Unit 3 The Million Pound Bank Note Noun clause as the object and predicative 启学案 1.英语句子概论 1.1 英语句子的种类 简单句 (simple sentence) 并列句 (compound sentence) 复合句 (complex sentence) 1.2 简单句的五种基本句型 The w
eather is very cold. 主语+谓语（连系动词）+表语 He laughed. 主语+谓语（vi.） I like Chinese food. 主语+谓语(vt.)+宾语 She taught them physics. 主语+谓语(vt.)+间接宾语+直接宾语 We must keep the room warm. 主语+谓语(vt.) +宾语+宾语补足语 1.3 并列句 把两个或几个简单句用并列连词连接起来。 常用并列连词: 平行并列连词: and, both…and, not only… but also, neither…nor 转折并列连词：but, however, while, yet, 因果并列连词: for, so 选择并列连词: or, either…or I turned on the TV. My sister and I watched it. ? . I bought my sister a present. She didn’t like it. ? Subject Clause(主语从句) 2.Noun Clauses (名词性从句) Object Clause（宾语从句） Predicative Clause（表语从句） Appositive Clause（同位语从句）
2.1 名词性从句在功能上相当于名词, 在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、 同位语等。 His job is important. 主语 What he does is important. This is his job. 表语 This is what he does every day. I don’t like his job. 宾语 I don’t like what he does every day. I don’t know about the man, Mr. White. 同位语 I don’t know about the fact that he is a teacher. 2.2 名词性从句的作用相当于名词，因此主语从句、表语从句 、宾语从句和 同位语从句分别作主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。 Who will win the match is still unknown. I want to know what he has told you. The fact is that we have lost the game. The news that we won the game is exciting.
Noun clause as the object and predicative 启训案
object Clauses 宾语从句 1.请对应写出句子成分 I know him. 简单句 （） （ ）（ ） I know who he is. 复合句 （）（ ） （ ） 句子做宾语就是宾语从句，跟在及物动词或介词后 句子结构： 主句 +连词（引导词）+ 宾语从句。 2 做动词的宾语 (1)大部分宾语从句直接跟在动词后： He doesn’t know where the post office is.
(2)有些宾语从句前要有间接宾语： He told me what I should read． (3)如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语， 要使用形式宾语 it 而将从句放到补足语 后面； I thought it strange that he failed to call me． (4)在 think, believe, suppose, expect 等动词之后的宾语从句中，如果从句 谓语是否定含义，则将主句谓语动词 think 等变为否定形式。 I don’t think you are right． (5) 在 think，believe，imagine，suppose，guess，hope 等动词以及 I’m afraid 等后， 可用 so 代替一个肯定的宾语从句， 还可用 not 代替一个否定的 宾语从句。 一 Do you believe it will clear up? 一 I believe so. I don't believe so. (或 I believe not.) 3.做介词的宾语 Did she say anything about how we should do the work? Your article is all right except that it is too long． I was surprised at what he said． 4.做形容词的宾语 I’m sure that he will come and join us. He is pleased that he has passed the test. 5.Conjunctions of Object Clauses(引导宾语从句的关联词): 从属连词 (不作成分） 连接代词 （作成分） 连接副词 （作状语） 一、连词（引导词） 1. that 1）.当宾语从句是由陈述句转变而来时（包括肯定句和否定句） ，连词由 that 引导，因为 that 在从句中不作任何成分，也没有任何具体意思，因此在口语 或非正式文体中常省略。 Lin Tao feels (that) his own team is even better. 2）.宾语从句中的连接词 that 在以下三种情况下不能省略：
Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. I think it necessary that you should read English aloud. （1）当 that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作宾语时，第二个 that ； （2）当 that 从句作 时，that 不可省掉。 （3）用 it 做 的宾语从句。 3）.在主句为动词 be 加某些形容词（如 sorry, sure, afraid, glad 等）作表语 时，后面所跟的省略 that 的从句也可算是宾语从句。 ? I’m sorry (that) I don’t know . ? We’re sure (that) our team will win . ? I’m afraid (that) he won’t pass the exam . 4）在 demand、order、suggest、 decide、 ? insist, desire, demand, request, command 等表示要求、 命令、 建议、 决定等意义的动词后，宾语从句常用“（should）+ 动词原形”。例如： ? I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工 作。 ? The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司 令员命令部队马上出发。 2. whether//if 当宾语从句是由一般疑问句变来时时，由连词 whether 或 if 引导， “是否”， 不能省略。 (1).Lily wanted to know _ __ her grandma liked the handbag . (2). Let’s see _ ___ we can find out some information about that city . (3).She asked me she could borrow these books . 注意 whether 和 if 的使用区别: whether 和 if 都可以引导宾语从句 a.当有 or not 时就用 whether,不用 if. I don’t know whether or not I will stay. b.介词后面的宾语从句不能用 if. I worry about whether I hurt her feeling. c. whether to do 做动词宾语不能用 if to do. d.引导 discuss 的宾语从句时，只能用 whether，不能用 if 1). I asked her ____________ she had a bike. 2）. We’re worried about _________ he is safe. 3）. I don’t know _________ he is well or not. 4）. I don’t know ________ or not he is well. 5）. I don’t know __________ I should go. _______ to go.
3. 当宾语从句是由特殊疑问句转变而来时，由疑问词（what, who, whom, which, whose when, where, how, why 等）引导，因为疑问词在从句中担任 一定的句子成分，具有一定的意义，所以不可以省略。 ? Do you know he said just now ? ? I don’t remember we arrived . ? I asked him I could get so much money . ? Please tell me we have to see . ? Do you know time the plane leaves ? 二、时态 1. 如果主句是现在的时态 （包括一般现在时 ，现在进行时，现在完成时） ， 从句的时态可根 据实际情况而定， （包括一般现在时，一般过去时，一般将 来时，现在完成时等） 。 ? I know he here .(live) ? I know he here ten years ago .(live) ? I have heard that he tomorrow .(come) 2.如果主句是过去的时态（包括一般过去时，过去进行时） ，那么从句的时态 一定要用相对应的过去的某种时态（包括一般过去时，过去进行时，过去将 来时， 过去完成时） I knew who here.(live) I saw she her mother. (talk) He asked whether his father _______________tomorrow. (come back) He said that he ____________it .(see) 3.当从句是客观真理，定义，公理，定理时用一般现在时。 The teacher said that the earth around the sun.（travel） 三、语序 宾语从句的语序用陈述语序：连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分。 1. When will he go to the library? 1) His brother asks when he will go to the library .( ) 2) His brother asks when will he go to the library .( ) 2. What does he want to buy ? 1) I don’t know what he wants to buy .( ) 2) I don’t know what does he want to buy( ) 3.1).I don’t know what is the matter \the trouble\wrong with him.( ) 2) .I don’t know who did it.( ) 3). I don’t know who is he.( ) 注意： it 常可以放在动词 think, find, consider, believe, feel, make 等后作为 形式宾语, 真正的宾语-that 从句则放在句尾.
1).We thought it strange that Xiao Wang did not come yesterday. 2). He has made it clear that he will not give in. *____________________(我们觉得很奇怪)she didn’t go to school today. 牛刀小试 1 Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunctions. 1）. ---Can you tell me _____ the man is ? --- He is my brother. 2）. I didn't know _____ he was coming until yesterday. 3）. The doctor asks ____ medicine you have taken. 4）. I want to know _____ they solved the problems in the city. 2.choose the best answer 1). The young man asked _____ it's summer or winter. A. either B. that C. weather D. whether 2). We don't know ______ they did it . A. how B. who C. what D. which 3). The teacher asks us ____ Jim can come back on time . A. that B. if C. when D. what time 4). Does anybody know ______ we will have a sports meeting this weekend or not . A. if B. where C. whether D. that 5). Could you show me ________ ? A. how can I get to the station B. where is the station C. how I could get to the station D. how I can reach the station 6). Please tell me _______. A. what does he like B. what he does like C. what he likes D. what he like 7）. My sister told him ________ . A. what day was it B. when the train arrived C. who she was waiting D. where did you live 8）. Someone is ringing the doorbell . Go and see _______ . A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is 9). Could you tell me how long __________ ? A. you have bought the watch B. you have kept this science book C. have you been away from China
D. have you been a member of Greener China 10). He says that if it _______ tomorrow , he _______ fishing . A. will rain , won't go B. rained , wasn't go C. rains , won't go D. rain , will go
Predicative Clause 表语从句
表语从句是在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主 语+系动词+表语从句”。可以接表语从句的系动词有: ? Be 动词 ? 5 个感观动词 look, sound, feel, smell, taste ? 表示发展变化的动词 become, turn, get, go, grow ? 表示保持不变 stay, remain, keep ? 表示”似乎，看起来” appear, seem ? 表示“原来是，结果是” prove Conjunctions of Predicative Clauses(引导表从句的关联词): 从属连词 (不作成分） 连接代词 （作成分） 连接副词 （作状语） Practice time The question is _____ we can rely on him. That’s ___ __ we w in need of money at He looked ___ he was going to cry . That’s ____ _I was late
that time .
1、that 引导的表语从句，that 仅起连接作用，无意义，在句中不作任何成分， 通常不可省略。这种从句往往是对主句主语的内容起进一步解释的作用。 ? The fact is that he hasn’t yet recover from illness. ? Our purpose is that he can realize his faults. ? The chance is that one smoker in four will die from smoking. 名词主语+be+that 引起的表语从句 表示事实， 真理的名词， 如： fact, truth 表 示看法，观点、问题、麻烦的名词，如：
idea, opinion, belief, view, news, advice, feeling, suggestion, plan, tro uble, question, problem 等 ? The fact is that our team has won the game. ? The truth is that she was the very person we are looking for. 2. whether 引导的表语从句，连接词 whether 起连接作用， 意为“是否、究 竟、到底”在句中也不作任何成分（注意：if 不能引导表语从句)。 ? The question is whether we can rely on him. ? The question is whether that man will turn up in time. ? What the doctor doubts is whether my mother will recover from t he disease soon. 3、连接代词 what,which,who,whom,whose 除在句子中起连接作用外，还 可在从句中充当主语、表语、定语，且各有各的词义。 ? Tom is no longer what he used to be. ? The question is which of us should come first. ? Theproblem is who is really fit for the hard job. ? The important thing is whose name should be put on the top of t he list. ? My strongest memory is when I attended an American wedding. 4. 连接副词 where, when, why, how 除在句中起连接作用外， 在从句中还充当 时间、地点、方式、原因状语，本身具有词义。 ? That’s where I can’t agree with you. ? This is why Sara was late for the meeting. ? This is how they overcome the difficulties. ? My strongest memory is when I attended an American wedding. 5. 其他连词 as if, because, as, as though 引导的表语从句 because 引 导表语从句通常只用于“This/That/It is because?”结构中。 ? as if/though 引导的表语从句常置于连系动词 look, seem, sound, be, become 等后面，常用虚拟语气，表示不存在 的动作或状态。 ? It sounds as if/though somebody was knocking at the door. ? My anger is because you haven’t written to me for a long time. Practice 1. That’s ___ the Party called on us to do. A. why B. what C. how D. that 2. The reason is ___ he is unable to operate the machine. A. because B. why C. that D. Whether 3 .That is ___ they separated. A. that B. what C. which D. where
4.Jane is no longer ___ she was four years ago. A. what B. which C. that D. when 找出各句中的从句并指出是何种从句。 1. I don't know if I can do it. 2. What he is doing seems very difficult. 3. The important thing is how we can improve our studies. 4. Mr Li always thinks of how he can do more for the people. 5. The news that she was pretending to be sick was whispered from one to another. 6. That's what you are going to do first. 7. It'll be decided at the class meeting who is to be the monitor of our class. 8. When the sports meet is to be held is still under discussion. 9. I was surprised at what he said. 10. He gave me the news that some Americans will visit our school tomorrow. Noun clause as the object and predicative 启悟案 Ⅰ. 单项填空 1. People try to avoid public transportation delays by using their own cars, and this _________ creates further problems. A. in short B. in case C. in doubt D. in turn 2. Parents are taught to understand _________ important education is to their children’s future. A. that B. how C. such D. so 3. Perseverance is a kind of quality—and that’s _________ it takes to do anything well. A. which B. that C. what D. why 4. —Would you like to do it? —I’d love to, but the question is _________ it is worth doing. A. if B. whether C. when D. that 5. —I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. —Is that _________ you had a few days off? A. where B. when C. what D. why 6. —Do you remember _________ he came? —Yes, I do. He came by car. A. how B. when C. that D. if
7. A modern city has been set up in _________ was a wasteland ten years ago. A. what B. which C. that D. where 8. They are teachers and don’t realize _________ to start and run a company. A. what it takes B. what takes it C. what they take D. what takes them 9. —I think it’s going to be a big problem. —Yes, it could be. —I wonder _________ we can do about it. A. if B. how C. what D. that 10. _________ frightened us _________ two lights appeared suddenly in the darkness. A. It was; that B. What was; most was that C. It; most what D. What; most was that 11. Can you tell me _________? A. did he whether pass the exam B. did whether he pass the exam C. whether did he pass the exam D. whether he passed the exam 12. We don’t doubt _________ he can do a good job of it. A. whether B. if C. that D. what 13. Why not try your luck downtown, Bob?That’s _________ the best jobs are. A. where B. wh at C. when D. why Ⅱ. 完成句子 1. The teacher suggested __________________（我们为即将到来的期末考 试作准备）. (prepare) 2. Do you know _______________（是否已做出什么决定）？(whether) 3. That is __________________（他拒绝接受的原因）. (why) 4. His request is __________________（我们应努力工作）. (work) 5. It appears __________________（好像他不了解此事故）. (as if) 6. She suggested __________________ （我们提出） the plan at the meeting. (bring) 7. The problem is ____________ （是否允许我） to go there with you. (permit) 8. The reason why she got angry was __________ （你盯着看） her. (stare)m] 9. That is __________________（他在寻找新方法的原因）. (seek) 10. Do you know __________________（何时发现故障）?(fault, spot)
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