真题再现 1. The limits of a person’s intelligence, generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but _______ he reaches these limits will depend on his environment. A. where B. whe
ther C. that D. why
2. It is by no means clear A. how B. which
the president can do to end the strike. C. that D. what
3. Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt ______ he could have expressed it differently. A. why B. how C. that D. whether
4. We promise _____ attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever
5. It doesn’t matter _____ you pay by cash or credit card in this store. A. how B. whether C. what D. why
6. Everyone in the village is very friendly. It doesn’t matter ____ you have lived there for a short or a long time. A. why B. how C. whether D. when
7. It suddenly occurred to him ___ he had left his keys in the office. A. whether B. where C. which D. that
8. The newcomer went to the library the other day and searched for _____ he could find about Mark Twain. A. wherever B. however C. whatever D. whichever
9. As many as five courses are provided, and you are free to choose _____ suits you best. A. whatever B. whichever C. whenever D. wherever
1. B。首先把插入语 generally speaking 删掉。but 后的并列分句中，whether he reaches these limits（作为句子主语）will depend on his environment. 2. D。此处 it 是形式主语，what 引导的是主语从句，作真正的主语，what 作 do 的宾语。句 意：总统采取什么行动结束这次罢工一点也不清楚。 3. C。宾语从句不缺少成分用 that 引导。 4. C。首先本句考查的关键短语是 promise sb. sth.（向某人承诺某事） ，本句指的是向参加聚 会的人提供一个和电影明星合影的机会，不定式做 chance 的定语，然后就是参加聚会的任 何人（whoever=anyone who） 。 5. B。此处 it 是形式主语，后面 whether...or…引导的主语从句是真正的主语，whether...or… 意为：是…还是…都行。句意：在这个商店中用现金或信用卡支付都可以。 6. C。根据空后的 or 可知为“whether … or”短语。
7. D。it 作形式主语，真正的主语为 that he had left his keys in the office。且 that 在句中无意 义，并不充当任何成分。 8. C。介词 for 后面加的是宾语从句，且从句中 find 缺少宾语，所以用 whatever。 9. B。所填词引导的从句作动词 choose 的宾语，引导词在从句中做主语，意思是：无论哪 件，选 B。其余选项与句意不符。
知识讲解 主语从句和宾语从句的引导词 that 和 what 的区别 从句中缺少主语时，常用 what 引导，也可用 which 表示选择，用 who/whom/whoever 指人。what 引导主语从句、宾语从句等名词性从句时，表示“所??的(东西)” ，并且在从 句中充当句子成分。而 that 作为从属连词，引导主语从句、宾语从句时，其本身没有实际意 义，不充当句子成分。that 引导主语从句时不省略，引导宾语从句时一般可以省略，但有些 情况不可省略。 That fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect. It is pretty well understood what controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. A computer can only do what you have instructed it to do. The reporter said (that) the UFO was travelling east to west when he saw it. People have heard what the president has said; they are waiting to see what he will do.
if 和 whether 的区别 主语从句(放在句首时)常由 whether 引导。作及物动词宾语时，用 if/whether 均可，但有 区别；作介词宾语时只用 whether；后面紧跟 or not 时，只用 whether。 Whether she will go home or not is unknown. Whether we shall raise ducks or geese remains to be decided. = It remains to be decided whether/if we shall raise ducks or geese. 但我们不能说 If we shall raise ducks or geese remains to be decided. I don’t care whether/ if he comes. It depends on whether you can do the job well.
其他连接代词和连接副词的选用 连接代词（what, which, who, whom, whose）在从句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语；连 接副词（when, where, why, how, whether, if 等）在从句中作状语。无论是连接代词还是连接
副词，都有各自的意义。 It matters little how a man dies, but what matters much is how he lives. It was a matter of who would take the position. No one can be sure what man will look like in a million years. I have not been told where the meeting will be held. He explained why he set off so early that day. Whose girlfriend is the most beautiful is not the most important thing.
whoever 与 whatever，whichever 的区别 whoever, whatever, whichever 除了可以引导让步状语从句，相当于 no matter who/ what/ which 外，还可以引导名词从句。 whoever 相当于 anyone who，表明泛指关系，表示“任何??的人都，凡是??的人都” 。 I hate whoever lies. Whoever wins gets a prize. whatever 相当于 anything that，表示“无论什么??” 。 Whatever he thinks doesn't matter. Whatever you want can be found here. whichever 意为“无论哪个，无论哪些” 。既可指人，也可指物；既可单独使用，也可修饰名 词，也可以跟 of 短语连用。 You can choose whichever you want. Whichever of us gets home first starts cooking.
it 作形式主语和形式宾语 从句在某个句子中作主语、宾语时，为保持句子结构前后平衡，避免头重脚轻，因此常 用 it 作形式主语、宾语，而将真正的主语、宾语从句放在句尾。此时 it 只起先行引导作用， 本身无词义。 It was really surprising that she married a man like that. It was reported that more than 170 thousand people died in the 2004 tsunami. We owe it to you that there wasn’t a serious accident. I hate it when my mother asks me to eat eggs.
主语从句特别注意 It 构成的主语从句 主语从句可以放在句子后面，而用 it 作形式主语放在句首，尤其是从属连词 that 引导 的主语从句常用于此种句式中。这种句式主要有： It is + adj. / n. +从句 It is a pity/shame that... It is possible that... It is unlikely that... 遗憾的是??
It is possible that he never intended to shoot her. It is unlikely that she will come. It is a shame that the rain spoiled our picnic. It +不及物动词+从句 It seems/appears that... It happened that... 似乎??
It appears that you are all mistaken. It happened that the harvest was bad that year. It + be +过去分词+从句 It is said that... 据说?? 众所周知?? 据报道?? 据信??，人们相信?? 有人建议?? 必须指出?? 已证明??.
It is known to all that... It is reported that... It is believed that... It is suggested that...
It must be pointed out that... It has been proved that...
It is reported that he is a scholar from New Zealand. It has been proved that the practice can only do good. It must be pointed out that some questions have yet to be clarified.
主语从句中的主谓一致关系 主语从句作主语相当于单数第三人称作主语，谓语动词用单数，如果由 and 连接两个或两 个以上的主语从句作主语时，谓语动词用复数；由两个或多个连接词引导一个主语从句，谓 语动词用单数。 When the meeting will begin has not been decided yet. When they will start and where they go have not been decided yet.
When and where the meeting will begin has not been decided. （has not ）
强调句型与带有 it 的主语从句的区别 强调句与主语从句虽然在形式上很相似，都含有 It is/was... that...，但是它们有一个很重要的 区别，强调句去掉 It is /was...that 之后，句子结构仍然完整，而主语从句却不能这样。 It is believed that at least a score of buildings were damaged or destroyed. 本句去掉“It is ...that”后，留下 believed，以及 that...从句，句子结构不完整，因此不是强 调句型。 It is surprising that Mary should have won first place. 句中的 It 是形式主语，that 引导的是主语从句。句中的 It is 和 that 无法删除,一旦删除句子 就不成立。 It is Mary that has won first place. 本句是强调句型，其中的 It is 和 that 可以去掉，因为没有 It is 和 that 句子仍然很通顺.
宾语从句特别注意 【高清课堂 链接点：宾语从句 高清 ID：396512】 如果宾语从句后有宾语补足语，要用形式宾语 it，而将从句放到补足语后面。 I thought it strange that he didn’t pass the exam. I’ve heard it said that you’ve won a scholarship. I felt it important that you tell me the truth.
作介词的宾语 Did she say anything about how we should do the work? Who is responsible for what has happened? I was not moved by what he said.
that 引导的宾语从句只有在 except, in, but, besides 等少数介词后用到。 Your article is good except that it is too long. 有时在介词和其宾语从句的中间加形式宾语 it. I’ll see to it that everything is ready. You may depend on it that they will support you.
作形容词的宾语 I’m afraid that I have made a mistake.
I’m not sure if/whether I’m right. She began to criticize what I had done. 其他几组宾语从句 He couldn’t express what he felt. I will do whatever you wish. Take whichever seat you like. Give it to whomever you like. Give it to whoever is responsible.
宾语从句的时态限制 宾语从句应同主句在谓语时态上保持一致。 主句谓语是现在时， 宾语从句的谓语可以是任意 时态；主句谓语是过去时，宾语从句的谓语必须是过去的某种时态， （宾语是客观真理时则 无此限制） 。 She says (that) she works from Monday to Friday.（从句是一般现在时） She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk.（从句是一般将来时） She says (that) she has never been to Mount Emei. （从句是现在完成时） He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon.（从句是一般过去时） He said (that) he was going to take care of the baby.（从句是过去将来时） He said (that) they were having a meeting at that time.（从句是过去进行时） The teacher told us (that) nothing is difficult if we put our hearts into it. （从句为客观真理）
引导宾语从句的 that 何时不能省略 that 引导宾语从句时，一般可以省略，但在下列情况下，引导宾语从句的常常不可省略。 1.介词 except, but, besides, in 等后跟 that 引导的宾语从句时。 The Swede stood quite still, except that his lips moved slightly. 2.That 引导的宾语从句和主句之间有插入语时。 I think, first of all, that we must believe in ourselves. 3.宾语从句为主从复合句且从句位于主句之前时。 He said that if he came back early, he could come for the meeting. 4.当 it 作形式宾语，后接 that 引导的宾语从句时。 We took it for granted that they would accept the proposal. 5.当 that 引导的宾语从句后紧接着作主语的 that (this)时，常不可省略。 He said that this was not his book, but his sister’s. 6.宾语从句不止一个时，第一个 that 可以省略，而其它的 that 常不可省略。
I think (that) it will clear up this afternoon and that they will come to say good-bye to us. 7.当 when, who, what, where, why, how 等引导的从句与 that 引导的从句作主句谓语动词的并 列宾语时。 I know what the time is and that the wind remains low.
宾语从句否定的转移 若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等，其后 的宾语从句若含有否定意义，一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上，从句谓语用肯定式。 I don’t think this dress fits you well.
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