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选修 6Unit 4 Global Warming 教学要求


Unit Four
语言技能目标

Global warming

1. 了解“全球变暖”“能源的种类”和“节约能源”等方面的知识,能听懂关于全球 、 变暖的简单英语介绍, 树立“节约能源、保护环境”的主人翁意识。 2. 学习有关气候、能源和环境的词汇、短语和句型。 3. 学会表达同意和不同意、责备和抱怨等日常交际用语。 4. 学习 it 在强调句中的用法。 5. 学习如何写一幅表达自己观点,劝说他人节约能源,保护环境的海报或文章。 语言知识目标 1. 功能 1)同意与不同意(Agreement and Disagreement) Exactly. You?re right. I agree.

That?s correct/ true/ right. I?m afraid I disagree with you. I?m afraid not. I don?t think so. No way. I don?t agree. I doubt…

2)责备与抱怨 ( Blame and complaint)

国家 课程 标准

I?m sorry to bring this up, but…? I?m sorry to have to say this, but …? They shouldn?t have done it. They are to blame. Perhaps/ Maybe they should / ought to … Why don?t you do something about it? 2. 语法 it 的用法 (The use of “it”) (2) It is human activity that has caused this global warming. It was a scientist called Charles Keeling who made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. 3. 词汇及短语 必会: come about go up state subscribe to quantity oppose even if on the whole and so on graph catastrophe keep on average circumstance phenomenon mild subscribe fuel per data outer opposed glance quantity of tend

result in range

be opposed to steady tendency put up with

widespread so long as 了解: consume trend

on behalf of

random flood

consequence

existence

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advocate motor 认识 can

commitment microwave

polution refresh

growth

electrical

casual

educator

contribution presentation

nuclear disagreement renewable byproduce measurement greenhouse Janice Foster Fahrenheit methane famine Sophie Celsius Armstrong Charles fossil Keeling

drought

George Hambley hectare

environmental appliance

国家 课程 标准

environmentalist imperative 学习策略目标 heading

ecomomical slogan

individual

1. 认知策略:总结语言材料中有关 it 的用法,并结合语境加以应用。 2. 自主合作探究策略:在各个学习活动中进行结伴或分组讨论,结对或组内交流、 总结,共同研究发现问题、解决问题,及时总结学习收获本单元的学习的主要的 语言知识:重点动词、动词短语、其它常见表达方式和新出现的句子结构。 3. 交际策略:以学生同伴、小组活动培养学生交际策略,学会表达建议和帮助。 4. 资源策略:学习有效使用课外资源,如网络或图书馆查找有关全球变暖”“能源 、 的种类”和“节约能源”等方面的知识,树立“节约能源、保护环境”的主人翁 意识。 情感态度目标 教育学生清醒认识“全球变暖”的事实,使其树立节约能源、保护环境的意识。

单元整体教学分析
★ 本单元的中心话题是人类当今面对的环境问题,主要探讨了“全球变暖”和“节约 能源”等方面的问题。由于人类过多使用不可再生能源,大气中二氧化碳的含量逐 年增加,导致全球气温上升。通过学习本单元,让学生能了解能源分为“不可再生 ... 能源”和“可再生能源” ,帮助学生树立“节约能源、保护环境”的主人翁意识。 ★ Warming up

教学 内容 建议

要求学生列举家中,学校或其他地方使用能源的物体,指出这些物体的来源,尽可 能多地列出不同的能源并把它们分为两类:可再生能源与不可再生能源。 ★ Pre-reading 这部分首先介绍什么是温室,它有什么作用,然后要求学生讨论大气中温室气体的 作用。该部分的讨论有利于学生预测课文内容和理解阅读课文中的“温室效应” 。 ★ Reading 这部分是一篇杂志文章,主要讲述了地球温度上升的现象和原因。科学家认为这种 变化是人类燃烧矿物燃料所致。对于地球升温,科学家们有不同的看法。有些科学 家认为,这个问题很严重。地球升温会导致海水上涨,风暴,干旱,饥荒,物种毁 灭和疫病等。另一方面,其他科学家认为,地球升温有利于改善人类生活。最后,

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文章以开放性的问题结尾要求读者思考:对于全球变暖,人类要不要采取措施?紧 扣主题并与题目要相呼应。 ★ Comprehending 这部分提供了三项练习。练习 1 是 首先就作者,杂志名称,文中出 现的曲线图等内容提问,并要求学生概括文章的主题。练习 2 要求学生细读课文, 并判断所给句子的是否符合课文内容。 练习 3 要求学生小组讨论: 在讨论的基础上, 把全班分为正方和反方,举办一个辩论会。 ★ Learning about Language 词汇部分设置了三项练习。练习 1 是分辨生词在文中的含义。练习 2 是运用课文中 所学的生词来完成与“全球变暖”话题相关的一些句子。练习 3 让学生运用强调句 型进行复述或表达自己的观点。语法部分让学生通过对比课文中 it 作强调作用的句 子与其他句子的区别,发现并熟悉强调结构句型及其规律。 ★ Using Language 这部分综合运用听说读写的能力。“读和写”部分是欧阳光给关爱地球组织杂志写电 子邮件,请求帮助。回信指出,群策群力,问题可解,并提供了几个具体措施。阅 读之后,让学生就文中的建议进行讨论并提出更多的建议。为写的任务提供充分的 材料。 “听与说”是学生与教授的一段对话,讨论能源的使用问题,并学习表达“同 意”或“不同意”的交际用语。 教学内容整合建议: 1. 将 Warming Up,Pre-reading,Reading 与 Comprehending 整合在一起以“阅读课” 的形式体现。 2. 将 Learning about Language 中的 Discovering useful structures 与 Workbook 中的 Using structures 整合在一起上一节“语法学习课”。

教学 内容 建议

Warming up and Reading
词汇知识基础要求(可以通过教师讲授与学生自主探究相结合的方式落实重点词汇) 1.consume vt. (1)to use sth, esp fuel, energy, time,goods etc eg. The electricity industry consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. (2) to eat or drink sth eg. Before he died he had consumed a large quantity of alcohol.

弹性要求:
comsumer n. a person who buys goods or uses services. Health-conscious consumers want more injection about the food they buy. 2. renewable adj. [usually before noun] renewable energy replaces itself naturally, or is easily replaced because there is a large supply of it eg. renewable energy such as solar power eg. an industry based on renewable resources 3. come about to happen Can you tell me how the accident come about ?
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4. graph

n. [C] a planned drawing, consisting of a line or lines, showing how two or more sets of numbers are related to each other eg. The graph showing how house prices have risen since the 1980s. 5. random adj. done, chosen, etc without sb thinking or deciding in advance what is going to happen eg. the random killing of innocent people 对无辜者的随意杀戮 a random sample / election ( in which each thing has an equal chance of being chosen) The information is processed in random order.

弹性要求:
The winning numbers are randomly selected by computer. = it introduced an element of randomness to the situation. She opened the book at random ( not at any particular page) and started reading. 6. phenomenon n. a fact or an event in nature or society, esp one that is not an event in nature or society, esp one that is not fully understood. ( pl) phenomena eg. cultural / natural / social phenomena Terrorism is a phenomenon of the 20th century. 7. subscribe to (1)to agree with or support an opinion, a theory, etc. eg. The authorities no longer subscribe to the view that disabled people are unsuitable as teachers. (2) to pay money, normally once a year, to receive regular copies of a newspaper, magazine, etc. eg. Which journals does the library subscribe to ?

教学 内容 建议

弹性要求:
(3) to pay money regularly to be a memble of organization or to support a charity. eg. He subscribes regularly to Red Cross Society of China. 8. fuel n. [U&C] any material that produces heat or power, usually when it?s burnt fossil fuel : fuel such as coal or oil, that was found over millions of years from the remains of animals or plants 矿物燃料 eg : solid fuel ; nucleat fuels; a car with high fuel consumption 9. quantity n. [U&C] (1)an amount or a number of sth eg. a large / small quantity of sth eg. Enormous / Vast/ Huge quantities of food are laid on the table. eg. The police found a quantity of drugs at his home. = A quantity of drugs was found at his home by the police.

弹性要求:
(2) the measurement of sth by saying how much of it there is eg. The data is limited in terms of both quality and quantity. 10. tend vt. (1) to be likely to do sth or to happen in a particular way because this is what often or usually happens.

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Women tend to live longer than men. People tend to think think that problem will never affect them. When you are exhausted, you tend to make mistakes. (2) to take a particular direction or often have a particular quality His views tend towards the extreme. Prices have tended downwards over recent years. (3) to care for sth / sb Doctors and nurses tended the injured.

弹性要求:
tendency n. eg. I have a tendency to talk too much when I?m nervors. 11. go up If the price of sth, the temperature, etc. goes up, it becomes higher. ?opposite go down eg. Cigarettes are going up in price. 12. per used to express the cost or amount of sth for each person, number used, distant travelled, etc eg. Rooms cost $50 per person, per night. 60 miles per hour 13. data n. [C or U] facts or information, esp when examined and used to find out things or to make decisions eg. This data was collected from 69 countries. the analysis / interpretation of the data raw data ( = that has not been analysed ) These data show that most cancers are 14. result in to mke sth happen eg. Aids have/ has resulted in many thousands of deaths. Theses policies resulted in many elderly and disabled people suffering hardship. Opp: result from eg. Jobs loses result from changes in production. 15. trend n. ( towards sth ) a general direction in which a situation is changing or developing eg : There is a growing trend towards earlier retirement. A downward / upward trend in sales You seem to have set ( started ) a new trend. 16. catastraphe n. [C] (1) a sudden disater that causes many people to suffer eg : Early warnings of rising water levels prevented another major catastrophe.

教学 内容 建议

弹性要求:
(2). an event that causes one person or a group personal suffering, or that makes difficulties. eg :The attempt to expand the business was a catestrophe for the fiem. Catatrophic effects/ losses/ results/ illness 17. flood n. U&C A large amount of water covering an area that is usually dry
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eg :The heavy rain had caused floods in many parts of the country. eg :The river is in flood. 18. oppose v. to disagree strong with one?s plan, policy,etc and try to change it or prevent it from succeeding eg : He found himself opposed by his own deputy. I would oppose changing the law. opposed adj. eg : She remained bitterly opposed to the idea of moving abroad.

弹性要求:
opposing adj. (of teams, armies, forces etc) playing, fighting, working, etc against each other eg : a palyer from the opposing side 19. mild adj. (1) not violent, severe or extreme: eg : She can't accept even mild criticism of her work. He has suffered a mild heart attack - nothing too serious. (2) describes food or a food flavour that is not very strong: eg : He doesn't like a hot curry - he prefers a mild one. (3) describes weather that is not very cold or not as cold as usual: eg : We've had a mild winter this year.

弹性要求:
mildly adv. eg :We were mildly surprised to see him again so soon. mildness n. 20. consequence n. [C] an often bad or inconvenient result of a particular action or situation: eg :Scientists think it unlikely that any species will actually become extinct as a consequence of the oil spill. Well, if you insist on eating so much, you'll have to suffer/take (= accept and deal with) the consequences! 21. state vt. to say or write something, especially clearly and carefully: eg : Our warranty clearly states the limits of our liability. Union members stated (that) they were unhappy with the proposal. Please state why you wish to apply for this grant.

教学 内容 建议

弹性要求:
statement n. The government is expected to issue a statement about the investigation to the press. 22. range n. [C] (1) the limits within which amounts, quantities, ages etc vary eg :Your blood pressure's well within the normal range. Most of the students are in the 15—18 range in our school. Even the cheapest property was out of our price range (=too expensive for us).

弹性要求:
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教学 内容 建议

(2) a variety of different things or activities eg : he was impressed by the range and diversity of the collection There is a wide/whole range of opinions on this issue. 23. build (sb/sth) up: to increase or become larger or stronger, or to cause someone or something to do this: eg : Tension is building up between the two communities. They gave him soup to build up his strength/build him up. It took her ten years to build up her publishing business. 24. even if whether or not: eg : Even if you take a taxi, you'll still miss your train. 25. keep on doing sth to continue to do something, or to do something again and again: eg : She kept on asking me questions the whole time. 26. glance vt (1) to read something very quickly eg : Can you glance throug/ at these figures for me? (2 )to quickly look at someone or something eg : The man glanced nervously at his watch. Emily glanced over her shoulder. 27. steady adj continuing or developing gradually or without stopping, and not likely to change eg : a steady increase / decline in numbers five years of steady economic growth Paul is making slow but steady progress. It's hard to find a steady, well-paying job. 由于学生受知识和认知水平所限, 不可能完全自主探究所有的语言现象, 或者无 法明确重点难点内容, 因此要把教师必要的讲解结合进去。 词汇知识的处理有多种方式, 要注意分化进行,教师应根据学生的实际情况创造性地提供多种途径认知词汇。 句子理解(分析理解重点句子的结构及深层含义) 1. That probably doesn?t seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid increase when compared to other natrual changes. 2. There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon. 3. Some byproducts of this process are called “greenhouse”gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide. 4. Without the ?greenhouse effect?, the earth would be about thirty-three degrees Celsius cooler than it is. 5. It was a scientist called Charles Keeling who made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. 6. They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide.
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Learning about Language
1. tendency n. if someone or something has a tendency to do or become a particular thing, they are likely to do or become it 趋势,倾向 eg. Greg's tendency to be critical made him unpopular with his co-workers. The drug is effective but has a tendency to cause headaches. There is a growing tendency for people to work at home instead of in offices. 2. on the whole : with everything considered eg. On the whole, I'm in favour of the proposal. 3. widespread adj. existing or happening in many places and/or among many people: eg. There are reports of widespread flooding in northern France. The campaign has received widespread support 4. average (1.) adj. the average amount is the amount you get when you add together several quantities and divide this by the total number of quantities: eg. The age of the candidates ranged from 29 to 49 with an average age of 37. The cars were being sold at an average price of $11000. The average age of the US soldiers who fought in the Vietnam War was 19. (2). n [C or U] the result obtained by adding two or more amounts together and dividing the total by the number of amounts: eg. The average of the three numbers 7, 12 and 20 is 13, because the total of 7, 12 and 20 is 39, and 39 divided by 3 is 13. Prices have risen by an average of 4% over the past year. My income's rather variable, but I earn ? a day on average. 73 5. existence n. [U] when something or someone exists: eg. Many people question the existence of God. The theatre company that they started is still in existence today. exist vi. 6. outer adj. on the outside of something outer space : the part of space that is very far away from Earth.

教学 内容 建议

Using Language
1. on behalf of sb / on one’s behalf : as the representitive of sb or instead of them eg. On behalf of the department I would like to thank you all. Mr Smith can?t be here, so his wife will accept the prize on his behalf. 2. individual (1) adj.. considered separately rather than as part of a group eg. We interviewed each individual member of the community. The minister refused to comment on individual cases. (2) n.. a person considered separately rather than as part of a group eg. The competition is open to both teams and individuals.
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教学 内容 建议

Treatment depends on the individual involved. 3. advocate vt. to support sth publicly SYN recommend eg. The group doesn?t advocate the use of violent. Many experts advocate rewarding your child for good behaviour. The report advocated that all buildings (should) be fitted with smoke detectors. 报告主张所有的建筑物都应安装烟火探测器。 4. commitment n. (1) [C&U] a promise to do sth or to behave in a particular way; a promise to support sb/sth; the fact of committing yourself 委托,实行,承诺, eg.She doesn?t want to make a big emotional commitment to Steve at the moment. The company?s commitment to providing quality at a reasonable price has been vital to its success. (2) [C] the willingness to work hard and give your energy and time to a job or an activity 奉献,献身 eg. A career as an actor requires one hundred percent commitment. Her commitment to work is beyond question. 5. put up with somebody/something to accept an unpleasant situation or person without complaining eg.She put up with his violent temper. Noise is coming to the point where we can't put up with it 6. pollution n. [U] the process of making air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use, or the state of being dangerously dirty: eg. Many beautiful fish are fast disappearing because of the severe pollution. The pollution had destroyed ozone layer and caused many changes in weather 污染破坏了臭氧层,并引起了许多天气变化。 7. growth n. [U] an increase in amount, number, or size eg. It is hoped the tax cuts will act as a stimulant to further economic growth We've seen an enormous growth in the number of businesses using the Web. Vitamins are essential for healthy growth. ?opposite decline

8. electrical adj. (1) relating to electricity: eg. The fire was caused by an electrical fault. an electrical engineer (=a person who designs and makes electrical equipment) (2) using electricity eg. electrical equipment/goods/appliances etc 9. appliance n. [C] a piece of equipment, especially electrical equipment, such as a cooker or washing machine, used in people's homes eg.There are many household appliances in this shop. 这个商店有许多家用用具。 10. so long as 只要 eg.It matters little who does it so long as it is done. You may borrow the book so long AS you keep it clean. 11. casual adj

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教学 内容 建议

(1) relaxed and not worried, or seeming not to care about something: eg. His eyes were angry, though he sounded casual. Marsha was quite casual about appearing on TV. She had a casual attitude to life. (2) not formal or not for a formal situation eg. Jean felt more comfortable in casual clothes. 12. and so on: continuing in the same way SYN and so forth, etcetera, etc. eg.He talked about how much we owed to our parents, our duty to our country and so on and so on. Nowadays in winter people can also have a variety of friuts, including oranges, lemon, watermelon and so on. 13. motor n. [C] the part of a machine that makes it work or move, by changing power, especially electrical power, into movement 发动机,马达 eg. an electric motor 14. can n. [C] a metal container in which food or drink is preserved without air 15. circumstance n. [C] the conditions that affect a situation, action, event etc: eg. Due to circumstances beyond our control the lecture was cancelled. I can't imagine a circumstance in which I would be willing to steal. Under no circumstances are you allowed to break the law. 16. microwave : n. [C] microwave oven. 17. refresh vt. to make someone feel less tired or less hot: eg. A shower will refresh you. refresh yourself (with something) He refreshed himself with a glass of iced tea. 18. educator n. a teacher or someone involved in the process of educating people 19. contribution n. [C] something that you give or do in order to help something be successful eg. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his contribution to/towards Quantum Theory. The school sees its job as preparing students to make a contribution to society. significant/substantial/valuable etc contribution Wolko made outstanding contributions to children's medicine. 20. presentation n. way of saying/showing (1) [U] the way in which something is said, offered, shown, or explained to others eg. desktop devices for the presentation of information the presentation of evidence (2) [C] the act of performing a play eg. I went to see the National Theatre's presentation of Arthur Miller's 'The Last Yankee'. 22. nuclear adj. relating to or involving the nucleus (=central part) of an atom, or the energy produced when the nucleus of an atom is either split or joined with the nucleus of another atom: eg. nuclear energy a nuclear power station

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nuclear bomb/weapon/missile etc 23. disagreement [U & C] a situation in which people express different opinions about something and sometimes argue ?opposite agreement

eg. We've had a few disagreements, but we're still good friends. disagreements about/over/as to/on who will be allowed to vote There were disagreements among doctors about the best way to treat the disease. Connor's disagreements with school administrators There is disagreement between these two estimates.

教学 活动 建议

背景资料补充

What is Global Warming?
The Earth as an ecosystem is changing, attributable in great part to the effects of globalization and man. More carbon dioxide is now in the atmosphere than has been in the past 650,000 years. This carbon stays in the atmosphere, acts like a warm blanket, and holds in the heat — hence the name ?global warming.? The reason we exist on this planet is because the earth naturally traps just enough heat in the atmosphere to keep the temperature within a very narrow range - this creates the conditions that give us breathable air, clean water, and the weather we depend on to survive. Human beings have begun to tip that balance. We've overloaded the atmosphere with heat-trapping gasses from our cars and factories and power plants. If we don't start fixing the problem now, we?re in for devastating changes to our environment. We will experience extreme temperatures, rises in sea levels, and storms of unimaginable destructive fury. Recently, alarming events that are consistent with scientific predictions about the effects of climate change have become more and more common place. 语法知识:it 的用法
it 为引导词的强调句型 它的结构形式是:It+is/was+强调部分+that/who/ whom+其他部分。
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教学 活动 建议

使用该句型有以下几点请注意: ①强调句的谓语 is 或 was 永远用单数,其中 is 既可强调现在的情况,也可强调过去的 情况,was 只能强调过去的情况。 例如:It was/is yesterday that I met your father in the street. ②不管被强调部分是哪种状语,只能用 that 连接,不得使用 where、when 等连词。 例如:It was in the street that I met your father yesterday. ③被强调部分为人时,可用 who(主格或宾格)和 whom(宾格)代替 that,用 that 也行。 例如:It was your father that/whom /who I met in the street yesterday. It was I that/who met your father in the street yesterday. ④强调句中也要注意主谓一致、人称一致和否定转移的问题。 例如:It is they who are our friends.(be) It was until ten o'clock that we got home last night.(添加 not) ⑤注意不要混淆强调句和其他从句。It is was…that…为强调句标志。从结构上看,把强 调句的句型去掉,剩下的仍能表达完整的意义。 比较:It was ten o'clock when we got home last night.我们昨晚到家时已十点了。 It was at ten o'clock that we got home last night.我们昨晚是在十点到家的。

教学 课时 建议

Period 1: Warming up and Pre-reading Period 2-3: Reading and language points Period 4: Learning about language (including Useful Structure) Period 5-6: Using language (Reading and Writing; Listening and Speaking)

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Period 7-8:

Workbook Exercises

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