修饰名词和代词的成分 the larger larger one
a beautiful flower
定语从句： 修饰名词和代词的从句 先行词 定语从句
This is the best film that that I have ever seen. 关系词
关系词 This is the best film that I have ever seen.
1） 2） 3）
God helps those who help themselves. He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man.
He whose hand is lazy has an empty mouth.
True friendship is like sound health, the value of which is seldom known until it is lost.
As is known to all, where there is a will, there is a way.
Revision1 the usage of the relative pronoun
关系 代词 who
whom which that whose 指代
人 物 句子
主语 宾语 定语
巩固练习：用适当的关系词填空 who/that 1.The girl __________is standing next to our teacher is her daughter. (who/whom/that) 2. The girl _________________our teacher is talking with is a famous singer. whose mother is a teacher can speak 3. The girl________ English very well. which/that 4. I can’t find the book ____________is borrowed from the library. (that/which) 5. I can’t find the book ________________you lent to me.
We will never forget the happy time when we worked on the farm. The reason why he could not go there was that his grades were too low .
This story is about a park where a very rich man keeps different kinds of dinosaurs.
the usage of the relative adverb
time place reason
在定语从句中， when/where/why=某个介词+ 先行词，可以用介词+which替换
when 1) October 1, 1949 was the day______ on ______) which China was founded. (__ where 2) Beijing is the place ______ from______) which I came. (____ why (___ for which 3) Is this the reason ____ _____) he didn’t want to see me?
where in ______) which 4) Is this the room ______(__ we were living last winter? when 5) The days are gone _____ during which (______ ______) we used “foreign oil”. where 6) Yesterday, we had a meeting ______ at ______) which we discussed many problems. (__
Revision 2 限制性定语从句与非限制 性定语从句的区别
类别 意义 功能
修饰 先行 词 修饰先 行词 / 整个句 子
无逗 号隔 开 有逗 号与 主句 隔开
有that 作宾语 时可以 省略 无that 不可以 省略
限定性 起限定作用。 定语从 若省略，原句 句 意义不完整。
非限定 起补充说明作 性定语 用。若省略， 从句 原句意义不受 影响。
Revision 2 限制性定语从句与非限制 性定语从句的区别
Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college. 她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上大学。 （隐含意思：或许不止一个哥哥） Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college. 她哥哥是当兵的，他总是鼓励她上大学。
The book (that /which) I bought yesterday is Harry Potter and the Order of Phoenix.
The book ,which I bought yesterday, is Harry Potter and the Order of Phoenix. 我昨天买的那本书是 《哈里.波特与凤凰令》
1.指物时只用that 或which 的情况 2.指人时that 与who的区别 3介词+关系代词 4.Whose 用法及转换形式 5.as 与which的区别
考点一:that 与which 的区别
只用that的情况: 1. 先行词为all, little, much, everything, nothing, something, anything等不定代词 2.先行词被all, little, much, every, no, 等修饰时。
last, the very, the only 等词时。
4. 先行词为人和物的组合 5.若主句中有疑问代词 who 或者 which，为了避免重复, 关系代词不要再用 who, which，而用 that。
考点一:that 与which 的区别
1. This is all ____ I know about the matter. A. that B. what C. who D. whether 2. Is there anything else _____ you require? A. which B. that C. who D. what 3. The last place _____ we visited was the Great Wall. A. which B. that C. where D. it
4. He talked happily about the men and books _____ interested him greatly in the school. A. which B. that C. it D. whom 5. There is no dictionary in the exam_____ you can turn to. A. that B. which C. where D. in that 6. Is oxygen the only gas _____ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which D. it
7. Which was the hotel _____ was recommended to you?
A. that B. which C. where D. it
1. Jim passed the driving test, ______ surprised everybody in the office. A.which B that C this D.it
2. The day ______ he was born was Aug .20 ,1952. A.on which B.that C.which
考点二: that 与who的区别 在anyone, those, he/she/I / they作先行词 时, 用”who” 代替 “that”. who Anyone _____breaks the law is punished. who break the law are punished. Those _____ who breaks the law is punished. He _____
考点三:介词+关系代词 提醒: 介词﹢关系代词引导的定语从句, 关键 是判断介词的选择. 方法一:根据从句中动词与先行词习惯搭配
语时，可将介词提前构成“介词+关系代 词” 的形式。此时关系代词只能用which 或 whom; 不可用that 或who 代替
Join them into one sentence.
The man is from Beijing University . I talked about him at the meeting. The man (who/whom/that) I talked about at the meeting is from Beijing University.. =The man about whom I talked at the meeting is from Beijing University.
关系代词紧跟在介词后面时， 只能用which或 whom且不能省略。该介词通常可以放在关系代 词之前，也可放在从句中。
Is this the book (which/that) you are looking for ? He is the man (whom/who/that/) I referred to. The patient (the nurse is taking care of) is a foreigner.
with whom you shook hands just 1.The man __________ now is our headmaster.
2.The room __________ in which my family live used to be a garage.
“介词+关系代词”结构引导非限制性定语从句， 一般有以下几种结构： (1)名词+介词+关系代词： They live in a house, the window of which faces south. (2)代词+介词+关系代词：
There are four students in the classroom, all of whom are working hard.
(3)数词+介词+关系代词： Last Sunday I bought quite a few books from the bookstore, three of which were English novels. (4)形容词比较级/最高级+介词+关系代词：
China has thousands of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan.
He has two daughters, the taller of whom is called Mary.
考点四 Whose 用法及转换形式 1. whose引导定语从句，其后应紧跟名词， 构成名词短语。 That’s the child whose father is a teacher. 2.whose引导定语从句，其先行词不仅可 以指人，还可以指物。 Do you know the woman whose husband is a doctor? This is a book whose cover is green.
3. whose的先行词指物时, 可用of which代替, 但词序不同， 即whose+名词=the +n + of which =of which + the + n.
He lives in the room whose window faces south.
= He lives in the room, the window of which faces south. = He lives in the room, of which the window faces south.
两者均可引导非限制性定语从句，有时可以互换， 但下列情况多用as。 1. 当与,so.such或the same连用时，一般用as。 e.g. Such books as you tell me are interesting. I have the same plan as you. 2. as 引导的从句可以放在句首, as 本身有“正如….. 正象…”之意，与之连用的词有 know, see, expect, announce, point out 等。 e.g. As we all know, the earth is round.
1. ______ was natural, he married Jenny.
2. Such signs _____ we use in the experiment ______
A. as, are
C. that, are
B. as, is
D. that, is
3. She is very good at dancing, ____ everybody knows. A. that B. which C. who D. as 4. ______ has been said above, grammar is a set of
A. Which B. What C. That D. As
5. We do the same work _____ they do. A. which B. as C. than D. like
选用定语从句的关系词时，需注意两点： 1.先行词 2.关系词在从句中充当的成分。 做主语，宾语，定语用 关系代词 做状语用
I will never forget the day _____ when I first went to school. I will never forget the day (which/that) __________ we spent in Beijing. (which/that) we The house __________ visited is being repaired now.
where Luxun once The house ______ lived is being repaired now.
对比练习：用适当的关系词填空 where/in which The room ___________________ he once lived is still there.
(that/which) The room ___________________ I have to clean every day belongs to my mother.
why/for which I don’t The reason ________________ know the thing is that I was not there at that time. (that/which) I don’t The reason _____________ know is known to him.
1.I am not one who ______afraid of is difficulty． 2.Don ’t choose me, who _______not fit for am this job．
3. This is one of the best books _______. A. that have ever been written B. that has ever been written C. that has written D. that have written 4. She is not the only one of the girls ___ well in class. A. which sings B. who sing C. who sings D. who to sing
? ? 考点八：定语从句和并列句的区别
The old man has two sons, both of B ______are college students. The old man has two sons, and both of C ____are college students. A. who they B. whom C. them D.
1. Is this factory ____ D we visited last week?
B we visited last Is this the factory ____ Week? A、where B、that
C、to which D、the one
2. Let me think of a proper situation
_______ this sentence can be used. A
C、of whom D、which
case, scene，point… 时，一般用where,
C 3. She will never forget the day_____ she spent in Beijing.
She will never forget the day_____ A she stayed with him in Beijing. A、when B、what
5. The college won’t take anyone _____ B eyesight is weak. A、who
B to take part in the game 6.Those _____ write down your names. A、who B、who want
C、who wants D、what
A grammar I am 7. I don't like English, _____ not interested. I don't like English, ____ B is difficult to learn. I like this house, _____ C doorway it is just enough to get . D doorway is small. I like this house, _____ A. in which B. which C. through whose D. whose
D 8. I，______ your good friend, will try my best to help you out.
A、who is B、what is
B 9. Which of the two cows ______ you keep produces more milk?
A、which C、what B、that D、as
D he can’t walk, 10. His walking stick, ____ was lost yesterday.
C、which D、without which
B 12. He must be from Africa, _____ can be seen from his skin. A. that B. as C. who D. what
D 14. This is the same pen ______I lost yesterday. A. as B. that C.the one D. A&B
...the same pen as I lost.
... the same pen that I lost.
15. The teacher gave us so difficult a A we couldn't solve. problem ___ The teacher gave us so difficult a problem ___ B we couldn't solve it. A. as
D. the ones
so ...that 后面跟的是一个结果状语从句，
16. ______is mentioned above, the B number of the students in senior high school is increasing.
17. I’ll tell you _____ D he told me last night. A. all which B. all what C. that all D. all
18. How do you like the book?
It’s quite different from _____ C I read last month. A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what
19. There are three libraries in our school, _______ were built five years ago. A、all of them B、either of them C、all of which
D、both of that
20.I bought some books from the bookstore, five ______were English A novels.
A. of which C. that
B. which D. in which
名词/代词/数词+of+ which /whom引导 非限定性定语从句
21.Here are players from Japan, some of _________ are our old friends. C
Here are some players from Japan and some of ________ are our old friends. D
A. which C. whom B. that D. them
1. 通读全句。首先判断是什么句型。 2. 题干句如果是疑问句式，将其转化为陈 述句式。 3. 分析从句的句子结构，在定语从句中， 缺什么，就补什么：缺主或宾语，用关 系代词；缺状语，用关系副词 4. 注意标点符号和题干中是否存在并列连 词and, but等。
A 1. I don’t like___you speak to her. (1996上海) A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 2. All of the flowers now raised here have developed from those ___in the forest. D A. once they grew B. they grew once C. they once grew D. that once grew (1997上海) 3. Carol said the work would be done by October, ______personally I doubt very much. D A. it B. that C. when D. which (99)
4. B is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior schools is increasing. A. Which B. As C. That D. It (1999上 海) 5. He was very rude to the Customs officer, D of course made things even worse. A. who B. whom C. what D. which (1999 上海) 6. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in B the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A. who B. which C. this D. what (2000) 7. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, B was very reasonable. (2000上海) A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose
8. The result of the experiment was very good, c we hadn’t expected. A. when B. that C. which D. what (2000北京春) 9. Have you seen the film “Titanic”, ______ c leading actor is world-famous? A. its B. it’s C. whose D. which (2001上海春 季) 10. John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, c was true. A. he B. this C. which D. who (2001北京春) 11. The film brought the hours to me c I was taken good care of in that far away village. A. until B. that C. when D. where (2001NMET)
12. B is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What (2001NMET) A 13. He is the only one of the students who ______ a winner of scholarship for three years. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been (2002上 海春季) A 14. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why (2001上海) A at the meeting for his 15. Is this the reason ______ carelessness in his work? A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained (2002上海 春季)
16. The famous basketball star, ______ tried to make a D
comeback, attracted a lot of attention. A. where B. when C. which D. who (2002北京春季) 17. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, ______ I will always treasure. B A. that B. one C. it D. what (2002NMET) 18. We will be shown around the city: schools, museums and C some other places, ______ other visitors seldom go. A. what B. which C. where D. when (2002北京) 19. We are living in an age D many things are done on computer. A. which B. that C. whose D. when (2003北京春) 20. B has been announced, we shall have our final exams next month. A. That B. As C. It D. What (2003上海春)
D 21. .George Orwell, ______ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. （2004北京） A. the real name B. what his real name C. his real name D. whose real name B is reported in the newspaper, talks between 22. ______ the two countries are making progress. （2004北京） A. It B. As C. That D. What 23. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, ______, of course, made the others envy him. D （2004天津） A. who B. that C. what D. which B 24. It is easy to do the repair, ______ you need is a hammer and some nails. （2004天津） A .Something B. All C. Both D. Everything
25. ________ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. （2004江苏） A. Which B. When D C. What D. As 26. Anyway, that evening, ____ I’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel’s place. （2004浙江） A. when B. where C. what D. which 27. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, _____ the sailing time was 226 days. （2004广 A 西） A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 28. I work in a business _________ almost everyone is C waiting for a great chance. （2004湖南） A.When B.Why. C.Where D.Wich
B 29. There was ________ time __________ I hated to go to school. （2004湖北） A．a; that B．a; when C．the; that D．the; when 30. There are two buildings, __________ stands nearly D a hundred feet high . （2004湖北） A．the larger B．the larger of them C．the larger one that D．the larger of which 31. What surprised me was not what he said but A _________ he said it. （2004湖北） A．the way B．in the way that C．in the way D．the way which 32. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% __________are sold abroad . （2004辽 A 宁） A．of which B．which of C．of them D．of that
33. American women usually identify their best friend as D they can talk frequently. （2004上海） someone _____ A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom C my students acted at the 34. The English play ______ New Year’s party was a great success. （2004全国I） A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which A 35. There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands. （2004全国II） A. where B. which C. when D. that 36. The journey around the world took the old sailor B nine months, ______ the sailing time was 226 days. （2004全国III） A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which
37. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, C five are mine. （2004全国IV） ______ A. on which B. in which C. of which D. from which 38. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without _______ we would have lost our way. （2004北京 D 春） A．it B．that C．this D．which B 39. A fast food restaurant is the place __________, just as the name suggests, eating is performed quickly. （2004上海春） A. which B. where C. there D. what B 40. ______ is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making progress. （2004北京） A. It B. As C. That D. What
41. I have many friends, D some are businessmen. （2005全国卷一二） A．of them B．from which C．who of D．of whom 42. — Why does she always ask you for help? （2005北京） — There is no one else _______ , is there? A. who to turn to B. she can turn to C. for whom to turn to D. for her to turn 43. If a shop has chairs women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. （2005上海） A. that B. which C. when D. where 44. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was stuck by floods, from ________ effects the people are still suffering. （2005天津） A. that B. whose C. those D. what
45. Mark was a student at this university from A 1999 to 2003, ______________he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students’ Union. （2005重庆） A．during which time B．for which time C．during whose time D．by that time 46. Her sister has become a lawyer, ___________she wanted to be. （2005湖北） D A. who B. that C. what D. which 47. Frank’s dream was to have his own shop_______ to produce the workings of his own B hands. （2005湖南 ） A．that B．in which C．By which D．how
48. The schools themselves admit that not all children will be D successful in the jobs ______ they are being trained. （2005江西） A．in that B．for that C．in which D．for which 49. The way he did it was different __________we were used to. C （2005江西） A．in which B．in what C．from what D．from which 50. I walked in our garden, _______ Tom and Jim were tying a big C 辽宁） sign onto one of the trees. （2005 A．which B．when C．where D．that 51. — Did Jack come back early last night? （2005福建） — Yes. It was not yet eight o ’ clock________ he arrived home. B D．until A．before B．when C．that
52. — Is that the small town you often refer to? （2005 福建） C — Right, just the one_________ you know I used to work for years. A．that B．which C．where D．what 53. He was educated at a local grammar school, __________ he went on to Cambridge. （2005山东） C A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this 54. Jim passed the driving test, __________surprised A everybody in the office. 2005浙江） A. which B. that C. this D. it C I explained on the phone, your request 55. _________ will be considered at the next morning. 2005浙江） A. When B. after C. As D. Since
56. The place ________ the bridge is supposed to be built should be _______ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. （2005江苏） A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which 57. Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the orest when they remembered the scenes ________ people were eaten by the tiger. （2005广东） A. in which B. by which C. which D. that 58. Do you still remember the chicken farm we visited three months ago? (2005北京春) A. where B. when C. that D. what 59. — Did Jack come back early last night? （2005福建） B he arrived home. — Yes. It was not yet eight o ’ clock________ A．before B．when C．that D．until
60.The doctor advised Vera strongly that she should take a holiday, but _______ A didn’t help.（2005全国三） A．it B．she C．which D．he 61. The owner of the cinema needed to make a lot of improvements and employ more people to keep it running, ______ D meant spending tens of thousands of pounds. ( 2006江苏卷) A. who B. that C. as D. which A roof 62. Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ______ is under repair. （2006福建卷） A. whose B. which C. of which D. what 63. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us, B we gave some bells and glasses. （2006湖南） A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which
64. I saw a woman running towards me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was，she had run back in the direction ________ she had come. （2006重庆卷） D A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which. 65. ——Do you have anything to say for yourselves? （2006江西 卷） ——Yes，there’s one point ________ we must insist on D A．why B．where C．how D．/ 66. Women _______ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ________ don’t. （2006北京卷） A. who ; 不填 B. 不填 ; who C. who ; who D. 不填表; 不填 67. We’re just trying to reach a point ____ A both sides will sit down together and talk. （2006山东卷） A. where B. that C. when D. which
68. She was educated at Beijing University, A ________She went on to have her advanced study abroad. （2006陕西卷） A. after which B. from which C. from that D. after that 69. I was given three books on cooking, the first B _______ I really enjoyed. ( 2006浙江卷) A. of that B. of which C. that D. which 70. I was told that there were about 50 foreign students D Chinese in the school, most were from Germany. ( 2006辽宁卷) A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom
71. The Beatles, D many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. ( 2006天津卷) A. what B. that C. .how D. as 72. You can find whatever you need at the shopping centre, ___ D is always busy at the weekend. ( 2006上海春招) A. that B. where C. what D. which
1----5 ADDBD 6----10 BBCCC 11----15 CBAAA 16----20 DBCDB 21----25 DBDBD 26---30 DACBD 31----35 AADCA 36----40 BCDBB 41---45 DBDBA 46----50 DBDCC 51----55 BCCAC 56----60 CACBA 61----65 DABDD 66---70 CAABD 71----72 DD
1. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, D wanted to buy it. (2007安徽卷) _____
A. none of them B. both of them C. none of whom D. neither of whom 2. We shouldn’t spend our money testing so many people, most of _____ D are healthy. (2007北京卷) A. that B. which C. what D. whom
D we learned 3. The village has developed a lot _____ farming two years ago. (2007福建卷)
A. when B. which C. that D. where
4. By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or B herself, ______ can be very eyeopening and rewarding. (2007湖南卷) A. who B. which C. what D. that 5. He was educated at the local A he went on to Beijing high school, ____ University. (2007江苏卷) A. after which B. after that C. in which D. in that 6. After graduation she reached a D she had to point in her career ____ decide what to do. (2007江西卷) A. that B. what C. which D. where
7. Some pre-school children go to a D they learn day-care center, _____ simple games and songs. (2007全国I) A. then B. there C. while D. where 8. —Where did you get to know her? D we —It was on the farm，_____ worked. (2007山东卷) A. that B. there C. which D. where 9. The book was written in 1946, D the education system has ____ witnessed great charges. (2007山东卷) A. when B. during which C. since then D. since when
10. Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases _____ beginners of English fail to use the language properly. (2007陕西卷) A. which B. as C. why D. where 11. It is reported that two schools, D ____ are being built in my hometown, will open next year. (2007四川卷) A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which 12. Those successful deaf dancers think that D sight matters more dancing is an activity _____ than hearing. 2007天津卷
B which C. whose D. where
D 13. Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, ____ used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. (2007浙江卷) A. that B. which C. who D. where 14. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree _____ D they can be controlled on purpose. (2007重庆卷) A. with which B. to which C. of which D. for which
15. Eric received training in computer for one year, ___ he found a job in a big company. [2007 辽宁卷]
A. after that B. after which C. after it D. after this
16. Nine o'clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, D ___________ appeared a rare rainbow soon. (2008福 建) A. of which B. on which C. from which D. above which D 17. The man pulled out a gold watch, __________ were made of small diamonds. (2008陕 西卷) A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of C. which the hands of D. the hands of which A 18. They will fly to Washington, ___________ they plan to stay for two or three days。(2008重庆) A. where B. there C. which D. when
D I have the time to 19. Occasions are quite rare ______ spend a day with the kids. (08山东) A. who B. which C. why D. when 20. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, _______ are beyond our control. (2008 湖南卷) A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that 21. I'll give you my friend's home address, _________ I can be reached most evenings。(08北京卷) A. which B. when C. whom D. where 22. All the neighbor admire this family. _________the B parents are treating their child like a friend. (2008安徽卷) A. why B. where C. which D.that
D 23. Villagers here depend on the fishing industry, ______ there won't
be much work. (2008上海春招)
A. where B. that C. by which D. without which
24. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread out further, _______ New York is an example。
A. for which B. in which C. of which D. from which
C communications were very 25. We went through a period _____ difficult in the rural areas. (2008年上海卷)
A. which B. whose C. in which D. with which 26—Where did you get to know her? ----It was on the farm D we worked .
A.that B there Cwhich
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