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非谓语动词 高考知识清单


非谓语动词 高考知识清单
非谓语动词主要包括不定式、动名词和现在分词。三种形式的含义(基本用法) 不定式:表示目的和将 来; 动词的 ing: 表示主动和进行; 过去分词: 表示被动和完成。 其否定形式为在其 前加 not, never. 即 not / never to do, not / never doing。 (一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、

副词的特征。 1.不定式的形式:(以动词 write 为例) 否定式:not + (to) do (1)一般式 (略) (2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如: The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room. (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如: I regretted to have told a lie. I happened to have seen the film. He is pleased to have met his friend. (4)作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: ①动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式: Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ②说明所修饰名词的内容: We have made a plan to finish the work. ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语: He is the first to get here.

④、在 seem / appear (似乎,好像), prove / turn out (被证明是), remain (仍然是,尚待)等连 系动词后,可用不定式作表语。如: He seemed (to be ) very happy.

Having a trip abroad is good for the old couple, but it remains ______ whether they will enjoy it. (to be seen)

(5)作状语: ①表目的: He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ②表结果: He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调: (注意:常用 only to do?来表示末曾预料到或令人不快的情况,其 动作发生在谓语动作之后。) I visited him only to find him out. ③表原因: They were very sad to hear the news. ④表程度: It's too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. (7)作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked. (8)不定式的省略:保留 to 省略 do 动词。 If you don't want to do it, you don't need to. (9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略 to。 He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.

(二)现在分词 (1)一般式: Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 (2)被动式: He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。 (3)完成式: We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 (4)完成被动式: He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. 他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。

(5)否定式:not + 动名词 I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。 (6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+ 动名词 He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。

His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。 现在分词的句法功能: (1)作主语:(略) 当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。 It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。 (2)作表语: In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。 (3)作宾语:(温馨提示:请一定牢记 3+2 上的口诀) (4)作定语: In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher. (5)作同位语: The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。 His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. 他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。

(6)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成 式 表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如: They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。 Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业,他开始打篮球。 (7)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生在谓语动词之 前的被动的动作。 The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。 Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake. 被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。

(8)现在分词作状语: ①作时间状语: (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。 ②作原因状语: Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。 ③作方式状语,表示伴随:

He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。 ④作条件状语: (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 ⑤作结果状语: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。 ⑥作目的状语: He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。 ⑦作让步状语: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。 ⑧与逻辑主语构成独立主格: I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head. 我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。 All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. 所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。 Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。 有时也可用 with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 ⑨作独立成分: udging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看,他一定是个演员。 Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。

(四)过去分词: (形式部分略) 过去分词的句法功能: 1.作定语: (略) 2.作表语: The window is broken. 窗户破了。 They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别: The window is broken.(系表) The window was broken by the boy.(被动) 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如: boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶) the risen sun(升起的太阳)

newly arrived goods(新到的货)

the changed world(变了的世界) 这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3.作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语: With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。 4.过去分词作状语: Praised by the neighbors, he became the pride of his parents. 受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因) Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间) Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件) Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之有危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步) Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。

(五)非谓语动词中的有关句型 1) It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用。 It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。

It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。 It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。 2)It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive 等形容词)+ doing sth. It is useless speaking.光说没用。 It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。 3)Why not do sth?=Why don’t you do sth? 4)had better (not) do sth. 5)would rather (not) do sth. 最好做 宁愿做

6)woud do… rather than do… = would rather do… than do…= prefer to do …. rather than do…= prefer doing… to doing… 宁愿做…. 而不愿做 特殊的独立结构: 有些非谓语形式已成为固定用语,用来表示说话人对说话内容所特的态度。 1)现在分词的独立结构: judging from / by?, generally speaking, strictly speaking 2)不定式的独立结构 : to tell you the truth, to make things worse, to begin / start with 3)动词原形: Believe it or not (信不信由你)

4)作连词的分词 considering (考虑到,就?而言),providing / provided ?假如, 如这些词用来表示条件的连词,后接 that 从句。 5)不定式、动名词作主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数。

supposing 假

六、非谓语动词的做题步骤 1、判定是否用非谓语形式。方法:看看句子中是否已有了谓语动词了。 2、找非谓语动词的逻辑主语。方法:非谓语动词的逻辑主语一般是句子的主语。 3、判断主被动关系。方法:非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的主动还是被动关系。 4、判断时间关系。方法:分析句子,看看非谓语动词所表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前、之后还是同时。 之前常用 done; 之后常用 to do; 同时常用 doing。

非谓语动词考点分析

1.The Olympic Games, ______ in 776 B.C, didn’t include women players until 1919. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing

析:根据题干,必须选表示被动的选项,故排除 A、D;因 B 选项表“将要被举行”意,不合题干之用,只 有 C 选项(相当于 which was first played)才合用。

2.European football is played in 80 countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make

析:B、C 是谓语动词, 在此不可用。D 项 to make 或表目的,或表“将要使得”,这都不合题干情景。只 有 A.making,可作状语,表结果。再举一现在分词作结果状语例: The bus was held up by the snowstorm, causing the delay.公共汽车被大风雪所阻,因而耽误了。 3.Little Jim should love ______ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking

析:根据 this evening,应选表示将来义的选项,C、D 应排除。Take 后无宾语,必然要用被动式,故答案 为 A。 4.John was made ______ the truck for a week as a punishment. A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing

析:根据 be made to do sth.句式,可定答案为 A。 5.The patient was warned ______ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating

析:根据 warn sb.(not)to do sth.句式,可排除 B、D 两项;又根据非谓语动词的否定式 not 总是在首位 的规律,又可排除 A,而定 C。 6.——I usually go there by train. ——Why not ______ by boat for a change? A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D.try going

析:此题可根据 why not 后直接跟原形动词规律而一举确定正确答案为 D。若将 B 项改为 try to go,则要 根据其与 try going 意义之别来确定答案。依据题干对话内容,乙方是建议甲方尝试乘船变变花样,所以 答案仍为 D。

7.______ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received

析:非谓语动词的否定式 not 应置于首位,B、D 皆为错误形式。A 项不能表达先于 decided 的动作,只有 选 C 项才表没收到信在先,决定再写信在后,所以 C 为正确答案。 8.Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented

析: consider 表“考虑”意时, 其后动词用 doing 形式, 此处不表“考虑”, 而表“认为”, 这时 consider 后作宾语补足语或主语补足语多为 to do, to have done ,to be 等形式。据此可排除 B、D 两个选项。又 因 A 表“要发明”意,不合题用,只有 C 表“发明了”意,才合题用,故选 C。 9.Most of the artists ______ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited

析:“被邀请参加晚会”,应选表被动意的选项,B 不可用。D 项少引导词 who,也应排除。又因短暂动词 的现在分词被动式不可作定语,C 也应排除,只有 A.invited(=who were invited)才是正确答案。 10.The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tired D. tied

析:B 表主动意,应排除。C 表“将要被捆绑”,A 表“正在被捆绑”都不合题意,只有 D 项填入空白才能 表达“双手被反绑着”这一意思, 符合题干情景。 再看一类似例句: He came in,(with)his head held high. 他昂首走了进来。 (with 的复合结构:with +宾+宾补。作宾补的词可以是:形容词、副词(in, out), 介词短语,非谓语形式)。With 的复合结构的宾补中的非谓语形式 to do 表示将来,doing 表示主动和 进行,done 表示被动和完成。 )


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