这些书好卖。 The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。 Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。 The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。 2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。 常见动 look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn out 等。 The apples taste good. The flower smells wonderful. The news proved/turned out true. Cotton feels soft. 不可变为被动语态的几种情况 1.I teach myself French.不可变为 Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。 2.We help each other/one another.不可变为 Each other/One another is helped by us.因为 相互代词不可作主语。 3.He lost heart.不可变为 Heart was lost by him. 因为象 lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought 这类动宾结构的固定短语只 能用于主动式,不能用被动式。 4.She took part in the sports meet.不能变为 The sports meet was taken part in by her. 因为象 take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain 等表状态动词没有被动语态。 含有短语动词在被动语态中介词不能丢 Much attention must be paid to your handwriting. 特别注意以下句子的结构:Every minute must be made full use of to study Englsih.

注 意 事 项

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下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等 七、非谓语动词 非谓语动词的语法功能 所能充当的成分 V-ing 形式 现在分 词 动名词 不定式(to do) 过去分词(done) △ △ 主语 表语 △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ 宾语 宾语补足 语 △ 定语 △ △ △ △ △ △ 状语 △

注:现在分词、不定式、过去分词都可以作独立成分 generally speaking 一 般 说 来 ; frankly speaking 坦 白 地 说 ; judging from/by... 根 据 …… 来 判 断 ; considering.../taking...into consideration 考虑到……; to tell you the truth 说实话;seeing...考虑到……;supposing 假设,如果;providing 如果;given 考虑到, 鉴于;provided that 如果 非谓语动词的形式变化 构成 非谓语 语态 形式 时态 复合结构 否定式 主动 被动 一般式 to do to be done to have been 进行式 to have done for sb. to do sth. done 在“to”前加 not 不定式 或 或 never 完成式 to be doing / of sb. to do sth. 完成 to have been / 进行式 doing 一般式 doing being done 在前加 not sb.或 sb’s doing 特别注意复合结构的否定 动名词 作主语要用 式: having been 完成式 having done sb’s doing sb’s not doing done sb’s not having done 现在分 与动名词变化形式相同 在前加 not 词 在解非谓语习题时同学们遇到最大的困难有两个:一是如何判别是谓语动词还是非谓语动词;二是如 何选用哪一种非谓语动词及其恰当的形式。 一、谓语与非谓语的比较 非谓语动词是汉语中没有的语言现象。汉语中几个谓语动词连用而动词不用作任何形式的变化。如: 他明天来拜访你。翻译成英语不是 He will come visit you,而是 He will come to visit you.这里就用了不定式 to visit。因此同学们要特别注意弄清句子的结构。 例:Tom sat under a tree and seeing his friend, up in no time. A. to stand B. standing C. stood D. would stand 分析:stood 是与 sat 并列的谓语。 非谓语语法功能的比较 做宾语的非谓语动词比较 情况 常用动词 只接不定式 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, 做宾语的动词 determine, promise, happen 只接动名词 mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, 做宾语的动词 prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist
第 18 页 共 40 页

feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue(接不定式多指具体的动作,接动名词多指一 意义基本 般或习惯行为) 相同 need, want, require(主语与动名词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,接动名词主动形式表示 被动意义,若接不定式则应用被动形式) 意义相反 stop to do 停止手中所做的事,去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事 两 remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚 go on to do(接着做另外一件事) 者 未发生) go on doing(接着做同一件事) 都 remember/forget/regret doing (指动作已 可 经发生) 以 意义不同 try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力) mean to do(打算做,企图做) try doing(试试去做,看有何结果) mean doing (意思是,意味着) be considered to have done 被认为已经做了 can’t help (to) do(不能帮忙做) consider…to be 认为是 can’t help doing(忍不住要做) consider doing 考虑做某事 非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别 分 类 常见动词 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念 例 句 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, I asked to be sent to the 主谓关系,强调动作将发生或已 countryside. 不定式 encourage 经完成 I heard him call me several times. have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make 现在分 notice, see, watch, hear, 主谓关系,强调动作正在进行, I found her listening to the radio. 词 find, keep, have, feel 尚未完成 过去分 动宾关系,动作已经完成,多强 We found the village greatly 词 调状态 changed. IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别 分 类 区 别 例 句 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将 I have a lot of papers to type. 来,进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式 I have a lot of papers to be typed. 不定式 表示在谓语动词之前发生 I haven’t decided which hotel to stay at.(介词 at 不能丢) 动名词 通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑上的主谓关系 Shall we go to the swimming pool? 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表示动作与谓语 the boiling water / the boiled water 现在分词 动作同时发生 the developing country/the developed country 与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表示动作发生在 the falling leaves/the fallen leaves 过去分词 谓语动作之前,现已经完成或只表示状态 注意:the bridge to be built 将建造的桥, the bridge being built 正在建造的桥,the bridge built 已经建好的 桥 八、情态动词和虚拟语气 情态动词
I.情态动词基本用法 情态动 用 法 词 能力(体力,智力, can 技能) 允许或许可 (口语中 常用) 可能性(表猜测,用 could 于否定 句或 疑问 句 中) 可以 (问句中表示请 may 求) 否定式 can not /can’t do / cannot Yes,…can. No,…can’t. 疑问式 简答式


Can…do…? couldn’t do

may not do


Yes,…may. No,…mustn’t/can’t.

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might 可能, (表推测) 或许 祝愿( 用于 倒装 句 中) 必须,应该(表主观 要求) 肯定,想必(肯定句 中表推测) 只好,不得不(客观 的必须, 有时态和人 称的变化) 应当( 表示 义务 责 任,口语中多用 should) 用于一 三人 称征 求 对方意见 用于二 三人 称表 示 许诺、命令、警告、 威胁等 应当,应该(表义务 责任) 本该( 含有 责备 意 味) 意愿,决心 请求,建议,用在问 句中 would 比较委 婉 敢 (常用于否定句和 疑问句中) 需要,必须(常用于 否定句和疑问句中) 过去常常 (现在已不 再) might not do Might…do…? Yes,…might No,…might not. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t/don’t have Yes,…do. No,…don’t. Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t.


must not/mustn’t do



have to ought to

don’t have to do ought not to/oughtn’t to do

Do…have to do…?

Ought…to do…?


shall not/shan’t do


Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t.

should will would dare need

should not/shouldn’t do will not/won’t do would do not/wouldn’t



Yes,…will. No,…won’t. Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t. Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n’t. Yes,…did. No,…didn’t.

dare not/daren’t do need not/needn’t do

Dare…do…? Need…do…?

used to

used not/usedn’t/usen’t to Used…to do…? do Did…use to do…? didn’t use to do II.情态动词的重点知识

表示能力的情态动词用 can/could

A computer_____think for itself; it must be told what to do. A.can’t B.mustn’t C.may not D.might not

表示“能 力、许可” 的 can 和 may

表示许可时用 may/might ,can/could 都 ①—Could I call you by your first name? —Yes, you______ 可以, 但在问句中用 could…?或 might…? A.will B.could C.may D.might 以使口气委婉客气, 其回答一定要用 can ②Johnny, you_____play with the knife, you_____hurt yourself. 或 may,以使回答口气明确(must 表示 A.won’t/can’t B.mustn’t/may 一定, 必须, mustn’t 表示禁止, 不许可) 。 C.shouldn’t/must D.can’t/shouldn’t 在肯定句中 could 不可以用来表示过去 某一特定场合的能力,而要用 was/were able to。 在肯定句中都可以用来表示可能。在含 义上 must 语气最肯定,may 表示的是事 实上的可能性。 The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone_____get out. A.had to B.would C.could D.was able to Peter______come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet. A.must B.may C.can D.will 而 can 表示的是逻辑上的可能性: Mary is in poor health. She can be ill at any times.

表示“推 断、判断” 的 can may,must

在否定句中只能用 can 和 may。 所以 can’t Michael______be a policeman, for he’s much too short. 时用以代替 mustn’t, 语气比 may 更肯定。 A.needn’t B.can’t C.should D.may 中文可以翻译为不可能。 在疑问句只能用 can,不能用 may 和 must。 He may be very busy now. He must be very busy now. Can he be very busy now? Can he be very busy now?

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need need 作为情态动词只有一种形式,只用 于否定句和疑问句。 dare 作为情态动词用时有两种形式: dare 和 dared 两个词形,除了可以用于否定 句和疑问句外,还可以用于条件从句或 表示怀疑的句子中。 用于第一人称:征求对方的意见。 shall If he dare come,I will kick him out. I don’t know whether he dare say. 注意:He doesn’t dare(to)answer the question.(否定句) Does she dare(to)enter the dark room?(疑问句) What shall we do this evening?


You shall fail if you don’t work harder. 警告 用于第二、三人称:警告、命令、允诺、 He shall have the book when I finish reading.允诺 威胁等。 He shall be punished.威胁 劝告、建议、命令、应该做、道义上的 责任。 请求、建议,would 比 will 委婉客气。 表示意志、愿望和决心。 You should(ought to) go to class right away. I should(ought to) help him because he is in trouble. Would you pass me the book? I will never do that again. They asked us if we would do that again During the vacation he would visit me every week The wound would not heal.(伤口老是不能愈合) It would be about ten when he left home. What would she be doing there? You could have done better, but you didn’t try your best. He cannot have been to that town. Can he have got the book? He may not have finished the work. If we had taken the other road, we might have arrived earlier. You must have seen the film. You cannot have seen the film. You needn’t have watered the flowers,for it is going to rain. 注意:didn’t need to(have to)do: 没有必要做而实际上也没有做 I didn’t need to clean the windows.My sister did it 2 hours ago. You should have started earlier, but you didn’t. She shouldn’t have taken away my measuring tape, for I worked to use it. 注意:He should have finished the work by now.(表推测) 虚拟语气



would 可表示过去反复发生的动作或某 种倾向。 would 表示估计或猜想。 could+have done:本可以做而实际上未 能做。 cannot+ have done: 表示对现在或过去行 为的否定推测。 can+主语+ have done:表示对过去行为 的怀疑或不肯定(用在疑问句中) 。 might(may)+ have done: 对过去发生的行 为不太肯定的推测。 must+ have done:对过去发生的行为肯 定的推测。 其否定式为:cannot have done。 needn’t+ have done:本来不必要做的而 实际上又做了。

情态动词 +have done 的用 法

should(ought to)+ have done: 本来应该做 而实际上又没有做。其否定形式表示某 中行为不该发生却发生了。

别 与现在事实相反

If 引导的 条件从句 与过去事实相反

用 法 例 句 从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) 主 句 动 词 : If he were here, he would help us. should/would/could/might+do 从句动词:had+done 主 句 动 词 : If I had been free,I would have visited you. should/would/could/might+have+ done

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从句动词:过去式/should+动词 原形/were+to do 主 句 动 词 : should/would/could/might+ 动 词 原形


If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping.

省略 if 的 虚拟条件 句

将虚拟条件从句中的 were,had,should 放到主语之 前,构成主谓倒装

不同时间的虚拟:各遵守各的规则 混合虚拟 条件句 虚拟与陈述的混合:各遵守各的规则

but for+名词表示虚拟条件

without+名词表示虚拟条件 动词不定式表示虚拟条件 现在分词表示虚拟条件 过去分词表示虚拟条件 副词 otherwise 表示虚拟条 件 连词 but 连接的句子表示虚 拟条件 as if/as though 引导的状语从句中动词用 did 或 had +done 或 would/could/might+do。 注意: if/as though 引导的状语从句中也可以用陈 as 述语气: 当说话者认为所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存 在的事实时: It sounds as if it is raining.听起来像是在下雨。 He talks as if he is drunk.从他谈话的样子来看他是 醉了。 in order that/so that 引 导 的 状 语 从 句 中 动 词 用 can/could/may/ might/ would 等+do demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+do wish 后 的从 句 中 分 别用 过 去式 , 过 去完 成 式和 should/would+do 表示与现在, 过去和将来情况相反 句子或主句中的谓语 动词的形式视具体情 况而定。这是考查考 生应变能力的最佳试 题。

含蓄虚拟 条件句

①Should he come ,tell him to ring me up. ②Were I you,I would not do it. ③Had I been free,I would have visited you. ①If he had listened to me, he would not be in trouble now. ②If he had told me yesterday,I should know what to do now. ③If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party. ①He could have passed the exam,but he wasn’t careful enough. ②You should have come earlier.The bus left a moment ago. ---But for your timely warning,we ______ into great trouble. ---You know we’re friends. A. would get B. must have got C. would have got D. can’t have got Without the air to hold some of the sun's heat, the earth at night would be freezing cold. It would be only partly right to follow in this way. 如果用这种方式,仅仅对了一半。 Having known in time ,we might have prevented the accident.要是及时得知的话, 我们也许能阻止这场事故。 Given more attention, the tree could have grown better. 如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的更好。 I was too busy at that time.Otherwise,I would have called you.我当时太忙,否则我就给你打电话了。 He _____fatter but he eats too little . A. would become B. would have become C. must become D. must have become ①与现在事实相反 He talks as if he knew where she was. ②与过去事实相反 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. ③与将来事实相反 He opened his mouth as if he would say something.

其它 状语从句

Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly. He suggested that we not change our mind. I wish I could be a pop singer. I wish I would have gone to Shanghai last month.


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主语从句 在 It is necessary / important / strange that… It is suggested / demanded/ ordered / requested that…等从句中, 谓语动词用 should+do It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+do would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去 完成式 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式,表 示强烈的愿望 It is strange that such a person should be our friends.

It’s high time that we left/should leave. I would rather you stayed at home now. If only our dream had come true!

其它 句型中

九、句子的种类 按用途分 种 类 类 型 例 句


肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句

We love our motherland. 我们热爱祖国。 They don’t go to work on Sundays. 他们星期日不上班。 Are you a worker? 你是个工人吗? Haven’t you seen the film? 你没看过这部电影吗? Who is the man? 这人是谁? When do you watch TV? 你什么时间看电视? What are they doing now? 他们现在正在干什么? Do you want tea or coffee? Either will do. 你要茶水还是要咖




啡?哪种都行。 Does he learn Japanese or French? He learns French. 他学日 语还是学法语?他学法语。 They are going to the airport, aren’t they? 他们要去机场,是 吗? You haven’t finished your homework, have you? 你没做完作 业,是吗? Be sure to get there at eight. 务必八点钟到那儿。 Don’t worry. I’ll help you out. 别担心,我会帮助你的。 What great changes we have had these years! 这几年我们有 了多么大的变化啊! What a fine day it is! 多好的天气呀! How brave he is! 他多么勇敢呀! How hard they are working! 他们工作多努力呀! How time flies! 时间过得多么快呀! How nice a boy (he is) !=What a nice boy (he is)! 多好的孩子 啊!



肯定句 否定句 what + 名词


how + 形容词或副词 how +句子 How + adj. + a (an) + n.=What a(an)+adj.+n

按结构分 种类 简单 类型 主+谓 例句 They disappeared. 他们消失了。

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句 主+谓+宾 主+谓+间宾+直接宾 He likes swimming.他喜欢游泳。 We help each other. 我们互相帮助。 I told my friend the good news. 我把好消息告诉了我的朋友。 They sent us a telegram. 他们给我们拍了电报。 They named the boy Jack. 他们给孩子起名叫杰克。 主+谓+宾+宾补 I want everything ready by eight o’clock. 我要求一切都要在八点前准 备好。 主+系+表 She is a university student. 她是一名大学生。 He has become a pilot. 他已成为一名飞行员。 Either you do it, or I ask for somebody else to do it. 要么你来做, 要么我 并列关系 and, not only…but also, neither …nor, both…and, not…but, 请其他人来做。 Neither Tom nor Jack has finished the homework. 汤姆和杰克都没有完 成作业。 Not couldn’t they complete the task, but the task was too tough. 不是他们完不成任务,而是任务太重了。 转折关系 but,while(而,尽 并列 句 管) nevertheless(然而;不过) 选择关系 or, otherwise or else, either?or John likes playing basketball, but he didn’t play it yesterday. 约翰喜欢打 篮球,但他昨天没打。 We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点, 否则会赶不上火 车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿来,或 者我到你那去。 We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家里,因 因果关系 for, so, thus, therefore, and so 由一个主句和一个或一个以 复合 句 上的从句构成的句子叫复合 句。在复合句中主句是全句 的主体,从句是全句的一个 成分,不能独立。 为天正在下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力,因此这次考试不及格。 从句有: 名词性从句 (主语从句, 表语从句, 宾语从句和同位语从句) 状语从句 定语从句 (详细请看以下各节罗列的内容)

种类 主 语 从 连 词

关联词 that whether

十、名词性从句 例 句 说 明 That he will come and help you is certain. that 在引导主语从句时不可省去 他来帮助你是确实无疑的。 Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting 主语从句中只能用 whether 不可用 question. if。 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。

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句 连接 代词 who what which whatever when where why how What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。 主语从句放在句首,句子常显得笨 Who will win the match is still unknown. 重,因此一般 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 It is known to us how he became a writer. 把它移到句子后面,前面用引导词 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 “it”来作形式主语。 Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣 布。 I believe(that) he is honest. 我相信他是忠诚的。 that 在句中不担任任何成分,在口语 We must never think(that) we are good in everything 或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从 while others are good in nothing. 句是并列句时,第二个分句前的 that 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。 不可省。 I wonder whether he will come or not. whether 常与 or not 连用,不能用 if 我想知道他来还是不来。 代替。 Everything depends on whether we have enough 作介词宾语要用 whether 不能用 if。 money. 从句是否定句时一般用 if 引导。 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 I don’t know if(whether) it is interesting. 我不知道它是否有意思。 He doesn’t care if it isn’t a fine day.他不在乎天气是否 好。 Please tell me what you want.请告诉我你需要什么? She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 宾语从句作及物动词宾语也可做介 She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 词的宾语。 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。

连接 副词

陈述 意义


疑问 意义

if whether

宾 语 从 句 特殊 疑问 意义

who, whom, which,whose, what, when, where, why, how,whoever, whatever, whichever 注1

注2 that whether as if who what which when where why how

连词 表 连接代 语 词 从 句 连接副 词

同 由连词 that 引导, 位 不担任成分,也可 语 有 when, how, 从 where 等引导。 句

We must make it clear that anyone 如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾 who breaks the law will be punished. 语,将从句后置。 我们必须认清无论谁违反了法律都 要受到惩罚。 think,believe,imagine,suppose 等动词引出的宾语从 We don’t think you are right. 我们认 句,要将从句中的否定形式,移到主句中。 为你不对。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信 他不会这样做的。 The problem is(that) they can’t get here early enough. 问题是他们不能很早到达这里。 It looks as if it’s going to rain.看起来天要下雨。 在非正式的文体中 that 可以省去 That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。 The question is who(which of you) will be the next speaker. 问题是谁(你们哪一位)接着发言。 This is where our problem lies. 表语从句位于主句系动词之后 这就是我们的问题所在。 That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 The news that he had landed on the moon spread all 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具 over the world.他曾在月球上登陆这个消息传遍世 体内容,常用的名词如:fact, news, 界。 idea, hope, thought,question, order, I have no idea when he will come back home. fear, doubt, word, proof, belief, story 我不知道他什么时候回来。 等。 The thought came to him that Mary had probably

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fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问题。 特别注意 what 的双重功能: ①What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. (what 为“所……的事”,相当于“the thing that…;all that…;everything that…”) ②After ________ seemed a very long time,I opened my eye and found myself in bed. (M ET'93) A.what B.when C.that D.which (what 相当于“the time that”,表示“……时间”) ③He is not what he was a few years ago. Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? (what 表示“……的人”,相当于“the person that…”) ④What is now the North Sahara Desert was once a civilized world. (what 表示“……的地方”,相当于“the place that…”) ⑤Our income is now double what it was ten years ago (what 表示“……的数目”,相当于“the amount /number that…”) 十一、状语从句 种 类 从属连词 例 句 说 明

When whenever

When I came into the room, he was writing a when 指的是“某一具体的时间” letter.当我进屋时,他正在写信。 whenever 指的是“在任何时间” We shall go there whenever we are free.我们什 么时间有空,我们就去那里。 I was walking along the street when suddenly when 意为“这时”或“在那个时 someone patted me on the shoulder from behind. 候” ,可以看作是并列句,这种用法 我正在街上走着,这时忽然有人从后面拍我的 的 when 分句一般位于句末。 肩膀。 While it was raining, they went out.天下雨的时 while 指 “ 在 某 一 段 时 间 里 ” , 候,他们出去了。 “在?期间” ,while 引导的动作 I stayed while he was away.他不在的时候我在。 必须是持续性的 He hurried home, looking behind as he went. 他赶快回家,不时地一边走一边向后看。 Be a pupil before you become a teacher.先做学 生,再做先生。 He arrived after the game started.比赛开始后, 他 到了。 We waited till (until)he came back .我们一直等到 如主句动词是持续性动作,常用 他回来。 肯定式,表示“直到?为止” She didn’t stop working until eleven o’clock .她到 如主句动词是瞬间动词,常用否 11 点钟才停止工作。 定式,表示“直?才” “在?以前 Until he had passed out of sight, she stood there. 不”,从句放在句首表示强调,一 她站在那里看着,直到看不见他的身影。 般用 until as 引导持续性动作,强调主句和 从句的动作同时发生


时 间 状 从


as before after till


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since as soon as Great changes have taken place in China since 状语从句在主句之前时一般用逗 1978. 号与主句分开,如从句在主句之 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变化。 后则不必用标点符号。 As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I’ll write to you.我 一到上海就给你写信。 I had hardly got home when it began to rain. hardly?when 和 no sooner?than 我刚一到家,就下雨了。=Hardly had I got home 的意义相当于 as soon as,但只表 when it began to rain. 示过去发生的事情,主句为过去 No sooner had we got to the station than the 完成时, 从句为过去时, hardly 如 train left. 或 no sooner 位于句首时语气强, 我们刚到车站,火车就走了。 而且主句的谓语要用部分倒装 Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop. 我们刚开始就被叫停。

hardly?when no sooner?than

Every time I travelled by boat, I got seasick.我每 在时间状语从句中,不能用将来 次乘船都晕船。 时或过去将来时,而要用现在时 every time, by the The moment I heard the song, I felt cheerful. 或过去时代替将来时 time, the moment 等 我一听到这首歌,就感到很愉快。 Next time you come ,you’ll see him.下次你来的 时候,就会见到他。 Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者, 事竟 where 与 wherever 意义基本相 成。 同,但后者语气较强,多用于书 Where there is water there is life.哪里有水, 哪里 面语 就有生命。 You are free to go wherever you like.你可以随意 到你喜欢的任何地方去。 Wherever you go, you must obey the law.无论你 去哪都要遵守法律。 I came back late yesterday because I was on duty. because 用来回答 why 的问题, 昨天我回来晚了,因为我值班。 语气最强 Since everyone is here, let’s begin our meeting.既 since 表示既然或全已知的理由, 然大家都到了,我们开始开会。 稍加分析即可表明的原因,多放句 首 As he didn’t know much English, he looked up the 从句常放在句首,说明原因,主 word in the dictionary . 句说明结果,常用于口语中。 由于他英语懂得不多,他在字典中查阅这个单 词。 Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we can seeing (that), now that 和 since, start our journey. as 意义相似,他们都有“鉴于某 鉴于天气已经晴朗,我们可以启程了。 个事实”的意思,that 可以省去 Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for the doctor. 鉴于他病情严重,我们派人去请医生去了。 I shall write down your telephone number that I 目的状语从句中常用情态动词 may not forget. so that 我要把你的电话号码记下来,以免忘记。 may (might) can (could) ,should 等放在动词之前,从句往往放在

地 点 状 从

where wherever



原 因 状 从


now that, seeing that

目 的 状


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从 in order that We’ll tell you the truth so that you can judge for 主句之后,主从句之间不用任何 yourself. 我把真实情况告诉你,使你能自己作出判断。 lest = for fear that They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time .他们比往常 更加努力工作,为了能提前完成工作。 Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) you should catch cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒。 so that so?that 结 果 状 从 such?that We turned up the radio, so that everyone heard so that 前有逗号为结果状语从句 the news. so?that 的 so 后面跟形容词或副 我们把收音机的音量放大,大家都听到了新闻。 词 He was so excited that he couldn’t say a word. 他十分激动,以致一句话都说不出来。 He gave such important reasons that he was such?that 的 such 后面跟名词, excused. 如果名词是单数就要用 such a 他说出了这么重要的理由,得到大家的谅解。 /an ? that 还 可 以 转 换 用 so ? It is such an interesting novel that all of us want to that,语气较强 read it. It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it. 这是一本十分有趣的书,大家都想看。 Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid of unless 从 句 的 谓 语 只 能 用 肯 定 them. 式。 unless 和 if?not 同义, unless 如果我们不怕困难,困难就算不了什么了。 是书面语,if?not 是口语,通常 We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains.除非下 二者可以换用 雨,我们明天就去那里。 条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时 = We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn’t rain. 态一般要用现在时或过去时代替 So/As long as you work hard, you will succeed. 一般将来时或过去将来时 只要你努力工作,你就一定能成功。 In case I forget, please remind me about it .万一 我忘了,请提醒我一下。 So far as I know, the book will be published next month. 据我所知,那本书下月出版。 Draw a cat as I taught you .按照我教你的画一只 此处 as 译为:按照或正如 猫。 as if 或 as though 的意义和用法基 Do as you are told.按照人家告诉你做的去做。 本一样。从句中可以用现在时表 She looks as if she is ill.看上去她好象是生病了。 示可能符合事实,也可以用虚拟 He acted as if (though) nothing had happened.他 语气 的行动就好象什么也没有发生。 They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。 标点符号

条 件 状 从

if unless as/so long as in case so far as

as 方 式 状 从 as if? as though

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Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) he 在句子中一般用了“虽然”就不 began to learn French. 能再用“但是” (but)但可以与 although 虽然他六十多岁了,但仍开始学习法语 。 yet 或 still 连用。 though / although though We were not tired though (although) we had 意义相同,用法基本一样,前者 worked all day. 通俗,口语化,后者正式多放主 虽然我们干了一天活,但并不累。 句的前面 I’ll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow.即使明天 even if 和 even though 的意思为 even if,even though 下雨,我也要去。 “即使” “纵使”有退一步设想的 意味,多用于书面语中 Child as he is , he knows a lot .虽然他是一个孩 as 引出的状语从句多用于书面 子,但他懂得很多。 语,它比用 as Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the children play though 或 although 引导的从句, outdoors. 语气强,更有表现力,从句常放 虽然天气冷,但孩子们仍在户外玩。 在句首,语序部分倒装。 Do it no matter what others say.不管别人怎么说, no matter??与 who-ever 引导 尽管干。 的让步状语从句意义基本一 样, No matter how busy he was, he studied English no matter??引导的从句可是以 no matter (who, every day. 位于主句前或主句后 what when, where 不管他多忙,他都每天坚持学习英语。 which, how?) No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事,我都将非常感激。 Whatever happens / may happen , we shall not wh+ever (whatever lose heart. whoever ,whenever 无论发生什么,我们都不要失去信心。 whichever ,however) Whoever comes, he will be welcome.无论谁来, 都会受到欢迎。 Mary is as old as my sister.玛利和我姐姐一样大。连词表示同程度级的比较,肯定 He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack (does).他不如 句用 as?as 否定句可用 not as? as?as , 杰克跑得那样快。 as 或 not so?as not so/as?as His book is the same as mine.他的书和我的一 the same?as 样。 such?as Henry is not such a good worker as Peter .享利这 个工人不如彼得那样好。 She has made greater progress this year than she did last year. …than… 她今年比去年进步更大。 He bought fewer books than I (did).他买的书比我 买的少。

让 步 状 从

比 较 状 从

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The more you read, the better you understand.你 the more?the more 意思为越? 看的书越多,你懂得的就越多。 越?,通常的语序为从句在前主 The more tickets you sell, the more money you 句在后,这两个 the 都是表示程 will get. 度的副词,用在比较级的形容词 你卖的票越多,你的收入也越多。 或副词前面 The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 你工作越努力,你取得的进步就越大。 The sooner, the better.越快越好。 warmer, the The better.越暖和越好。 十二、定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词 叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先 行词保持数的一致。 关系词 先行 词 人 从句成分 例 句 备 注

the more …the more…



Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am



working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. I like those books whose topics are about whom, which 和 that 在从 句中做宾语时,常可以省 略,但介词提前时后面关 系代词不能省略,也不可 以用 that

人或 关 系 代 词 that 人或 物 whose 物


history. The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate. A plane is a machine that can fly.

主语, 宾语

She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was worth


主语, 宾语

$10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible.

人或 as 物

He is such a person as is respected by all 主语, 宾语 of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. as 做宾语一般不省略

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关 系 副 词 where why when 时间 地点 原因 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语 I will never forget the day when we met there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 可用 on which 可用 in which 可用 for which

II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别 情 况 用法说明 1. 先 行 词 为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时 2.先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修饰时 只用 that 的情 况 3.先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修 饰时 4.先行词既指人又指物时 5.先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6.句中已经有 who 或 which 时, 为了避 免重复时 1. 在 非 限 制 性 定 语 从 句 中 , 只 能 用 which 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 2.在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语 从句中,只能用 which 指物,whom 指 人。 3.先行词 本身 是 that 时,关系 词用 which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时多用 who。 区 别 1.He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. 2.I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. 3.Those who respect others are usually respected by others. 例 句 He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand. They won the game, as we had expected. They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s. That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同类工 具,不是同一把) That’s the same tool that I used last week.那就是 我上周用过的工具。 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a speech? 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. 例 句

1.He told me everything that he knows.

只用 which, who, whom 的 情况

III. as、which 和 that 的区别 从句 限制性 定语从句中 名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时, 关 系代词用 as,不能用 which as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主句。 如果有“正如,象”的含义,并可以 放在主句前,也可以放在后面,那么 用 as;而 which 引导的从句只能放主 句后,并无“正如”的意思。 the same... as 指同类事物 the same ...that 指原物

非限制性 定语从句中

the same... as 和 the same ...that

注意:the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由 that, in which 引导或不用引导词。 IV.定语从句与其它从句(句型)的区别 类 别 区 别
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定语从句 与 并列句 定语从句与并列句的主要区别在 于:并列句有像 and,but,so 等 并列连词或两个句子用分号连接, 这时就不能再用引导定语从句的 关系词了。 ①Mr Li has three daughters,none of _____ is an engineer. ②Mr Li has three daughters, none of _____ is a dancer. but 从结构上看,①小题是定语从句,故填 whom; ②小题有并列连词 but,是并列句,故填代词 them。 This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. 定语从句的前面有名词作先行词, 而状语从句没有先行词。 这是几年前我们居住的地方。 (定语从句,先行词为 the place) Let’s go where we can find a better job. 我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。 (地点状语从句) Do you know the time when the class is over? 你知道下课 定语从句修饰、限制、说明名词, 的时间吗?(定语从句) 只能放在先行词的后面, 而状语从 It was already five o’clock when the class was over. 句说明动作发生的情况, 并且可以 =When the class was over, it was already five o’clock. 放在主句的前面。 当下课时己经是 5 点了。 (时间状语从句) When, where 和 why 在引导定语从 句时可以用“介词+which”的结 构来替换, 在引导状语从句时却不 行。 This is the factory in which (where) his father once worked. 这就是他的父亲曾经工作过的那个工厂。 (定语从句) Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。 (状语从 句)

定语从句 与 状语从句

It is such an interesting book as we all like. 它是我们大家 定语从句中的关系词在从句中充 都喜欢的如此有趣的书。 当某种句子成分, 因此去掉它则从 (as 用作动词 like 的宾语,它引导的是定语从句) 句成分不完整; 而结果状语从句中 It is such an interesting book that we all like it. 的连接词在从句中不作任何成分, 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都喜欢它。 去掉后从句的成分仍然完整。 (that 不充当句子成分,故它引导的是结果状语从句) The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy. 定语从句在复合句中相当于形容 词,对先行词起修饰、描述或限制 的作用,与先行词之间有从属关 系。同位语的作用相当于名词,对 前面的名词给予补充说明或进一 步解释,是前面名词的具体内容, 与先行词之间是同位关系。 她考试及格的消息使她父母亲很高兴。 (同位语从句) 此句中的同位语从句 The news that she had passed the exam 可以改写成表语从句:The news is that he passed the exam. The news that he told us interested all of us. 他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。 (定语从句) The news that he told us 是定语从句,此句不能改写为: The news is that he told us. ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met Liang Wei at the airport. ②It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works. 从结构上看: ①小题是强调句,故填 that。 ②小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in,故填 where。

定语从句 与 同位语从 句

定语从句 与 强调句

强调句的结构为 “It is/was+被强 调部分+that+从句” 被强调部分 。 可以是除谓语以外的任何成分, 当 被强调部分是人时,还可用 who 代替 that。这一句型中,一定不能 因为被强调部分是表时间或地点 的 词 就 用 when 或 where 代 替 that。

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十三、强调句 强调的类别 说 明 例 句

为了强调句子的某一成分 原始句:Last night I saw a film in the Youth Palace. (通常是主语、宾语或状 强调主语:It was I that (or: who) saw a film in the Youth Palace last night. 语) ,常用强调结构: 强调宾语:It was a fiml that I saw in the Youth Palace last night.

It is (was) + 被 强 调 部 分 强调地点状语:It was in the Youth Palace that I saw a film last night. +that(who)… 表示强调的 it 在这种结构的 句子中作主句的主语。 强调时间状语:It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 一般讲, 原句的谓语动词如果是现在或将来各种时态, It is…that (who)…; 用 如果原句谓语动词是过去各种时态,则用 It was… that(who)…。 ①在强调主语时,that 后的谓语动词要与被强调者保持人称和数的 It is I who am a teacher. ②即使被强调的主语是复数,主句中的谓语动词也用单数 It is they who often help me with my lessons. ③在强调时间、地点、原因、或方式状语时,不要用 when,where,why It is (was) +被 强调部分 +that(who)… 或 how ,而用 that It was because her mother was ill that she didn't go with us. ④在强调 not … until 结构中由 until 短语(或从句)表示的时间状语时, 要用固定的强调句型 注意点 It is(was) not until ...that...。that 从句中的谓语动词用肯定式。 My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night. It was not until 12 o'clock last night that my father came home. ⑤在强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时,主句要用一般疑问句的语序: 把 is/ was 提到 it 前面。 Did this happen in Beijing? Was it in Beijing that this happened? ⑥特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以强调,其强调结构是“被强调部分(通 常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/ who + 其它部分?" Where were you born? Where was it that you were born?

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⑦not …until…句型的强调句
[来源:学|科|网 Z|X|X|K]

句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 原始句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back. 强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed. 此句型只用 until,不用 till。但如果不是强调句型,till, until 可通 用;因为句型中 It is/ was not … 已经是否定句了,that 后面的从句 要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。 Do sit down. 务必请坐。 It is/ was … that …结构不能 谓语动词的 强调 强调谓语,如果需要强调谓 语时, 用助动词 do/ does 或 did。 He did write to you last week.上周他确实给你写了信。 Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! 此种强调只用 do/does 和 did ,没有别的形式;过去时用 did,后面的谓 语动词用原形。 十四、省略句 类别 词 具体内容 名词所有格后修饰的名词在以下情况可 以省略 ①如果名词所有格修饰的名词在前文已 出现,则可以省略。 ②名词所有格后修饰的名词如果是指商 店、住宅等地点时,这些名词也常常省 略。 例句 These are John's books and those are Mary's (books). 这些是约翰的书,那些是玛丽的书。 at the doctor's 在诊所 at Mr. Green's 在格 林先生家 to my uncle's 到我叔叔家 at the barber's 在理 发店 ①The lightning flashed and thunder crashed.电闪雷 鸣。 冠词的省略 (thunder 前省略了定冠词 the) ①为了避免重复 ②She sings best in the class.她在班上唱歌唱得最 ②在副词的最高级前面的定冠词常可以 好。 省略。 ③Our teacher came in, book in hand. ③在某些独立主格结构中。 (=Our teacher came in, with a book in his hand.) ④在 as 引导的让步状语从句中, 当作表 我们的老师手里拿着一本书进来了。 语的单数名词提前时, 不定冠词要省略。 ④Child as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他还是一个孩子,却懂得很多

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①Both (of) the films were interesting. 这两部电影 介词的省略 都很有趣。 ①both 后常跟 of 短语,其后可以接名 She invited both of us to her birthday party. 词复数形式,也可以接代词宾格复数形 她邀请我们俩去参加她的生日派对。 式。接复数名词时,介词 of 可以省略, ②These shoes are worn out. They have lasted (for) a 但接代词宾格时,of 不能省略。 long time. ②在现在完成时表持续和重复的句型 这双鞋穿破了,已经穿了很长一段时间了。 中,一段时间前的介词 for 可以省略。 ③Trees can prevent the earth (from) being washed ③和一些动词搭配构成的短语中的介 away. 词,consider... (as)..., prevent / stop... 树能阻止泥土被冲走。 (from)doing..., Can you stop him (from) going swimming in the have trouble / difficulty... (in) river? doing...,spend... (in / on) doing... 等中的 你能阻止他下河洗澡吗? 介词可以省略。 I have some difficulty (in) answering the question. 回答这个问题我有点困难。

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①I consider him (to be) lazy.我认为他懒。 His mother found him (to be) a clever boy. 他母亲发觉他是一个很聪明的孩子。 ②They made the boy go to bed early.他们强迫这个 男孩早睡。 The boy was made to go to bed early. 这个男孩 被迫早睡。 注:help 后作宾补的动词不定式中的 to 可以省 略也可保留。

①有些动词,believe, find, think, feel, consider, imagine, prove 等后作宾补的结 构。 to be + n. / adj.中的 to be 可以省略。 ②感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等以及使役动词 let, make, have 后作宾 补的动词不定式, 其中的不定式符号 to 要省略,但变为被 动结构时,to 必须保留。 ③在 can not but, can not choose but, can not help but 之后的动词不定式一般不带 to;but 之前有实 义动词 do 的某个形式 do, does, did, done 时,也不带 to, 否则要带 to。

③We have nothing to do now but wait. 我们现在除了等没有别的事可做。 I can not but admire his courage. 我不能不钦佩 他的勇敢。 He has no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这个事实他别无选择。 ④I'm really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知道该怎么想,怎么说才好。 但两个不定式有对照或对比的意义时, 则后一个 to 不能省。 ④在并列结构中为了避免重复。 I came not to scold but to praise you. 我来不是责备你,而是赞美你。 ⑤Why talk so much about it?为什么大谈这个事 呢? Why not try it again? 为什么不再试一试呢? ⑤在 why, why not 引导的特殊问句中后 ⑥They may go if they wish to(go). 跟省略 to 的动词不定式。 如果他们想去,他们就可以去。 ⑥动词不定式中动词原形部分是否省 Don't go till I tell you to.直到我告诉你去, 你才可 略,主要看句子前面是否已出现过同样 以去。 的动词。如果句子前面出现过同样的动 在一些动词 afford, agree, expect, forget, mean, 词,为了避免重复,句子后面的不定式 pretend, remember, want, refuse, hope, wish, 常省略动词原形, 而保留不定式符号 to。 would like (love), try 等后跟动词不定式作宾语, 不定式中的 to 可以承前(后)省略。 —Will you go to the cinema with me? 你愿和我一起去看电影吗? —Well, I'd like to (go with you). 我愿意。 I would do it for you, but I don't know how to (do it for you). 我想为你做这事,但我又不知如何做。 在某些形容词,afraid, glad, willing, happy, eager 等后承前省 略动词原形,只保留不定式符号 to。 —Will you join us in the game? 你愿和我们一起做这个游戏吗? —Sure, I'll be glad to(join you in the game). 当然, 我愿意。 有些动词,tell, ask, allow, expect, force, invite, permit, persuade, order, warn, wish, would like,forbid 等后跟动词不定式作宾语补足语、主语 补足语时,不定式承前省略动词原形, 保留动词 不定式符号 to。 He didn't come, though we had invited him to (come). 尽管我们邀请他来,他却没来。 注:承前省略的动词不定式如果有助动词 have 或 第 36 页 共 40be,则要保留 be 或 have。 页 —Are you a teacher? 你是老师吗? —No, but I used to be (a teacher).不,我以前是。

句 简单句中的省略 ①感叹句中常省略主语和谓语。 ②在一些口语中可以省略某些句子成 分。 并列句中的省略 ①如果主语不同,而谓语动词中的一部 分相同,则省略谓语动词中相同的那部 分。 ②主语相同,谓语动词也相同,则二者 都可以省略。 ③主语相同,而谓语不同,则可以省略 主语。 ④在并列复合句中,如果 that 从 句从属于第二个并列句且它的谓语动词 和宾语等其它一些成分与第一个并列句 相同时,这个 that 从句通常可以省略这 些相同的部分。 ①What a hot day (it is)!多热的天啊! How wonderful!多妙啊! ②—(Will you)Have a smoke?你抽烟吗? —No.Thanks.不,谢谢了。 (Is there)Anything else to say?还有别的要说 吗? ①John must have been playing football and Mary (must have been) doing her homework. 约翰一定在踢球,而玛丽一定在做作业。 ② His suggestions made John happy, but (his suggestions made) Mary angry. 他的建议使约翰高兴,却使玛丽很生气。 ③Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, but (he) soon returned to his old ways. 老麦克唐纳戒了一阵子烟,可很快又抽上了。 ④Jack will sing at the party, but I know John won't (sing at the party). 杰克将在晚会上唱歌, 但我知道约翰不会在晚会上 唱歌。

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复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ①作宾语的 what 从句中的谓语动词与 主句的相同,则 what 从句可以省略谓 语,甚至主语 复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ①Someone has used my bike, but I don't know who (has used it). 有人用了我的自行车,但我不知道是谁。 He has gone, but no one knows where (he has gone). 他走了,但没人知道他去哪儿了。 ②(I'm)Sorry I've kept you waiting so long. 对不起,让你久等了。 ③It's important that we (should) speak to the old politely. 我们对老人说话要有礼貌,这很重要。 ▲定语从句中的省略 ①The man(who/whom)I saw is called Smith. 我见到的那个人名叫史密斯。 Where is the book (which) I bought this morning? 今天上午我买的那本书在哪儿? ②I shall never forget the day (when) we first met. 我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。 The reason (why) he came so early is his own affair. 他来这么早是他自己的事。 The way (that) you answered the questions was admirable. 你回答这些问题的方式令人钦佩。 ▲状语从句中的省略

②有时候也可以根据说话的情景来省略 主句中的一些成分。 ③在某些表虚拟语气的主语从句、宾语 从句、表语从句和同位语从句中,从句 谓语动词中的助动词 should 可以省略。 ▲定语从句中的省略 ①在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系 代词 that, which, who (whom)常可以省 略。

②关系副词 when, where, why 以及 that 在 the time(day, morning, afternoon, evening, night, week, month, year 等) when, the place(desk, table, room, spot, house, town, country, school 等)where, the reason why, the way that 结构中引导限制性定语从句时,在 非正式场合下, 可以省略关系副词 when, where, why, that。 ▲状语从句中的省略 当状语从句中的主语和主句的主语一 致,或状语从句中的主语是 it,并且又 含有 be 动词时, 常可以省略从句中的主 语和 be 动词。 ①在 as, before, till, once, when, while 等 引导的时间状语从句中。 ②在 though, although,等引导的让步状 语从句中。 ③在 if, unless(=if... not)等引导的条件状 语从句中。 ④在 as, as if, as though 引导的让步状语 从句中。

⑤在 as(so)... as..., than 引导的比较状语 从句中。

① While ( I was ) waiting, I was reading some magazines. 我一边看杂志,一边等。 ②Though (they were) tired, they went on working. 虽然他们累了,但他们仍继续工作。 ③You shouldn't come to his party unless (you were) invited. 除非你被邀请,否则你不应该来参加他的宴会。 ④He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告知的那 样去做了。 He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 ⑤He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告知的那 样去做了。 He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 I know you can do better than he (can do). This car doesn't run as fast as that one (does). 这辆小车不及那辆跑得快。

第 38 页 共 40我知道你能比他做得更好。 页

十五、倒装句 类 型 情 况 例 Not a word did I say to him. 句首状语为否定词或半否定词的句子。 这类词或短语主要有 never, neither, nor, little,seldom,rarely,hardly,scarcely,no sooner, not only,in no way,at no time,few, not,no 等 Never have I found him so happy. Little does he care about what I said. I can’t swim. Neither can he. No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep. Hardly/Scarcely had he gone to bed when he fell asleep. Only by this means is it possible to explain it. (介词短 语) Only then did I realize the importance of math. (副词) 部分倒装 (部分倒 装 是 把 be 动词、情态 动词、助动 词放到主 语之前。如 果句子中 没有这些 词,要在主 语之前加 助 动 词 do/does /did 等 , 而 把原来的 谓语动词 变成原形 放在主语 之后。 ) 在以 often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中,要 用部分倒装结构 在虚拟结构中,条件从句的谓语含有 were, had 和 should 这三个词是,可省去 if,将 这些词移至主语之前。 用于某些表示祝愿的句子里 There be 结构。 另外,在此结构中可以用来代 完全倒装 替 be 动词的动词有:exist, seem, happen, appear,live, rise, stand 等 as/though 引导的让步状语从句 Not until 放在句首,从句不倒装,主句倒装 “Not only+分句,but also+分句”句型中的前 一分句要部分倒装“Not only + 分句,but also + 分句”句型中的前一分句要部分倒装 so 或 so 引导的短语放在句首,要部分倒装 only+状语放在句首,要部分倒装 Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. (从句) 注意:如果 only 后面不是状语,则不用倒装。 OnlyWang Ling knows this. I saw the film, so did she. So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. Not only does John love Chinese, he is also good at speaking it. 但 not only...but also...连接主语时,不倒装。 Not only the mother but also the children are sick. Not until last week did they find the lost bike. (简单句) Not until my son had entered the university did he realize the importance of time. (复合句) Proud as these nobles are, he’s afraid to see me. Tired as he was, he kept on running. Tired though he was, he kept on running. =Though he was tired,he kept on running Child as he is,he knows a lot.(注意:child 前没有冠词 a) Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test. Had I time (= If I had time), I would go and help you. Were I you (= If I were you), I would go abroad. Should he come (=If he should come), tell him to ring me up. May you succeed! There stood a dog before him. There exist different opinions on this question. 句

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Here comes the old lady! Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. “Here,There, Now, Then + come (或 be 等) + 主语” 结构 说明:本句型中 there 是副词,应重读,强调地 点。 而前一句型中的 there 是引导词,本身没 意义 There comes the bus. Now comes your turn. 除了 then 引导的句子用过去式以外,其余的均用一般 现在时,表示一种生动的描述。其次,如果主语是人称 代词,就不用倒装。 Here you are. There she comes. 表示方向的副词 out, in, up, down 等置于句 首,要用全部倒装。 表示地点的介词短语 (如 on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house,in the middle of the room 等)放在句首时,要全部倒装 In came Mr White. Up went the arrow into the air. Away went the boy. On the top of the hill stands a pine tree. In front of the classroom is a playground. They arrived at a house, in front of which sat an old man. Present at the meeting was Mr. Green, a headmaster. (形容词短语) Such was the story he told me.(代词) East of the city lies a new railway. (副词短语) 其它形式的完全倒装 First to be completed was the seven-storey teaching building. (不定式短语) Gone are the days when my heart was young and gay. (过去分词) Lying on the floor was a boy aged 15. (现在分词短语) 用于某些表示祝愿的句子里 Long live the People’s Republic of China!

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