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2015高考一轮复习讲义:必修1 Unit 5 Nelson Mandela—a modern hero


Unit 5

Nelson Mandela—a modern hero

1.generous(adj .) 2.principle(n.) 3.stage(n.) 4.vote(vt .& vi.) 5.attack(vt .) 6.escape(vi.) 7.opinion(n.)

慷慨的;大方的 法则;

原则;原理

舞台;阶段;时期 投票;选举(n.) 进攻;攻击;抨击 逃脱;逃走;泄露 意见;看法;主张 投票;选票;表决

8.quality(n.)质量;品质;性质→quantity(n.)数量,量 9.active(adj .)积极的;活跃的→actively(adv .)积极地;活跃地→activity(n.)活动 10.devote(vt .)献身,专心于→devoted(adj .)忠实的;深爱的→devotion(n.) 献身;奉献;忠诚 11.peaceful(adj .)和平的;平静的;安宁的→peacefully( adv .)→peace(n.)和平;平静;和睦 12.legal(adj .)法律的;依照法律的→illegal(反义词,adj .)非法的,违法的 13.violence(n.)暴力;暴行→violent(adj .)暴力的,猛烈的 14.equal(adj .)相等的;平等的→equality(n.)平等;相等 →equally(adv .)同样地;相等地;公平地 15. educate(vt .)教育; 训练→educated(adj .)受过教育的; 有教养的→education(n.)教育→educator(n.) 教育工作者,教育家 16.beg(vi.)请求;乞求→beggar(n.)乞丐 17.reward(n.)报酬;奖金;(vt .)酬劳;奖赏→rewarding(adj .)值得的;有益的;有回报的

1.out_of_work

失业

2.as_a_matter_of_fact 4. turn_to

事实上

3.come_to_power 当权;上台 5.be_sentenced_to 7.believe_in 9.lose_heart

求助于;致力于 担心 处于麻烦中,处于困境中 设立;建立 反对……而斗争

被判处……(徒刑) 6. worry_about 8. in_trouble 10.set_up

信仰,信任 丧失勇气或信心 把……投入监狱

11.put...in_prison

12. fight_against

1.The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. 过去 30 年来所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处 在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。 where 引导定语从句修饰 stage。 例句仿写:我已经到了应该自己作出决定的人生阶段。 I have reached a point in my life where_I_am_supposed_to make decisions of my own. 2....only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. ……只有到那个时候,我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。 only 修饰状语放在句首,句子用部分倒装。 例句仿写:只有当我们所有人帮助地震灾区的人们时他们才能很快恢复正常的生活。 Only when all of us help the people in the earthquake area will_they_return_to_their_normal_life quickly. 3.I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. 第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我的心情很糟糕。 the first time 引导时间状语从句。 例句仿写:我第一次见到她时认为她善良诚实。 I thought her kind and honest the_first_time_I_met_her. 4.However,this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. 那个时候你要想住在约翰内斯堡就非得要有身份证不可。 this was a time when...曾经,一度, when 引导定语从句修饰先行词 time。 例句仿写:曾经有一段时间妇女没有选举权。 There was once a time when_women_had_no_right_to_vote.

devote vt .献身;专心于 He has devoted his whole life to world peace. 他把一生都致力于世界和平。 (1)devote oneself/one’s energy/time/attention to sth. /doing sth.奉献于……;献身于…… ?devoted adj .忠实的,深爱的 (2) ? ?be devoted to深爱,致力于 (3)devotion n.关爱,关照;奉献,忠诚

① I’m devot ing all my time and energy to_caring_for my son right now.目前我把所有的时间和精力 都放在照顾儿子上。 ② Her son, to whom she is (so) devoted,went abroad last year,leaving her alone in the small village. 她非常疼爱的儿子去年去了国外,留下她一个人在小村子里。 ③ He is a_devoted_friend of mine,a man I can always depend on. 他是我的挚友,一个我一直可以依靠的人。 ④ Her devotion to her career left her with little time to take care of her family. 她全身心投入工作,几 乎没有时间来照顾家人。 vote vt .& vi.投票;选举;n.投票;票 教材原句 P34 :Black people could not vote or choose their leaders. 当时黑人没有选举权,他们无权 选择他们的领导人。

?vote for/against投票赞成/反对 (1) ?vote on投票表决 ? vote to do sth.表决做某事
(2)put...to the vote 付诸表决,裁决 ① I thought the plan was very good,so I voted_for it.我认为这项计划很好,于是我投了赞成票。 ② We will listen to the arguments on both sides and then vote on it. 我们将先听听双方的论点,然后再表决。 equal v .等于;抵得上;adj .相等的;胜任的;n.同等的人;相等物 教材原句 P34:But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our dream of making black and white people equal. 但是,我乐于帮忙,因为我知道,这是为了实现我们黑人和白人 平等的梦想。 (1)A equals B in...A 在……方面比得上 B be equal to+n./doing sth.等于;与……相等;胜任 be without equal/have no equal 无与伦比;无敌 (2)equality n.相等;平等 equally adv .相等地;平等地 ① Little joy can equal that of a surprising ending when you read stories. 没有什么乐趣比得上在你阅 读故事时一个出人意料的结尾所带来的乐趣。 ② Any man will be_equal_to the task,so long as he is careful.You should give it a try. 只要他细心,任何一个人都胜任这份工作,你应该尝试一下。 ③ Anyone, whether he is an official or a bus driver,should be equally respected.任何人,无论他是

官员还是公交车司机,都应得到平等的尊重。 reward n .& v .报答;报酬;奖赏 If you’re not willing to put in the time and work ,don’t expect to receive any rewards. 如果你不愿意花时间去工作的话,不要期待任何回报。 ?as a reward for作为对某事的报酬/奖赏 (1) ? ?in reward作为报答,作为奖赏 ?reward sb.for sth./doing sth.为做某事而报答某人 (2) ? ?reward sb.with sth.用某物奖赏某人 (3)award sb.sth.=award sth.to sb.授予某人某物 ① She got nothing in_reward_for her kindness,which surprised us all.她的好心没有得到一点回报, 这使我们非常吃惊。 ② As a reward for passing his exams, he got a new bike from his parents. 作为对他通过考试的奖赏,他父母给他买了辆新的自行车。 ③ (牛津 P1712 )She started singing to the baby and was_rewarded_with a smile. 她开始给孩子唱歌,孩子则报以微笑。 ④ He explained that his diet was so strict that he had to reward himself occasionally. 他解释说,他的 饮食控制得太严格了,以至于不得不偶尔奖赏自己一下。 ⑤ Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2012, which made the Chinese people very proud. 莫言 2012 年获得了诺贝尔奖,这使中国人非常自豪。 escape v .& n.逃脱;逃生;泄露 Once hooked, fish have no chance of escape.一旦被钩住,鱼是没有机会逃跑的。 (1)escape (doing) sth.逃避(做 )某事 escape from 从……逃脱;逃避 escape one’s attention/notice 逃过某人的注意 (2)sth.escape(s) sb.某物被某人遗忘;未被注意 (3)fire escape 太平梯;安全梯;安全出口 a narrow escape 九死一生 ① Whoever breaks the law won’t escape_punishment/being_punished.不管是谁违反了法律都将不会 逃脱惩罚。 ② It might have escaped your notice,but I’m very busy at t he moment.也许你没注意到,可我此刻 非常忙。 ③ Last year I had a_narrow_escape,and I don’t want to risk my life a second time.

去年我死里逃生,因此我不想再去冒生命危险了。

Ⅰ .完成句子 1.The lowincome people_________ (投票反对) increasing the personal income tax,thinking that it would make them poorer. 2.Now that we can’t agree with each other,we’ll have to____________________(投票表决). 3.Having got involved in a theft, he______________________________(被判处五年徒刑). 4.We are sure that no one but him____________________(能胜任) taking up the job. 答案 voted against vote on it was sentenced to five years in prison is equal to

Ⅱ .单项填空 1. With the victory at the French Open, Li Na has reached NO.4 in the world , ________the previous Asian Record. A.equaled B.equaling C.to have equaled D. having equaled

2. According to the new traffic regulations,the punishment of running a yellow light is________ to running a red one. A.opposite B.equal C.particular D.open

3. Sometimes success doesn’t only depend on what you do ; what you don’t do is________important. A. generally B.especially C.equally D.exactly

4. Yesterday, I came across my former classmate ,but his name________me,which made me embarrassed. A. forgot B. missed C.escaped D.reminded

5. Everyone who reached the top of Mount Tai was________with a magnificent view. A.awarded B. admired C.rewarded D.appreciated

6. Yi Jianlian is________the MVP in the 2013 CBA AllStar Game in Guangzhou,Feb.24,2013. A.rewarded B.appointed C.awarded D. approved

7. Principal White has been working in the school for about 20 years,________all his energy to teaching and researching as well as the running of a healthy school. A.devoted B.devoting C.to devote D.and devote

8.Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to________some schools for poor children. A.set up B.setting up C.have set up D. having set up

9.—I’m going to vote________Jackson in the next election.How about you? —Me,too.He’s the best man for the position. A. for B.on C.against D. in

解析:1. 考查非谓语动词。equal 是前面所提到的事情所产生的结果,且与句子的逻辑主语构

成主谓关系,故用现在分词作结果状语,应选 B。句意为:由于在法国公开赛上的成功,李 娜夺得了世界排名第四的好成绩,平了亚洲先前的记录。答案: B 2. 考查形容词辨析。句意为:按照新的交通法规,闯黄灯与闯红灯的处罚是一样的。根据句意 可知应选 equal,A is equal to B 表示 “A 与 B 相同 (等) ”。答案: B

3. 考查副词辨析。句意为:有时成功不只取决于你做的事情;你没有做的也同样重要。equally 同样地,平等地,符合句意。generally 一般地,大体上;especially 尤其,特别;exactly 确切 地;准确地。答案: C

4. 考查动词辨析。句意为:我昨天偶然碰到我以前的同学,但是我记不起来他的名字了,这 让我非常尴尬。escape 表示 “被忘掉 ”,符合句意。答案: C

5. 考查动词辨析。句意为:到达泰山顶部的每个人都能看到壮丽的景观。reward 奖赏;奖励, 多指对某人的工作或服务等的报答,符合语境。award 因……而授予某人…… ,通常指正式 地或官方地颁发、授予;admire 钦佩;赞美;appreciate 感激;欣赏。答案: C

6. 考查动词辨析。句意为:2013 年 2 月 24 日易建联在广州的 CBA 全明星赛上被授予 “最有价 值球员”。award 授予,符合句意。答案: C

7. 考查非谓语动词。devote 的逻辑主语就是主句的主语 Principal White,后面有宾语 all his energy,所以用现在分词形式。 Devoting 表示主动和进行,符合句意。答案: B

8. 此题中的 had to 与 set up 并不构成搭配,因为 he had 为定语从句,修饰先行词 all,set up 应与 devote all...to 构成搭配 (devote...to...中的 to 为介词, 后接名词、 代词或动名词), 即 devote all to setting up。答案: B

9. 根据“He’s the best man for the position”可知,Jackson 是这一职位的最佳人选,所以投票支 持,故选 A 项。答案: A

turn to 求助于;翻到(书的某页);查阅;转向 教材原句 P35:Why did Nelson Mandela turn to violence to make black and white people equal? 为什 么曼德拉使用暴力以使黑人和白人平等呢?

turn down 调小;拒绝 turn into 变成 turn off 关闭 (开关等) turn over 打翻;翻身;移交

turn up 调大;出现 turn out 证明是;结果是 ① ( 安 徽 书 面 表 达 )However , when turned_to_my_classmates or teachers for help. 然而,当有超过我能力的事情时,我向老师和同班同学求助。 ② (2010· 辽宁卷)Thousands of people turned out to watch yesterday’s match against Ireland. 成千上万的人观看了昨天对阵爱尔兰的比赛。 ③ I’m terribly sorry to turn_you_down this time,but I promise I will make it up to you next time. 非常抱歉这一次我拒绝了你,但是我保证下次一定会补偿你的。 set up 设立,建立 They want to set up their own importexport business. 他们想要成立自己的进出口公司。 set about 开始做 set aside 把……放在一边;省出,留出 set down 写下,记下 set off 出发,动身;使爆炸;引起,激发 set out 出发,动身;摆放;陈列;开始,着手 ① A new school was_set_up for the peasant workers’ children. 一所为农民工孩子开办的新学校建立起来了。 ② He set about helping homeless women and children to place of safety. 他着手帮助把无家可归的妇 女和儿童送到安全的地区。 ③ She tries to set_aside some money every month.她每个月都尽量存点钱。 it is something beyond my competence , I

Ⅰ .同义句转换 1.Bob had a word with the saleswoman to see if she was ready to reduce the price. →Bob had a word with the saleswoman to see if she_______ ______ ______reduce the price. 2.Adam hasn’t found a job since the factory closed 3 years ago. →Adam has been________ ________ ________s ince the factory closed 3 years ago. 3.I knew we were in a difficult situation when the elevator stopped. →I knew we________ ________ ________when the elevator stopped. 4.For all these years I have been working for others. I’m hoping I’ll start my own business someday. →For all these years I have been working for others. I’m hoping I’ll________ ________my own

business someday. 答案:was willing to Ⅱ .单项填空 1. In much of the animal world, night is the time________for sleep—pure and simple. A.set aside B.set down C.set off D.set up out of work were in trouble set up

2. That Chinese author Mo Yan has been awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature has________a wave of Chinese people’s appetite for serious literature around the world. A.set up B.set aside C.set off D.set down

3. We________to paint the whole house but finished only the front part that day. A.set about B.set up C.set out D.set down

4. A notice was________in order to remind the students of the changed lecture time. A.sent up B. given up C.set up D.put up

5.—Everything begins hard. Don’t hesitate to________me if you are in difficulty. —Thank you,I will. A.turn out B.turn in C.turn to D. turn on

6.—Did you see Jay Chou at his album signing event? —Not really.We waited in line for an hour,only to be________at the door. A.turned away 解析:1. B.turned out C.turned off D.turned up

这里 pure and simple 表示 “完全,不折不扣 ”,用来指某事只有唯一的原因。这里用

set aside 表示 “留出,拨出 (时间等) ”,表示这段时间就是用来睡觉的。set down 写下;set off 出发;引起;set up 建立。句意为:在大多数动物世界里,夜晚就是完全用来睡觉的时间。 答案: A

2. 考查动词短语辨析。句意为:中国作家莫言获得了 2012 年诺贝尔文学奖,这引发了中国人 民对全世界严肃文学的渴求。set off 引发,激起,符合句意。答案: C

3. 考查动词短语辨析。句意为:我们开始着手刷整座房子,但是那天只刷完了前面的部分。set out to do sth.表示 “着手做某事 ”,符合句意。其他三项均不符合句意。答案: C

4.send up 发射; give up 放弃;set up 建立;put up 张贴。put up a notice 张贴通知。 答案: D

5. 考查动词短语辨析。此处 turn to 表示 “向……求助 ”。 turn out 表示 “结果是 ”,turn in 表示 “上 交,呈交”, turn on 表示 “打开 ”,都不符合语意。答案: C

6. 考查动词短语辨析。句意为:——在周杰伦的专辑签售活动中,你看到他了吗?——没有。

我们排了一个小时的队,但却被拒之门外。turn away 拒绝;turn out 结果是;turn off 关掉; turn up 调高(音量等) 。答案: A

The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress ,until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. 过去三十年里出现了最多的法律来剥夺我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,直到今天我们已到 了几乎没有任何权利的地步。 (1)see,find,witness 等词可用物作主语,以增添语言色彩,see 可译为 “(在某段时期)发生 (某情 况),经历,经受”。 ① The year 1949 saw the founding of the People’s Republic of China.1949 年见证了中华人民共和国 的诞生。 ② Japan has_witnessed/seen many political changes in recent years. 日本近年来经历了很多政治变 动。 (2)当先行词是 stage,situation,case,position,job 等词时,定语从句常用 where 或 in which 来 引导。 ③ Now their peace talks have reached a key stage where one side must give in to the other. 现在他们 的和平会谈到达一个关键阶段,必须有一方向另一方妥协。 ④ I’m looking for a new job,one where I get a bit more job satisfaction. 我正在寻找一份新工作,一 份从其中可以得到更大满足感的职业。 ⑤ We’re just trying to reach a point where both sides will sit down together and talk. 我们正努力做到 能让双方坐下来对话。 We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful; whe n this was not allowe d...only then did we decide to ans wer violence with violence. 首先我们用和平的方式来破坏法律;而当这种方式也得不到允许时,……只有到这个时候 我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。 (1)in a way which was peaceful= in a peaceful way way 后面跟的是一个定语从句。 way 如在后面的定语从句中作主语或宾语时, 引导词用 that 或 which;如作状语,可用 in which 或 that 引导,且引导词可省略。 ① I don’t like the way that/in which you treated him. 我不喜欢你对待他的方式。 ② He offered some ways that/which worked very well in practice. 他提供了一些办法,这些办法在实践中很有效。

③ The way that/which you thought of to solve the problem was good. 你想出的解决问题的办法很 好。 (2)当 only 放在句首修饰状语 (通常是副词、介词短语或从句)时,句子需要部分倒装。 ④Only in this way can_we_live in more comfortable and beautiful surroundings. 只有用这种方式我们才能生活在更舒服更美丽的环境中。 ⑤ Only after Mary read her composition the second time did she notice the spelling mistake. 只有在玛丽把作文读了第二遍之后,她才注意到拼写错误。 ⑥ Only when he returned yesterday did_his_father_tell_him the truth, which was a big surprise to him. 直到昨天他回来,他父亲才把真相告诉他,这对他来说真是个令人吃惊的消息。

Ⅰ .句型转换 1.It was only when I left my parents for Italy that I realized how much I loved them. →Only when I left my parents for Italy________ ________ ________how much I loved them. 2.As soon as we arrived at the work site,we informed our boss of our arrival. →____________we arrived at the work site, we informed our boss of our arrival. 答案: Ⅱ .单项填空 1. With economy developing at great speed ,our city has______quite a few changes in recent years. A.witnessed B. accumulated C.arisen D. introduced did I realize Immediately/Directly/Instantly

2. The Voice of China has set up a stage________some people can achieve their dreams. A.which B. where C.that D.when

3.—Do you have anything to say for yourselves? — Yes, there is one point_____we must insist on. A.why B.where C. how D.that

4. The way____was thought of by the manager was similar to the way______you carried it out. A.that;which B. which; in which C.what;/ D. it;that

5. Only when he apologizes for his rudeness________to him again. A.I will speak B. will I speak C.do I speak D.I speak

解析:1. 考查动词辨析。句意为:随着经济的快速发展,在最近几年我们的城市已经变化了很 多。witness 目击,见证;accumulate 积聚,积累;arise 出现,产生; introduce 介绍。根据句 意可知,答案为 A。答案: A 2. 考查定语从句。句意为: 《中国好声音》设立了一个舞台,在这个舞台上一些人可以实现

他们的梦想。“________some people can achieve their dreams ”是定语从句,空处在定语从句中 作地点状语,故用 where。答案: B

3. 考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,空处引导定语从句。此处先行词为 one point,引导词在 从句中作 insist on 的宾语,所以应用关系代词 which 或者 that。答案: 4. D

考查定语从句。the way 作先行词,其后的定语从句中若不缺少主语及宾语,则其引导词 可为 that/in which/省略不填;若其后的定语从句缺少主语或宾语则应考虑填 that/which。分析 句子结构可知应选 B 项。答案: B

5.句意为:只有在他为自己的无礼道歉时我才会再理他。本题考查特殊句式。“Only+状语从句 ” 置于句首,主句应该部分倒装,排除 A、D 两项;根据语境此处应该是将来时且表示主语的 意愿,故选 B 项。答案: B

quality n.质量;品质;性质 Many black leaders have many good qualities and have made great contributions to mankind. 许多黑人领袖有良好的品质,对人类作出了很大的贡献。 attack vt .& n.进攻;攻击;抨击;(疾病等的)侵害 heart attack 心脏病 So sudden was the attack that the enemy had no time to escape. 袭击如此突然使敌人没有时间逃跑。 in trouble 有麻烦,处于困难中 get into trouble 惹麻烦,陷入困境 have trouble in doing sth./with sth.做某事有困难 Please turn to the police for help when you are in trouble. 当你遇到困难时请向警察求助。

【写作素材】 1.当我失业时,刚开始我不知道向谁求助。 2.我想起了我的老师,我去向他征求建议。 3.他十分慷慨地给予我时间,为此我非常感激。 4.我记得在上学的日子里,当我们有人处于麻烦中时,他总是鼓励我们不要灰心,要对未 来充满希望。 提示:黑体部分用本单元词汇表达。

【连句成篇】 When I was out of work, I didn’t know whom to turn to at first.I thought of my teacher and I went to him for advice.He was generous with his time,and gave me some advice, for which I was grateful.I remember in my school days , when any encouraged us not to lose heart and be one of us was in trouble , he always

hopeful about future.

定语从句(Ⅰ ) 1. The time is not far away________modern communications will b ecome widespread in China’s vast countryside. A.as B. when C.until D.before 2. I am no longer allowed to smoke in any room________he might use. A.where B. who C.with which D.that 3. Following the girl, we went into a hall,on________walls hung a few pictures of some famous scientists. A. its B. which C.whose D. those 4. He talked about the books and people________interested them greatly in the school. A.who B.which C. how D.that 5. Sarah Brightman,______will fly to space in 2015, is the first woman to fly there in the field of music. A.who B. that C.which D.whose 解析:1. 考查定语从句。分析句子成分可知,空处引导定语从句,修饰先行词 The time,且在 定语从句中作状语,所以用 when 引导。此题的先行词与定语从句被主句谓语分开,要善于 辨别。答案: B 2. 考查定语从句。 句意为: 我不再被允许在他可能使用的任何房间内吸烟。 分析句子成分可知, 空处引导定语从句。此处 room 是先行词,作 use 的宾语,故选 D。答案: D 3. 考查定语从句。分析句子成分可知,walls 与先行词 hall 存在所属关系,因此关系词应该使 用 whose。 答案: C 4. 考查定语从句的关系代词。先行词为 the books and people,在定语从句中作主语,既包含 人又包含物,所以用关系代词 that 引导,故选 D 项。答案: D 5. 考查定语从句。句意为:莎拉· 布莱曼将于 2015 年飞往太空,她将是音乐界第一个飞往太空 的女士。 句中的先行词为 Sarah Brightman, 在非限制性定语从句中作主语, 所以用 who 引导。 答案: A 定语从句 (Ⅱ ) 1. Xiamen is regarded as a city________traditional culture is well combined with a modern lifestyle. A.what B. when C.where D. as

2. They stood on the top of the high building,________they could see the whole city. A. from which B.on where C. from where D.on it

3. He met Rachel at her college graduation ceremony in 2008 ,________he was later to marry. A.which B. when C.where D. whom

4 . The band was very successful in the seventies , most of________members were in their twenties.A. its B.whose C.whom D. which

5. In moments when you’re feeling down, read what you wrote previously, ________will help uplift your spirits. A. that B. it C.which D. what

解析: 1. 考查定语从句。 句意为: 厦门被认为是一个传统文化和现代生活方式完美结合的城市。 分析句子结构可知,空处引导定语从句,修饰先行词 a city,并在从句中作地点状语,所以用 关系副词 where 引导该定语从句。答案: 2. C

考查定语从句。根据句意可知,从那个高楼的顶部能看见整个城市,此处 from where 相当 于 from on the top of the high building,答案: C

3.

考查定语从句。句意为:他是在 2008 年 Rachel 的大学毕业典礼上认识她的,后来娶她为 妻。分析句子成分可知,空处引导定语从句。先行词为 Rachel,在从句中作 marry 的宾语, 故用 whom 引导。答案: D

4. 考查定语从句。分析句子成分可知,空处引导定语从句,在从句中作定语,故用 whose。 B 5.考查定语从句。句意为:当你情绪低落的时候,读一读你先前写下的东西,这会帮助你情绪 高昂。which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面整个句子的内容。答案: 课时作业 (五 ) Unit 5 Nelson Mandela—a mode rn hero C

第二讲

夹叙夹议文

夹叙夹议文完形填空是最近几年高考经常涉及的一类体裁。 该类完形填空所选文章常 常在平淡的故事中蕴含着丰富的哲理, 作者既可以让读者从一个简单的故事体会到生活的意义, 也不乏对人生、生活、社会价值的思考,对人际关系等话题的自省反思,处处折射智慧的光芒 和启迪,耐人寻味,可读性很强。 真题示例? (2013· 天津卷) As I held my father’s hands one night,I couldn’t help but notice their calluses (老茧 ) and roughness.His hands tell the story of his life as a __16__, including all his struggles.

One summer, I remember, a drought (旱灾) hit Ontario, turning it into a__17__desert.On one of those hot mornings I was picking sweet corn with my dad to fill the last__18__from the grocery store.Fifty dozen was all we needed ,which __19__took twenty minutes.That morning,however,the process didn’t__20__quickly.After forty minutes of aimlessly walking in the field ,we__21__needed twenty dozen.I was completely frustrated and__22__.Dropping the basket heavily,I declared,“If the

store wants its last twenty dozen, they can pick it themselves! ”Dad __23__ , “Just think , my little girl, only ten dozen left for each of us and then we’re__ 24__.” Such is Dad— whatever he__25__, he never gives up. __26__,the disastrous effects of the drought were felt all over our country.It was a challenging time for everyone,__27__Dad remained optimistic.He__28__to be grateful for other things like good health and food on our plates.Only then did I truly begin to__29__Dad and his faith that guided us through the hard times. Dad is also a living example of real __30__.From dawn to dusk, he works countless hours to__31__our family.He always puts our happiness__32__his own,and never fails to cheer me on at my sports games__33__his exhaustion after long days.His loving and selfless nature has inspired me to become more sympathetic and__34__,putting others first. Dad,the life__35__I have learned from you will stay with me forever.You are my father , teacher, friend and, most importantly, my hero. 16.A.teacher C.farmer 17.A.stormy C.disappearing 18.A.order C.gap 19.A.repeatedly C.finally 20.A.go C.occur 21.A.yet C.even 22.A.surprised C.angry 23.A.apologized C.complained 24.A.lost C.gone B. gardener D. grocer B. lively D.burning B. form D.position B. normally D.really B.begin D.change B.still D. nearly B. nervous D. frightened B.cried D. laughed B.done D.touched problem

25.A.meets with C.works out 26.A.Thankfully C.Unfortunately 27.A.or C.so 28.A.happened C.continued 29.A.face C.examine 30.A.love C.friendship 31.A.support C.start 32.A.after C.beside 33.A.in spite of C.in control of 34.A.careful C.considerate 35.A.history C.patterns ?文本特点 夹叙夹议文有以下三种情况:

B.brings up D.thinks about B.Hopefully D.Strangely B. for D.but B.seemed D.aimed B.appreciate D.question B.pride D. honesty B.settle D. impress B.before D. under B. in terms of D. in place of B.regretful D. humorous B. motto D. lessons,

1.首先叙述一件事,然后就此事提出自己的见解或由此事引出一个深刻的社会话题,或揭 示生活的真理。 2.先提出观点和看法,然后围绕这一观点和看法用具体的事例来说明。一般是一个事例, 有时也会用几个事例从不同的侧面加以说明。 3.提出一种观点或看法,然后再用事例说明,最后再进一步阐述或总结得出观点。 ?技法应用 一、3 个应试策略

1.明确文章的组织方式 夹叙夹议类完形填空题一般有以下三种结构: (1)事例—观点 本文结构即为这种类型,文章先叙述作者和父亲为杂货店所接甜玉米订单配货的过程中, 作者中途想放弃,但是父亲鼓励她要坚持下去。文中还讲述了父亲在遇到困难时,总是以积极、 乐观的态度面对生活,这让作者受益终生。 (2)观点—事例 先提出一种观点或看法, 然后围绕这一观点或看法用具体的事例来说明, 一般是一个事例, 有时也会用几个事例从不同的侧面加以说明。 (3)观点—事例—观点 提出一种观点或看法,然后用事例说明,最后再进一步阐述或总结自己的观点。 2.体会叙述和议论的联系 夹叙夹议中叙与议是一个有机的整体,叙是议的基础,而议是叙的升华。在读这类文章时, 掌握议论部分的内容是关键,因为叙述是为作者的议论而服务的。所以只有把故事和哲理联系 起来,再结合人物心理和行为的描述,全面把握文章才能正确解题。 3.重视语境的作用 叙述与议论的结合, 使得此类文章常会出现事件与观点的变换, 从而突出了对语境的依赖。 这就要在理解上下文的基础上,通过语境,辨析词语,找到正确答案。 二、3 个解题步骤 第一步:通读全文,了解大意,把握文章结构 首先跳过空格处快速通读全文,了解其主旨和情节脉络,把握文章的结构特点,确定解题 思路。 第二步:综合考虑,根据叙事所用语言和心理描写的关键词逐项填空,推敲难题 如:本文第四段中作者在叙事时所用的语言及人物描写的关键词为:His loving and selfless nature has inspired me to become more sympathetic and considerate ,putting others first.父亲的爱和 无私的品性激励着我更具有同情心、体贴他人,总是先考虑他人,故 34 题 considerate 符合语 境,对文章的线索有一个清晰的认识之后,要对少数难题进一步推敲,排除不当选项逐步确定 答案。如第 35 题,作者从父亲身上学到的生活经验将永远留在她的心里,故 lessons 符合语境。 第三步:复核全文,调整答案 题目全部做完后,应根据所选答案再一次通读全文,核查答案,看全文意思是否完整, 用词是否达意,上下文是否连贯,有无前后矛盾的逻辑错误。

16.解析: 根据文中的 calluses,roughness,drought,sweet corn 等可知父亲是一个农民。 故选 C 项。A.教师;B.园艺师; D.杂货商。 答案: C 根据本句中的 drought 可知 Ontario 变成了一个火热的沙漠。A.暴风雨的; B.

17.解析:

生动的;C.正在消失的。故选 D,burning 火热的。 答案: D

18. 解析: 根据下面的 from the grocery store 可知本空填 order(订货)。fill an order 意为 “按 订单供给,交付订货”。 B.形式,表格;C.缝隙;D.位置。 答案: A 我们所需的 50 打玉米正常情况下需要 20 分钟。A.重复地;B.正常地;C.最

19.解析: 终;D.真正地。 答案: B

20.解析: 生;D.改变。 答案: A

根据本空后几句可推知这个过程进展却不快。A.进行,进展; B.开始;C.发

21.解析:

在地里漫无目的地走了 40 分钟后,我们仍需要 20 打。A.然而;B.仍然;C.

甚至;D.几乎,将近。 答案: B

22.解析: 由于他们找了很长时间仍未完成任务,所以作者非常沮丧和生气。A.惊奇的; B.紧张的;C.生气的;D.害怕的。 答案: C 根据上下文对父亲的描述可知父亲是一个开朗乐观的人,此处看到作者生气

23.解析:

了,父亲可能会笑。A.道歉;B.哭,大叫;C.抱怨; D.大笑。 答案: D 为了安慰作者,父亲对作者说: “我们每人只要找到十打,任务就完成了 ”。

24.解析:

A.丢失的,迷失的;B.完成的;C.不见的; D.感动的。 答案: B 无论他遇到什么问题,他从不放弃。 A.遇到,遭遇; B.抚养,提出;C.计算

25.解析: 出;D.思考。

答案:

A 根据本段内容可知旱灾造成的灾难性的影响,整个国家都能感觉到,由此可

26.解析:

知这是很不幸的。A.感激地;B.充满希望地;C.不幸地; D.奇怪地。 答案: C 这对每个人来说都是一个挑战,但父亲仍然很乐观。前后为转折关系,故选

27.解析: D 项 but。 答案: D

28.解析:

他对像健康的身体和盘中餐之类的东西仍然怀感激之情。 A.发生,碰巧; B.

好像;C.继续,再;D.目的在于。 答案: C 直到那时作者才真正开始欣赏父亲。 A.面对; B.欣赏,赞赏;C.检查; D.怀

29.解析: 疑,询问。 答案: B

30.解析:

本句为本段主题句,本段主要描述了父亲是一个心中充满真爱的人,所以此

处应选 love。B.自豪;C.友谊; D.诚实。 答案: A 为了表达本段主题 (父亲的爱心 ),作者介绍从早到晚父亲无休止地工作就是

31.解析:

为了养家,以说明父亲对家庭的爱。所以此处应选 A 项,support 供养,赡养(某人) 。B.定居, 解决;C.开始;D.打动,留下印象。 答案: A 父亲总是把我们的幸福放在他自己的幸福之前。故此处应选 B 项 before。

32.解析: 答案: B

33.解析:

父亲是一个对子女充满了爱的人,所以尽管整天劳累他还会在作者参加体育

比赛时为作者呐喊助威。前后应为转折关系,所以应选 A 项“尽管 ”。 B.就……而言;C.指挥, 管理或支配(某事物);D.代替,取代。 答案: A 他的爱和无私的本性激励着我变得更加富有同情心,更加善解人意。所以此

34.解析:

处应选 C 项,considerate 善解人意的。A.仔细的,认真的; B.后悔的,遗憾的; D.幽默的。 答案: C 作者从父亲身上学到的生活经验将永远留在她心里。A.历史; B.格言;C.模

35.解析:

式;D.经验,教训。故此处应选 D 项。

答案:

D


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