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非谓语动词用法上篇归纳


非谓语动词用法归纳
非谓语动词主要包括不定式、动名词和现在分词。为了区分这三种不同的非谓语动词的用法和含义,我 们将分别从三种非谓语动词在句子中做主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、状语、表语以及一些特殊结构 句型等角度来区分其用法和细微含义。

1.不定式和动名词作主语的区别 (1)动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。 Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.这里禁止抽烟。(抽象) It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具体) (2)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。 不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。 Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验) Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验) (3)不定式做主语,一般用 it 当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。 It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

2.不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别 (1)不定式作表语 1)不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。 To do two things at a time is to do neither.--次做两件事等于未做。 What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干。 2)如果主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)。 To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。 To work means to earn a living.工作就是为了生活。 3)如果主语是以 aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish 等为中心的名词,或以 what 引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起补充说明 作用。

His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.他的希望是在不远的将来买一辆豪华轿车。 The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was to provide large uninterrupted floor areas and to allow ample light into the interior. The most important thing is to negotiate with them about the future of the plant. (2)动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。 Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。 His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。 (注)动名词作表语时与进行时态中的现在分词形式相同, 但其所属结构迥异, 进行时态说明动作是由主语 完成的。动名词做表语,说明主语的性质或情况。 People cannot but feel puzzled, for they simply cannot understand how he could have made such a stupid mistake. His victory in the final was no more convincing than I had expected. (3)分词作表语 分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考 到的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如 excite, interest 等都是及物动词,汉语意思不是“激动”, “高兴”,而是“使激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到

激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing 形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed 形式。 换句话说,若人对……感兴趣,就是 somebody is interested in...,若人/物本身有兴趣时,就是说 sb./sth. is interesting.这类词常见的有: interesting 使人感到高兴--interested 感到高兴的 exciting 令人激动的--excited 感到激动的 delighting 令人高兴的--delighted 感到高兴的 disappointing 令人失望的--disappointed 感到失望的 encouraging 令人鼓舞的--encouraged 感到鼓舞的 pleasing 令人愉快的--pleased 感到愉快的 puzzling 令人费解的--puzzled 感到费解的 satisfying 令人满意的---satisfied 感到满意的 surprising 令人惊异的--surprised 感到惊异的 worrying 令人担心的--worried 感到担心的 Travelling is interesting but tiring.旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。 The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊 涂的。 The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。 They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

3.不定式和动名词作宾语的区别 英语中大多数动词既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词作直接宾语,但有些动词要求: (1)不定式做宾语和宾语补足语 1)下面的动词要求不定式做宾语 attempt 企图 enable 能够 neglect 忽视 afford 负担得起 demand 要求 long 渴望 arrange 安排 destine 注定 mean 意欲,打算 begin 开始 expect 期望 omit 忽略,漏 appear 似乎,显得 determine 决定 manage 设法 cease 停止 hate 憎恨,厌恶 pretend 假装 ask 问 dread 害怕 need 需要 agree 同意 desire 愿望 love 爱 swear 宣誓 volunteer 志愿 wish 希望 bear 承受 endeavor 努力 offer 提供 beg 请求 fail 不能 plan 计划 bother 扰乱;烦恼 forget 忘记 prefer 喜欢,宁愿 care 关心,喜欢 happen 碰巧 prepare 准备 decide 决定 learn 学习 regret 抱歉,遗憾 choose 选择 hesitate 犹豫 profess 表明 claim 要求 hope 希望 promise 承诺,允许 start 开始 undertake 承接 want 想要 consent 同意,赞同 intend 想要 refuse 拒绝 decide 决定 learn 学习 vow 起 contrive 设法,图谋 incline 有…倾向 propose 提议 seek 找,寻觅 try 试图

2)下面的动词要求不定式做宾补:动词+宾语+动词不定式 ask 要求,邀请 get 请,得到 prompt 促使 allow 允许 forbid 禁止 prefer 喜欢,宁愿 announce 宣布 force 强迫 press 迫使 bride 收买 inspire 鼓舞 request 请求 assist 协助 hate 憎恶 pronounce 断定,表示 advise 劝告 exhort 告诫,勉励 pray 请求 authorize 授权,委托 help 帮助 recommend 劝告,推荐 bear 容忍 implore 恳求 remind 提醒 beg 请求 induce 引诱 report 报告 compel 强迫 invite 吸引,邀请, summon 传唤 command 命令 intend 想要,企图 show 显示 drive 驱赶 mean 意欲,打算 train 训练 cause 引起 instruct 指示 require 要求 deserve 应受 leave 使,让 tell 告诉 direct 指导 like 喜欢 tempt 劝诱 entitle 有资格 order 命令 warn 告诫 enable 使能够 need 需要 urge 激励,力说 encourage 鼓励 oblige 不得不 want 想要 condemn 指责,谴责 lead 引起,使得 teach 教 entreat 恳求 permit 允许 wish 希望 (2)有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语 acknowledge 承认,自认 cease 停止 mention 说到,讲到 admit 承认 tolerate 忍受 dislike 不喜欢,讨厌 advocate:提倡,主张 complete 完成 dread 可怕 appreciate 感激,欣赏 confess 坦白 endure 忍受 avoid 避免 contemplate 细想 enjoy 享有,喜爱 bear 忍受 defer 拖延 envy 嫉妒 can't help 不禁 delay 延迟 escape 逃跑,逃避 can't stand 受不了 deny 否认 excuse 借口 consider 考虑 detest 嫌恶 fancy 幻想,爱好 favor 造成,偏爱 mind 介意 repent 悔悟 figure 描绘,计算 miss 错过 resent 怨恨 finish 完成,结束不得 pardon 原谅,饶恕 resist 抵抗,阻止 forgive 原谅 permit 允许 resume 恢复 imagine 设想 postpone 延迟,延期 risk 冒险 involve 卷入,包含 practise 实行,实践 suggest 建议 hate 讨厌 prevent 阻止 save 营救,储蓄 keep 保持 quit 放弃停止 stand 坚持,忍受 loathe 非常讨厌,厌恶 recall 回想 例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.我很感激两年前给 我出国学习的机会。 (3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别 1)forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)

forget doing 忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生) 2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事 3)remember to do 记住去做某事(未做) remember doing 记得做过某事(已做) 4) regret to do 对要做的事遗憾 regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔 5)try to do 努力、企图做某事 try doing 试验、试一试某种办法 6) mean to do 打算,有意要… mean doing 意味着 7)go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情) go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情) 8)propose to do 打算(要做某事) proposing doing 建议(做某事) 9) like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表示具体行为;+doing sth 表示抽象、倾向概念 (注)如果这些动词前有 should 一词,其后宾语只跟不定式,不能跟动名词。例如: I should like to see him tomorrow. 10) need, want, deserve +动名词表被动意义;+不定式被动态表示“要(修、清理等)”意思。 Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过那个人吗? You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要记着是明天动身。 I don't regret telling her what I thought.我不后悔给她讲过我的想法。(已讲过) I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没办法。(未做但要 做) You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。 Let's try doing the work some other way.让我们试一试用另外一种办法来做这工作。 I didn't mean to hurt your feeling.我没想要伤害你的感情。 This illness will mean (your) going to hospital.得了这种病(你)就要进医院。

4.不定式、现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别 (1)不定式作定语 1)不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是主谓关系 He was the last one to leave school yesterday.昨天他是最后一个离开教室的。 The train to arrive was from London.将要到站的火车是从伦敦开来的。 2)不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是动宾关系 Get him something to eat.给他拿点儿东西吃。 She has a lot of work to do in the morning.早上他有很多工作要做。 3)不及物动词构成的不定式做定语,要加上适当的介词和被修饰的名词形成逻辑上的动宾关系,这里的 介词不能省去。 I need a pen to write with.我需要一支笔写字。 There is nothing to worry about.没有什么值得发愁的。 4)不定式修饰一些表示方向、原因、时间、机会、权利等抽象名词如: ability 能力,本领 drive 赶,驾驶 movement 运动,活动 ambition 抱负,野心 effort 努力,尝试 need 需要,需求

campaign 战役,运动 failure 失败,不及格 opportunity 机会 chance 机会 force 力,压力,要点 promise 许诺,希望 courage 勇气 intention 意向,意图 reason 理由,原因 decision 决定 method 方法,方式 light 光,光线,亮光 determination 决心,决定 motive 动机,目的 struggle 奋斗,努力, tendency 倾向,趋势 wish 希望,愿望,祝愿 5)被修饰的名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或 next, second, last, only 和 not a,the 等限定词时候, 只能用不定式。 6)不定代词 something, nothing, little, much, a lot 等习惯上用不定式做定语。 John will do anything but work on a farm.除了农活,约翰什么都愿意干。 7)如果其动词要求用不定式做宾语,或者其形容词要器接不定式做补语,则相应的名词一般用不定式做 定语。如: tend to do---tendency to do;decide to do = decision to do;be curious to do = curiosity to do His wish to buy a car came true.他要买辆车的愿望实现了。 Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us. 他们放弃这个实验的决定使我们大吃一惊。 He is always the first to come and the last to leave. 他总是第一个到来,最后一个离去。 (2)分词作定语 分词作定语时有下面几个特点: 1)现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词一般表示被动含意。 2)现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态或做完(完成)的事。 He rushed into the burning house.他冲进了正在燃烧着的房子。 The child standing over there is my brother.站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。 The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房间是我们的教室。 Have you got your watch repaired? 你拿到那个修好的表了吗? He is an advanced teacher.他是个先进教师。 3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义,这点要注意: departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, frown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-traveled, newly-arrived, recently-come (3)不定式和分词作定语时的时间关系 一般来说,不定式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后;现在分词所表示的动作与谓语动词 所表示的动作同时发生;过去分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。例如: Do you want to see the doctor to be sent for from Beijing? 你要见那位将从北京请来的医生吗? Do you want to see the doctor working on the case report in the office? 你要见那位正在办公室里写病历的医生吗?

5.不定式和分词作状语的区别 (1)现在分词与过去分词作状语的区别。 现在分词做状语与过去分词做状语的最主要区别在于两者与所修饰的主语的主动与被动关系的区别。 1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。 He went out shutting the door behind him. 他出去后将门随手关上。

Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help. 由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。 2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。 Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. 如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。 Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them. 在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。 (2)动词不定式和分词作状语的区别 1)分词作状语一般表示伴随,而不定式常常表示目的。 They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.他们站在路边谈论着这个计划。(伴随) They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.他们站在路边为的是谈论这个计划。(目的) 2)分词作状语放在句子开头,除表示原因之外有时表示时间或条件。动词不定式作状语时,除了表示目 的以外,还表示结果或原因。 Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在专心读书,他忘了吃午饭的时间。(原因) Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细读书时,发现了一些从前不 知道的东西。(时间) Reading carefully,you'll learn something new.只要你仔细阅读,你会学到一些新的东西。(条件) His family was too poor to support him.他的家庭太穷,不能维持他的生活。(结果) The boy is not tall enough to reach the book shelf.这男孩个子不够高,手伸不到书架。(结果) We are glad to hear the news.我们很高兴听到这消息。(原因) (3)下面一些句型是不定式做状语时候应该注意的: a:not/never too…to, too…not to , but/only too… to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意义 b: 做结果状语的不定式只能出现在句子的末尾, 常见的不定式动词有: find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce 等。 c:不定式做状语时,其逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则用 for 引导主语。

6.非谓语动词常考的其它结构 (1)疑问词+不定式结构 疑问词 who,what,which,when,where 和 how 后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语。它在句中 可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。如: When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决定。(主语) I don't know what to do.我不知道该怎么办。(宾语) The difficulty was how to cross the river.困难在于如何过河。(表语) I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告诉你哪里可以买到此书。(双重宾语) 注)A.有时疑问词前可用介词,如: I have no idea of how to do it.我不知道如何做此事。 B.动词 know 后面不能直接跟不定式作宾语,只能跟疑问词(如:how, what)+不定式: While still a young boy, Tom knew to play the piano well and as he grew older, he wrote operas, the most famous of which is Carmen. (2)介词 except 和 but 作“只有…,只能…”讲时跟不定式结构(but 与不带 to 的不定式连用)。 When the streets are full of melting snow, you cannot help but getting your shoes wet. (3)不带 to 的不定式 1)在表示生理感觉的动词后的不定式不带 to。这类词有: feel 觉得 observe 注意到,看到 overhear 听到

watch 注视 listen to 听 perceive 察觉,感知 notice 注意 see 看见 look at 看 hear 听 On seeing the young child fell into the lake,Eric sprang to his feet,and went on the rescue. 2)另一类是某些使役动词,如 make, let,have 等。如: Let him do it.让他做吧。 I would have you know that I am ill.我想要你知道我病了。 (注): ①上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时.其后的不定式一般需带 to,如: He was seen to come. The boy was made to go to bed early. ②在动词 find 与 help 之后,不定式可带 to 亦可不带 to,如: He was surprised to find the sheep (to) break fence at this season.他发现羊在此季节越出栅栏,感到 惊讶。 3)在 do nothing/anything/everything but(except)结构中。例如: Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看电视别的什么也没有干。 但是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么 but(except)所跟的不定式则仍须带。 The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其它什么都没有说。 There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他们没有别有别的办法。 (4)不定式与动名词的逻辑主语和分词独立结构 1)不定式的逻辑主语为:for +名词(或代词宾格)+ 不定式。例如: I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.我发现他—个人干这活是不可能的。 (注)在表示人物性格、特性等的形容词后面,常用 of 引出不定式的逻辑主语。例如: It was wise of him to do that.他那样做是明智的。 2)动名词的逻辑主语为;①人称代词的所有格+动名词;②名词's+动名词。例如: Tom insisted on my going with them.他坚持要我和他们一起去。 He dislikes his wife's working late.他不喜欢他妻子工作得很晚。 3)某些形容词,如:careless 等不定式后可以加 of 来引导出其逻辑主语。这类词主要有:absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel ,selfish, wicked, wrong 等 It is very kind of you to help me.你帮助我太好了。 间或也可用 for + there to be 表示(而且 there 后面的不定式只能是 to be)。 It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.太遗憾了公司里有这么多的麻烦。

7.非谓语动词中的有关句型 (1)动名词作主语的句型 1)Doing...+ v. Reading is an art.阅读是门艺术。Seeing is believing.眼见为实。 2) It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用。It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。 It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。 It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。 3)It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive 等形容词)+ doing sth. It is useless speaking.光说没用。 It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。 It is good Playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。

It is expensive running this car.开这种小车是浪费。


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