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高中英语语法归纳总结


高中英语语法权威解析
目录:
第01章 名词性从句
第02章 “It”用法及其句型和固定搭配讲解
第03章 高中英语语法中的省略现象
第04章 主谓一致
第05章 动词不定式
第06章 倒装结构
第07章 定语从句
第08章 被动语态
第09章 祈使句


第10章 感叹句
第11章 疑问句
第12章 名词
第一章 名词性从句


  在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句(Noun Clauses)。 名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

一. 主语从句
  主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替,而本身放在句子末尾。

1. It 作形式主语和it引导强调句的比较
It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而it引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词that。被强调部分指人时也可用who/whom。例如:
a) It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. 你不去看那场电影真可惜。
b) It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. 我对你成功与否不感兴趣。
c) It is in the morning that the murder took place. 谋杀案是在早上发生的。(强调句型)
d) It is John that broke the window. 是John打碎的窗户。(强调句型)

2. 用it 作形式主语的结构
(1) It is + 名词 + 从句
It is a fact that … 事实是…
It is an honor that …非常荣幸
It is common knowledge that …是常识
(2) It is + 形容词 + 从句
It is natural that… 很自然…
It is strange that… 奇怪的是…
(3) It is + 不及物动词 + 从句
It seems that… 似乎…
It happened that… 碰巧…
It appears that… 似乎…
(4) It + 过去分词 + 从句
It is reported that… 据报道…
It has been proved that… 已证实…
It is said that… 据说…

3. 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况:
(1)if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。
(2)It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
正确表达:It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week.
错误表达:That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said.
(3)It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
正确表达:It occurred to him that he failed in the examination.
错误表达:That he failed in the examination occurred to him.
(4)It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
正确表达:It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not.
错误表达:Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter.
(5)含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如:
正确表达:Is it likely that it will rain in the evening?
错误表达:Is that will rain in the evening likely?

4. what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别
what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而that 则不然。例如:
a) What you said yesterday is right.
b) That she is still alive is a consolation



二.宾语从句
宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。

1. 作动词的宾语
(1) 由that引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如:
I heard that be joined the army. 我听说他参军了。
(2) 由what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如:
a) She did not know what had happened. 她不知道发生了什么。
b) I wonder whether you can change this note for me. 我想知道你是否能帮我改一下笔记。
(3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如:
She told me that she would accept my invitation. 她对我说她会接受我的邀请。

2. 作介词的宾语,例如:
Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 我们的成功取决于我们之间的合作。

3. 作形容词的宾语,例如:
I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. 我恐怕我已经犯了一个错误。

注意:that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语:anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类词后的that 从句的看作原因状语从句。

4. it 可以作为形式宾语
it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语that 从句则放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 例如:
We heard it that she would get married next month. 我听说她下个朋就会结婚了。

5. 后边不能直接跟that 从句的动词
这类动词有allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive等。这类词后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不可以用that引导的宾语从句。如:
正确表达:I admire their winning the match.
错误表达:I admire that they won the match.

6. 不可用that从句作直接宾语的动词
有些动词不可用于“动词+间接宾语+that从句“结构中,常见的有envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate等。例如:
正确表达:He impressed the manager as an honest man.
错误表达:He impressed the manager that he was an honest man.

7. 否定的转移
若主句谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。例如:
I don’t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。

三. 表语从句
表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。引导表语从句的that常可省略。另外,常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。例如:
1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.
2) This is why we can’t get the support of the people.
3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes.
4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

四. 同位语从句
同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。

1. 同位语从句的功能
同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由that引导,例如:
1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people.
2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.

2. 同位语在句子中的位置
同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例如:
He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别
(1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。
(2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:
1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)
2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)





高一英语名词性从句专项练习
1.____he does has nothing to do with me.
A. whatever B. No matter what C. That D. If
2. The manager came over and asked the customer how____
A. did the quarrel came about B .the quarrel had come about
C. had the quarrel come about D. had the quarrel come about
3. Energy is ____makes thing work..
A. what B. something C. anything D. that
4. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.
A. while B. that C. when D. as
5. This is ___the Shenzhou V Spaceship landed.
A. there B. in which C. where D. when
6. They have no idea at all____.
A. where he has gone B. where did he go
C. which place has he gone D. where has he gone
7. The doctor did a lot to reduce the patient’s fear ____he would die of the disease.
A. that B. which C. of which D. of that
8. The order came ___the soldiers ____the small village the next morning.
A. that ;had to leave B. that; should leave
C. /; must leave D. when; should leave
9. ___is no possibility ____Bob can win the first prize in the match.
A. There; that B. It; that C. there; whether D. It; whether
10. The question came up at the meeting_____ we had enough money for our research.
A. that B. which C. whether D. if
11. Is _____he said really true?
A. that B. what C. why D. whether
12.____the meeting should last two days or three days doesn’t matter.
A. That B. Whether C. If D. Where
13. It worried her a bit _____her hair was turning gray.
A. while B. if C. that D. for
14. ???_____more countries can use natural energy in the future remains to be seen.
A. Whether B. This C. who D. If
15.____he will go to work in a mountain village surprises all of us.
A. What B. That C. Whether D. If
16. ____you don’t like him is none of my business.
A. What B. That C. Who D. How
17.____all the inventions have in common is ____they have succeeded.
A. What; what B. That; that C. what; that D. That ; what
18. ____appeared to me that he enjoyed the food very much.
A. What B. It C. All that D. That
19. It is widely ______that smoking can cause cancer.
A. believed B. think C. say D. hoped
20. ____caused the accident is still a complete mystery.
A. What B. That C. How D. Where

Keys:
1—5 ABABC 6—10 AABAC 11—15 BBCAB 16—20 BCBAA



第二章 “It”用法及其句型和固定搭配讲解




  "It" 用法及其句型和固定搭配,是高中英语语法的重点、难点,又是近几年高考的热点,因此应给予充分的重视,现将it用法归纳如下:
  一、It用作实词
  表达以下概念:指代前文提到的事物,前文中的this, that;替代前文中的内容;指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人;指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事;指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象……
二、It用作形式主语
  替代作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词,而把真正作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词置于句尾。
It 作形式主语的常见句型:
1. 代作主语的动词不定式,其句型为
(1) It be adj. (for sb.) to do sth.
此处adj. 通常为描述事件的形容词:easy, difficult, hard, necessary, unnecessary, possible, impossible, likely, unlikely, right, wrong, important, unimportant, legal, illegal, well-mannered, ill-mannered, polite, impolite, clear, obvious, certain, suitable, proper, fit, useful, useless, dangerous…
例 It is illegal (for a teenager) to drive a car without a license.
(2) It be adj. of sb. to do sth.
此处adj. 通常为描述人的形容词:kind, unkind, nice, rude, cruel, considerate, thoughtful, thoughtless, careful, careless, silly, foolish, stupid, clever, wise, crazy.
例 It's kind of you to help me with the problem.
(3) It替代作主语的动名词的常见句型
It's no good/use doing…
It's (well)worth doing…
It's (well)worth one's while doing/to do…
It's (well)worth while doing/ to do
例 It's no use crying over spilt milk.
2. It替代作主语的从句常见句型
(1) It is + noun +从句
例 It is no secret that the president wants to have a second term at office.
(2) It is adj. +clause
It's surprising that… (should)………竟然……
It's a pity/shame that…(should)………竟然……
例 It's important that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.(=It's of much importance that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.)
(3) It verb sb. + clause= It is v-ing + clause
It+surprise/delight/interest/disappoint/worry/disturb/annoy/amaze
/bother/concern/frighten/please/anger sb. that…
例 It worried me that she drove so fast.(= It was worrying that she drove so fast.)
(4) It verb (to sb.) that…= sb/sth verb to do
(verb = appear, seem, come about, emerge, follow, chance, happen, occur, transpire, turn out , work out)
例 It (so) happened/chanced that they were out.(= They happened/chanced to be out.)
(5) It is v-ed that…=sb/sth is to do
(verb=say, report, think, believe, hope, expect, agree, accept, decide, determine, intend, plan, understand, know)
例 It is said that the couple have gotten divorced.(=The couple are said to have gotten divorced.)
(6) It is v-ed that … (should)…
(verb=demand, request, require, order, suggest, advise, recommend
例 It is suggested that they should begin with the third question.
三、It作主语的句型
1. It takes sb. … to do…(=sb takes…to do…)某人用多长时间做某事
例 It took the men a week to mend our roof.(= The men took a week to mend our roof.)
2. It's (just)(un)like sb. to do…(不)像某人做某事的风格
例 It was (just) like him to think of helping us.
3. It's (about/high) time that… should /v-ed…是该做某事的时候了
例 It's(about/high) time that we should take action.
4. It's the x-th time (that) … have v-ed…第几次做某事了
例 It's the third time that he has failed the driving test.
5. It is/has been… since …continuous v-ed(延续性动词) 某动作已有多长时间不发生了
例 It's 10 years that he lived here
6. It was(not)… before…过(不)了多长时间某动作发生了
例 It was not long before they arrived.
四、It 作形式宾语
用来替代作宾语的从句、动词不定式、动名词,而把真正作宾语的从句、动词不定式、动名词置于句尾。
It 作形式宾语的常见句型:
1. verb+ it+ adj./noun (for/of) to do/clause (verb=think, believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)
例 I think it hard for you to do the task on your own./I think it hard that you'll do the task on your own.
2. verb+it+adj./noun (one's) doing (adj.=useless/worth/worthwhile)(noun=no use/no good/worth one's while/a waste of time/money/energy/words) (verb=think, believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)
例 I'll make it worth your while telling me about his secret.
3. verb+it+ important/unimportant/necessary/unnecessary/natural/essential that … (should)…
verb+it+of much/great/no/little importance that…(should)…
(verb=think, believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)
例 I think it important that you (should) attendthe conference.
4. verb + it+ as+ noun/adj.+ clause (verb=accept, regard, take, see, view)
例 The lecturer takes it as encouraging when so many students attend his lecture.
5. v. +it + prep. + that…
owe it to sb. that…把…归功于…
leave it to sb that…把…留给某人去做
take it for granted that …想当然
keep it in mind that…
例 Don't bother to arrange anything. Just leave it to me to sort out.
6. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词后面,尤其是表示好恶的动词后,enjoy, like, love, dislike, resent, hate, don't mind, be fond of, feel like, see to 宾语从句紧跟it之后
例 I hate it you can swim so well and I can't.
7. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的介词后面,宾语从句紧跟it之后(except that例外)
例 I'm for it that you will follow their advice.
五、强调句型
It is/was+被强调部分+ that(who)… 强调句型用来强调谓语动词以外的任何句子成分。当被强调部分是人时也可以用who。
在使用强调句型时需注意以下几点:
1. 请注意强调句型的特殊疑问句
例 When was it that he changed his mind to take part in the activity?
2. 在强调原因状语从句时,只能强调由because所引导的从句
例 It was because he was ill that he didn't come to school yesterday.
3. 在强调not … until结构时必须把not与until一起放到被强调的位置上
例 It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was my brother.
4. 注意强调句型与定语从句的区别
例 It was at 7 o'clock that he came here yesterday.( 强调句型)
It was 7 o'clock when he came here yesterday.(定语从句)
六、It 常用的固定搭配
1. make it
(1).在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达
例 It's hard to make it to the top in show business.
(2).在口语中相当于fix the date for,表示“约定好时间”
例 —Shall we meet next week?
—OK. We just make it next Saturday.
2. as it is
(1).相当于in fact, in reality表示“事实上,实际情况是……”
例 We had planed to finish the task today, but as it is we probably won't finish it until next week.
(2).相当于方式状语从句,表示“照原样”
例 Leave the table as it is.
3. as it were 相当于as one might say, that is to say, 表示“也就是说,可以说,换句话说”
例 He is, as it were, a modern Sherlock Holmes.
4. if it weren't for…/if it hadn't been for…用来引导虚拟语气,相当于without, or but for, 表示“如果不是……,要不是……”
例 If it weren't for Tom, I wouldn't be alive today.
5. that's it
(1). 相当于That's all. That's so much. 表示“至此为止,没有别的了”
例 You can have one more sweet, and that's it.
(2). 相当于 That's right.表示“对啦”
例 — I guess the key to the problem is thechoice “A”
—That's it.
6. catch it 在口语中,相当于be punished/scolded for doing sth. wrong. 表示“因做错事而挨骂,受责备,受批评,受惩罚”
例 We'll really catch it form our teacher if we're late for class again.
7. have it
(1).相当于say, insist表示“说,主张,表明,硬说”
例 Rumour has it that they are getting divorced.
(2).相当于get to know something,表示“了解,知道,获悉”
例 I had it from John that she was going abroad.
8. have what it takes在口语中,相当于be well qualified for, 表示“具有成功的条件”
例 You can take it from me that your daughter has what it takes to be a star.
9. so it seems / appears.
10. Keep at it! (Don't give up!)相当于go on,表示“继续做,不放弃”
例 My teacher asked me to keep at it.
11. Go it! (Go on!) 拼命干, 莽撞
12. Now you have done it! (You have done sth. wrong.)
13. Now you'll catch it! (You'll be punished.)
14. As it happened, … 在口语中,相当于it's a pity that…, 表示“真不凑巧,真遗憾”
例 As it happened, they were out.
15. As it turned out,…在口语中,相当于it was found to be in the end, 表示“最后被证明是”
例 As it turned out, his statement was false.
16. Such as it is(they are) 在口语中,相当于although it may not be worth much, 表示“虽然没有多大价值”
例 You can borrow my exam notebook, such as it is.
17. Take it/things easy. 相当于Don't worry or don't hurry. 用来劝告别人,表示“不要慌,别担心,存住气”
例 Take it easy! He will do it well.
18. Take it from me.在口语中,相当于believe me what I say.表示“请相信我的话,我敢担保”
例 You can take it from me that he will make it this time.
19. For what it is worth…在口语中,相当于although I'm not sure it's of value, 表示“不管其价值如何”
例 Here is the article I promise you, for what it's worth.
20. Worth it 在口语中,相当于useful, 表示“有好处,值得做”
例 Don't hesitate about it! It's worth it.
21. Believe it or not.表示“信不信由你”
例 Believe it or not, Tom is getting married to Mary next Sunday.
22. Take it or leave it. v. 要么接受要么放弃
例 That is my last offer. You can take it or leave it.
23. It all depends/that all depends 在口语中,相当于it hasn't been decided yet, 表示“那得看情况,还没有定下来”
例 —Are you going to the countryside for holiday?
—It/That all depends.
24. It's up to sb. 在口语中,相当于it's decided by sb. 表示“由……决定,由……负责,取决于……”
例 —Shall we go out for dinner?
—It's up to you.

“It”用法及其句型和固定搭配专练

1. Was it during the Second World War_____ he died?
A.that B.while C.in which D.then (88)
2. Is ____ necessary to complete the design before National Day?
A.this B.that C.it D.he (89)
3. I don't think ____ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work.
A.this B.that C.its D.it (91)
4.Does ______ matter if he can't finish the job on time?
A.this B.that C.he D.it (91)
5. It was not _____ she took off her glasses _____ I realized she was a famous film star.
A.when , that B.until , that C.until , that D.when , then (92)
6. I was disappointed with the film. I had expected ______ to be much better.
A.that B.this C.one D.it (93)
7. It was not until 1920 ______ regular radio broadcasts began.
A.while B.which C.that D.since (94)
8. ______is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.
A.There B.This C.That D.It (95)
9. It was only when I reread this poems recently _____ I began to appreciate their beauty.
A.until B.that C.then D.so (97)
10. I hate_____when people talk with their mouths full.
A.it B.that C.these D.them (98)
11. It is the ability to do the job _____ matters not where you come from or what you are.
A.one B.that C.what D.it (2000)
12.I like ___ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. (2004)
A. this B. that C. it D. one
13. —Do you like ___ here?
—Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of life. Everything is so nice.(全国卷)
A. this B. These C. That D. it
14. We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made ___ from some wood. (全国卷)
A. it B. One C. Himself D. another
15. The foreign Minister said, " _____ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace."(2004北京)
A. This is B. There is C. That is D. It is
16. _____ is reported in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress. (2004北京)
A. It B. As C. That D. What
17. — How often do you eat out?(2004, 天津)
— ________, but usually once a week.
A. Have no idea B. It depends C. As usual D. Generally speaking
18. We wanted to get home before dark, but it didn't quite _____ as planed. (2004浙江卷)
A. make out B. turn out C. go on D. come up
19. — What do you want to do next? We have half an hour until the basketball game.
—________. Whatever you want to do is fine with me.
A. It just depends B. It's up to you C. All right D. Glad to hear that
20. It was ____ back home after the experiment.
A. not until midnight did he go
B. until midnight that he didn't go
C. not until midnight that he went
D. until midnight when he didn't go

KEYS:

1-5 ACDDB 6-10 DCDBA 11-15 ACDBD 16-20 BBBBC



第三章 高中英语语法中的省略现象



  在英语语言中,为了使语言简洁明了,重点突出或上下文紧密相连,可以省去某些句子成分而保持句子愿意不变,这种语言现象称之为省略。现就英语中的种种省略现象分析如下:

一、并列复合句中的省略
在并列句中后边的分句可以省略与前边分句中相同的成分。如:
a) The boy picked up a coin in the road and (the boy ) handed it to a policeman. 这个男孩在马路上拾起一枚硬币并把他交给了警察。
b) Your advice made me happy but(your advice made) Tom angry .你的建议使我高兴但使汤姆生气。
c) Tom must have been playing basketball and Mary (must have been)doing her homework. 汤姆肯定一直在打篮球,玛丽一直在写作业。
d) Gao Xiumin was born in 1959 and Fu Biao (was born) in 1963.高秀敏出生于1959年,傅彪出生于1963年。

二、主从复合句中的省略
1.状语从句中的省略
  一般说来省略现象多出现在下列五种状语从句中:由 when ,while ,as ,before, after , till, until, once等引导的时间状语从句;由whether ,if , unless 等引导的条件状语从句;由though , although ,even if ,whatever等引导的让步状语从句;由 as ,than 等引导的比较状语从句;由as, as if , as though 等引导的方式状语从句。上述状语从句在省略时应遵循下面原则:
1) 当状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致时,可以省略状语从句的主语和系动词be,这时从句中可出现如下结构:(1) 连词(as, as if , once)+ 名词; (2) 连词( though, whether , when)+形容词;(3) 连词(whether, as if ,while )+介词短语;(4) 连词(when , while , though )+ 现在分词; (5) 连词(when ,if ,even if ,unless ,once ,until, than , as ) + 过去分词; (6) 连词(as if ,as though ) + 不定式。如:
a) Once (he was)a worker ,Pang Long now becomes a famous singer .庞龙曾经是个工 人,现在变成一位著名的歌手。
b) Work hard when (you are) young ,or you'll regret.趁年轻要努力学习,要不然你会后悔的。
c) He looked everywhere as if (he was)in search of something .他到处看似乎在找什么东西。
d) While (he was) holding talks with President Hu Jintao ,US President George W. Bush thanked China for its important role in the Six-Party Talks.美国总统布什在与胡锦涛主席会谈时,感谢中国在六方会谈中起的重要作用。
e) The exhibition is more interesting than (it was) expected .这次展览比被预料的有趣的多。
f) Olympic gold medallist hurdler Liu Xiang opened his lips as if (he were) to speak。奥林匹克金牌获得者跨栏运动员刘翔张开嘴好像要说什么。
注意:
1) 当从句的主语和主句的宾语一致时,间或也有这样的省略,如:
Her father told her to be careful when (she was)crossing the street.当她过马路时父亲告诉她要当心。
2) 当从句的主语是 it,谓语动词中又含有系动词be 时 ,可以把it和系动词be一起省略。此时构成连词(if , unless ,when , whenever)+形容词的结构。如:
Unless (it is) necessary ,you'd better not refer to the dictionary.如果没有必要,你最好不要查字典。

2.定语从句中的省略
1) 一般说来,在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词 that ,which , whom 可以省略;如:
Is this reason (that) he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?这就是他在会上解释他工作中粗心的原因吗?(2002上海春季)
  而在非限制性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词 which , whom 不可以省略。试比较:
Tom (whom) you saw yesterday fell ill.( whom可以省) 你昨天见到的汤姆病倒了。
Tom , whom you saw yesterday ,fell ill. ( whom不可以省) 汤姆病倒了,你昨天见到他了。
2)在口语和非正式用语中,关系副词when ,where , 和 why 经常用that 来代替,甚至还可省略。如:
a) This is the first time (when/that)he had trouble with the boss.这是他第一次麻烦老板。
b) He wants to find a good place (where/that) we can have a picnic during the “golden week ”holiday .他想找一个能在黄金周期间野餐的好地方。
c) Could you tell us the reason (why/that)he was so unhappy ? 你能告诉我们他为什么如此不高兴吗?
3)当先行词为表示方式的 the way 时 ,从句不能用 how 来引导 ,应该用that 或 in which ,或将它们全部省略。如:
I don't like the way (that/in which) you laugh at her.我不喜欢你嘲笑他的行为。
3.宾语从句中的省略
1)在及物动词后面所接的宾语从句中,连词that 一般可以省略;但如果及物动词后面是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列的宾语从句 ,那么只有第一个that可以省略。如:
a) I think (that) the reform of the renminbi's exchange rate is necessary. 我认为人民币兑换率的改革是必要的。
b) He said (that)the Anti-secession law had been passed and that President Hu Jintao had signed a presidential order 他说《 反分裂国家法》已被通过,而且胡锦涛主席已签署了主席令。
2)由 which , when ,where , how,和 why 引导的 宾语从句,可以全部或部分省略。如:
a) I know that NBA star Yao Ming will come to our city but I don’t know when (he will come to our city).我知道NBA明星要到我们城市来但我不知道他什么时候来。
b) He wants to move abroad but his parents wonders why (he wants to move abroad)他想搬迁到国外但他的父母想知道为什么。
4.在与suggest ,request ,order ,advise 等词相关的名词性从句中,须用虚拟语气形式“should +动词原形”,should可以省略。如:
Chirac, President of the Republic of France suggested that the China-France Culture Year (should) last long in various forms.法国总统希拉克建议中法文化年以各种各样的形式长期持续。
5.主句省略多用于句首。如:
(It is a ) Pity that I didn’t go to Mary's birthday party yesterday.很遗憾,我昨天没有去参加玛丽的生日聚会。
6.在答语中,主句可全部省略。如:
—Why were you absent from school last Friday ?—(I was absent from school)Because my mother was ill. —上周五你为什么没有上学? —因为我妈妈病了。




三、简单句中的省略
1.省略主语
1)祈使句中的主语通常被省略 如:
(You) Open the door, please. 请开一下门。
2) 其它省略主语多限于现成的说法 如:
a) (I) Thank you for your help 谢谢你的帮助。
b) (It)Doesn’t matter.没关系。
2.省略主谓语或主谓语的一部分 如:
a) (There is) No smoking. 禁止抽烟
b) (Is there)anything else ? 还有其他事吗 ?
c) (You come)This way please.请这边走。
d) (Will you) Have a smoke ? 抽烟吗 ?
3.省略宾语 如:
—Do you know Mr. Li ? 你认识李先生吗?— I don’t know (him.) 我不认识他
4.省略表语 如:
—Are you thirsty ? 你30岁了吗? Yes , I am (thirsty). 是的,我是。
5.同时省略几个成分 如:
a) —Are you feeling better now? 你觉得好些了吗 ?—(I am feeling ) Much better (now) 好多了。
b) (I wish) Good luck (to you) .祝你好运/祝你顺利。

四、动词不定式省略,只保留to 的场合
1.不定式作某些动词的宾语时,这些动词常见的有:love, like, care, wish, hope, expect, prefer, refuse, mean , try , oblige , advise , persuade , agree , want , afford , forget , remember , try , manage等。如:
a)— You should have thanked her before you left . —I meant to ,but when I was leaving I couldn’t find her anywhere.—你本该在离开前谢谢她。—我本打算这么做,但当我就要离开的时候我却找不到她了。(2000上海春)
b) You can do it this way if you like to .如果你想做,你可以这么做。
2.不定式作某些动词的宾语补足语或主语补足语时,这些动词常见的有:ask , tell ,advise, force, persuade, wish, allow, permit , forbid ,expect, order ,warn 等。如 :
a) The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street ,but his mother told him not to. 男孩想在街上骑他的自行车,但他母亲不让。(NMET1995)
b) She wants to come but her parents won’t allow her to (come). 她想来,可是她父母不让。
3.不定式在句中作某些形容词的状语时,常见的形容词有:happy, glad ,eager , anxious , willing , ready 等。如:
 — I will be away on a business trip .Could you mind looking after my cat ?   — Not at all.I would be happy to (look after your cat). —我要出差,你能帮我照顾一下我的猫吗?—没关系,我很愿意。
4.不定式作某些复合谓语时,常见结构如:be able to, be going to, have to, ought to, used to等。如:
 He doesn’t like fish but he used to 他现在不喜欢吃鱼,但过去喜欢。

五、动词不定式to 的省略
1.主语部分有to do ,系动词 is 或 was 时 ,作表语的不定式通常省去to。如:
 The only thing you have to do is press the button.你必须做的惟一事情是按按钮。
2.作介词but ,expect ,besides 的宾语,前面又有实意动词 do时,不定式通常省去to. 如:
 He said that Chen Shuibian had nothing to do except push a pro-“independence” timetable.他说陈水扁除了推进支持“独立”的时间表外,什么也没有做。
3.主语部分暗含to do,表语中的不定式通常省去to。如:
 All I want (to do) is go to school and study hard .我想要(做)的就是上学,努力学习。
4.当两个或多个不定式并列时,其后的不定式符号可以省略,但有对比关系时不可省略。如:
 It is easier to say than to do . 说起来容易,做起来难。
5.在would rather…than… 等结构中,不定式符号常常要省略. 如:
 I would rather stay at home than go to see a film.我宁愿呆在家也不愿去看电影。
6.在see ,watch ,notice ,hear, listen to ,look at ,feel ,have, make, let ,observe 等词后作宾语补足语时省略不定式符号to;why (not) do 结构 中, 不定式不带to。如:
 a) I saw her enter the room. 我看见她进入了房间
 b) Why not join us ?为什么不加入到我们的行列里来呢?

六.其他一些省略结构
1.名词所有格修饰的名词,若表示住宅、店铺、教堂或上下文已暗示或明确指出过的事物时,常常可以省略。如:
 We spent the weekend at the Mary's. 我们在玛丽家过的周末。
2.What和 how引导的感叹句中,常可省略主语 it 和be动词 如:
a) What a wonderful victory (it is ) for Tom ! 这对Tom来说是个多么大的胜利呀!
b) How beautiful (it is ) to be treated like a normal child. 被当作一个正常孩子对待对他而言是多么美妙的一件事呀。


第四章 主谓一致



主谓一致(Subject- Verb Agreement),指”人称”和”数方面的一致关系.如: He is going abroad. They are playing football. 可分为:语法一致, 内容一致, 就近一致.

(一) 语法一致原则: 即主语为单数,谓语用单数,主语为复数,谓语也用复数. 以下为注意事项:
1. 单数主语即使后面带有with , along with, together with, like(象), but (除了),except, besides, as well as, no less than, rather than(而不是), including, in addition to 引导的短语, 谓语动词仍用单数.
如: Air as well as water is matter. 空气和水都是物质.
No one except two servants was late for the dinner. 除了两个仆人外, 没有一个人迟来用餐。

2. 用and连接的并列主语,如果主语是同一个人,同一事,同一概念, 谓语动词用单数, 否则用复数. 如:
The poet and writer has come. 那位诗人兼作家来了.(一个人)
A hammer and a saw are useful tools. 锤子和锯都是有用的工具. (两样物)
用and连接的成对名词习惯上被看成是一个整体, 如:bread and butter(黄油抹面包), knife and fork(刀叉)等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

3. 不定式(短语), 动名词(短语), 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. 如:
Serving the people is my great happiness.
为人民服务是我最大的幸福.
When we’ll go out for an outing has been decided.
我们什么时候出去郊游已决定了。

4. 用连接的并列主语被each, every 或no修饰时, 谓语动词用单数.
Every boy and every girl likes to go swimming. 每个男孩和每个女孩都喜欢去游泳.
No teacher and no student was absent from the meeting. 没有老师也没有学生开会缺席.
Each man and (each) woman is asked to help. 每个男人和每个女人都被请去帮忙。

5. each of + 复数代词, 谓语动词用单数. 复数代词+each, 谓语动词用单数.如:
Each of us has something to say. 我们每个人都有话要说。
6. 若主语中有more than one 或many a/an , 尽管从意义上看是复数, 但它的谓语动词仍用单数。 但more+复数名词+than one做主语时, 谓语动词仍用复数. 如:
Many a boy likes playing basketball. 许多男生都喜欢打篮球.
More than one student was late. 不只一个学生迟到
More persons than one come to help us. 不止一个人来帮助我们。

7. none 做主语时,谓语动词可用单数, 也可用复数; 但在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数,因而谓语动词要用单数. 如:
None of us are (is) perfect. 人无完人。
None of this worries me. 这事一点不使我着急。

8. 名词如: trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, glasses 等作主语时, 谓语动词必须用复数. 如:
His clothes are good. 但这些名词前若出现 a pair of , 谓语一般用单数.如:
A pair of glasses is on the desk. 桌上有一副眼镜。

9. 形复意单名词如:news ; 以ics 结尾的学科名称如: physics, mathematics, economics; 国名如: the United States; 报纸名如: the New Times; 书名如: Arabian Night <天方夜谈>; 以及The United Nations<联合国> 等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

10. “a +名词+and a half “, “one and a half + 名词”, “the number of + 名词” 等作主语时, 谓语动词要用单数. 如:
Only one and a half apples is left on the table.
注意: one or two + 复数名词作主语, 谓语动词用复数形式, 如:
One or two places have been visited. 参观了一两个地点。

(二) 内容一致原则:
1.主语中有all, half, most, the rest等, 以及”分数或百分数+名词”做主语时,谓语动词单复数取决于连用的名词.如:
The rest of the bikes are on sale today. 剩下的自行车, 今天出售。
60%of the apple was eaten by little boy. 这个苹果的60%都被这个小男孩吃了。
Most of the apples were rotten. 大部分的苹果都是烂的。
Most of the apple was eaten by a rat. 这个苹果的大部分被老鼠吃了。

2. 不定数量的词组, 如:part of , a lot of , lots of , one of , a number of , plenty of等作主语时, 谓语动词的单复数取决于量词后面名词的数.如:
A part of the textbooks have arrived. 一小部分教科书已运到。
A part of the apple has been eaten up by the pig. 这个苹果的一部分被猪吃光了。

3. 加减乘除用单数.如:
Fifteen minus five is ten . 15减去5等于10。

4. 表示时间, 金钱, 距离, 度量等的名词做主语时, 尽管是复数形式, 它们做为一个单一的概念时, 其谓语动词用单数.如:
Ten miles is a good distance. 十英里是一个相当的距离。

5. (1) 通常作复数的集体名词. 包括police , people, cattle 等, 这些集体名词通常用作复数.如:
The British police have only very limited powers.
(2) 通常作不可数名词的集体名词. 包括equipment, furniture, clothing, luggage 等.
(3) 可作单数也可作复数的集体名词. 包括 audience, committee, government, family, enemy, group, party, team, public 等.如:
The committee has/have decided to dismiss him. 委员会决定解雇他。

6. the +形容词/过去分词形式”表示一类人或事物, 作主语时, 谓语动词用复数.如:
The injured were saved after the fire.

(三) 就近原则
1. 由here, there, where 等引导的倒装句中, (有时主语不止一个时)谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致.如:
Here comes the bus 公共汽车来了.
Here is a pen and some pieces of paper for you. 给你一支钢笔和几张纸。
Where is your wife and children to stay while you are away?
你不在这儿的时候, 你爱人和孩子在哪儿呆呢?

2. 用连词or, either.... or, neither….nor, not only….but also 等连接的并列主语, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致。 如:
Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything about it 学生和老师都不知道这事.
He or you have taken my pen. 他或你拿了我的钢笔。
注意: one of +复数名词+who/that/which 引导的定语从句中, 定语从句的动词为复数。如:
Mary is one of those people who keep pets. 玛丽是饲养宠物者之一。
The only one of +复数名词+ who/that./which 引导的定语从句中,定语从句的动词应为单数。
Mary is the only one of those people who keeps pets. 玛丽是唯一一个饲养宠物的人。

主谓一致练习
1. About 60 percent of the students _____ from the south, the rest of them _____ from the north and foreign countries.
A. are/is B. are/are  C. is/are D. are
2. Half of the workers here _____ under 30 _____.
A. is/years B. are/year old C. is/years old D. are/years of age
3. Now Tom with his classmates _____ football on the playground.
A. play B. are playing  C. plays D. is playing
4. The number of pages in this dictionary _____ about two thousand.
A. are B. has  C. have D. is
5. Thirty dollars _____ too expensive.
A. are B. is C. were D. be
6. The audience _____ so large that no seat was left unoccupied in the great hall.
A. is B. are C. was D. has
7. The secretary and principal _____ at the meeting now.
A. are speaking B. is speaking C. were making a speech D. have a speech
8. "If anybody _____, please put down _____ name," said the teacher to the monitor.
A. wants to buy the book/his B. want to buy the book/their
C. will buy the book/one's D. wants to have the book bought/her
9. Nothing but one desk and six chairs _____ in the room.
A. are B. is stayed C. is D. are left
10. Having arrived at the station, _____.
A. it was found that the train had left &nb, sp; B. th, e trai, n had left
C. the train was found left D. he found that the train had left
11. Between the two roads _____ a TV tower called "Skyscraper Tower".
A. stands B. standing C. which stands D. stand
12. Either of you _____ going there tonight.
A. will B. was C. is D. are
13. You as well _____ right.
A. I are B. I am C. as I am D. as I are
14. All but Dick _____ in Class Three this term.
A. are B. is C. were D. was
15. -- Shall I wait here for three hours?
  --Yes. Three hours ___, __ t, , , , , o wait for such a doctor.
A. are not very long for you B. is not long enough fo, , , , , r you
C. was not long enough for you D. will be too long for you
16. Where to get the materials and how to get them _____ at the meeting.
A. have not discussed B. have not been discussed
C. has not discussed D. has not been discussed
17. I took mathematics and physics because I think that _____ very important for me to make further research in this field.
A. what is B. they are C. this D. which are
18. Every student and every teacher _____.
A. are going to attend the meeting B. have attended the meeting
C. has attended the meeting D. is attended the meeting
19. Three fourths of the bread _____ by Bob, and the rest of the bread _____ left on the table.
A. was eaten/were B. were eaten/was  C. were eaten/were D. was eaten/was
20. This pair of shoes _____.
A. is her B. is hers  C. are hers D. are her
21.There ______ no life on the moon.
A. is said to have B. are said to have C. is said to be D. are said to be
22.A group of ______ are eating ______ and ______ at the foot of the hill
A. sheep; grass; leaves B. sheeps grasses leaves
C. sheep; grass leaf D. sheeps grass leafs
23.My family raise a lot of _______, including two______.
A. cattles cows B. cows cattle C. cattle cows D. cow, cattles
24.What he says and what he does_______.
A. does not agree B. do not agree C. does not agree with D. not agree
25.The boy and the girl each ______ toys.
A. have their own B. has their own C. have her own D. has her own
26.She is the only one among the ______ writers who ______stories for children.
A. woman, writes B. women write C. women writes D. woman write
27.The railway station is ______from our school.
A. two hour`s drive B. two hours` drive C. two hour drive D. two hours drive
28.Mike and John`s ______.
A. father is a teacher B. fathers are teachers
C. father are teachers D. fathers are teacher
29.A great deal of talking and listening that ______ under casual circumstance may seem to be aimless.
A. is occurred B. are occurred C. occurs D. occur
30._______ the classroom needs to be cleaned.
A. Either the offices or B. The offices and C. Both the office and D. The office and
31.Three-fourths of the homework ______today.
A. has finished B. has been finished C. have finished D. have been finished
32.More than 60 percent of the world’s radio programmes ______in England.
A. is B. was C. are D. be
33. ______work has been done to improve the people`s living standard
A.A great deal of B.A great many C.A large number of D.Many
34.The rest of the magazines ______ within half an hour.
A.is sold out B.are sold out C.was sold out D.were sold out
35.There ______ a lot of sugar in the jar.
A. has B.have C.is D.are
36. “All ______present and all ______going on well”, our monitor said.
A.is is B.are, are C.are is D.is are
37.Yesterday the League secretary and monitor ______ asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A.is B.was C.are D.were.
38.Mary as well as her sisters ______ Chinese in China.
A.are studying B.have studied C.studies D.study
39.The rich______ not always happy.
A.are B.is C.will D.may
40. ______can be done ______done.
A.All, have been B.All that ,have been C.All has D.All that ,has been
41.Either of the plans ______equally dangerous.
A.are B.is C.has D.have
42.The police ______the murderer everywhere when he suddenly appeared in a theatre.
A.is searching B.were searching for
C.are searching D.was searching for
43.Your trousers ______dirty, you must have______ washed.
A.is it B.are it C.are them D.is them
44.The Olympic games ______held every four ______.
A.is years B.are years C.is year D.are year
45.He is the oly one of the students who______elected.
A.are B.have C.has D.is
46. ______a good enough price for this book
A.Two yuans are B.Two yuan are C.Two yuans is D.Two yuan is
47.No bird and no beast ______in the lonely island
A.are seen B.is seen C.see D.sees
48.Every means ______prevent the water from______
A.are used to polluting B. get used to polluting
C.is used to , polluted D.is used to ,being polluted
49.Each of the ______in the ship.
A.passenger has his own room B. passengers have their own room
C.passenger have their own room D.sengers has his own room
50.What we need ______good textbooks.
A.is B.are C.have D.has
51.What you said just now______to do with the matter we are discussing.
A.have something B.has something C.had something D.was something
52.Either your parents or your elder brother ______to attend the meeting tomorrow.
A.is B.are C.are going D.have
53.Neither of the novels which ______popular with us ______been translated into Chinese.
A.are has B.are have C.is have D.is has
54.Every boy and every girl ______to attend the evening party.
A.wish B.wishes C.hope D.are hoping
55._______ has been done.
A.nety—nine percents of the work B. Half of what he promised
C. Two-fifths of the articles D. Three quarter of the business

答案:
1-5 BDDDB 6-10 ABACD 11-15 ACDAB 16-20 DBCDB
21-25 CACBA 26-30CBACA 31-35 CCADC 36-40CBCAD
41-45 BBCBD 46-50 DBDDB 51-55 BAABB



 



第五章 动词不定式





1 不定式作宾语
1) 动词+ 不定式
afford, aim, appear, agree, arrange, ask, be, decide, bother, care, choose, come, dare, demand, desire, determine, expect, elect, endeavor, hope, fail, happen, help, hesitate, learn, long, mean, manage, offer, ought, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, tend, wait, wish, undertake

The driver failed to see the other car in time. 司机没能及时看见另一辆车。
I happen to know the answer to your question. 我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。

2) 动词+不定式;动词+宾语+不定式
ask, beg, choose, expect, hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish

I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。
I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你使每件东西都保持整洁。
I want to speak to Tom.  我想和汤姆谈话。
I want you to speak to Tom.  我想让你和汤姆谈话。

3) 动词+疑问词+ to
decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell  

Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。
There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。

注意
疑问词带不定式在句中作成分时,谓语动词用单数。如:The question is how to put it into practice. 问题是怎样把它付诸实施。

2. 不定式作补语
1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do)
advise, allow, appoint, believe, cause, challenge, command, compel, consider, declare, drive, enable, encourage, find, forbid, force, guess, hire, imagine, impel, induce, inform, instruct, invite, judge, know, like, order, permit, persuade, remind, report, request, require, select, send, state, suppose, tell, think, train, trust, understand, urge, warn

a.Father will not allow us to play on the street. 父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。
b.We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。

Find 的特殊用法
Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get,have。

I found him lying on the ground.
I found it important to learn.
I found that to learn English is important.

典型例题
The next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead. 
A. lying  B. lie  C. lay  D. laying  
答案:A.find的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。

2) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。
acknowledge, believe, consider, think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel, find, guess, judge, imagine, know, prove, see(理解), show, suppose, take(以为), understand

We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class. 我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。

典型例题
Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer. 
A. to invent B. inventing  C. to have invented  D. having invented 
答案:A. 由consider to do sth. 排除B、D。. 此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。而C为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选C。

3) to be +形容词
seem, appear, be said, be supposed, be believed, be thought, be known, be reported, hope, wish, desire, want, plan, expect, mean

The book is believed to be uninteresting. 人们认为这本书没什么意思。

4) there be+不定式
believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand

We didn't expect there to be so many people there. 我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。

注意
有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如regard, think believe, take, consider.
We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。
Mary took him as her father . 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。

3. 不定式作主语
1) It's easy (for me) to do that. 我做这事太容易了。
easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better;
the first, the next, the last, the best, too much, too little, not enough

It's so nice to hear your voice. 听到你的声音真高兴。
It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it. 当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。

2) It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。
kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly, selfish(自私的)

It was silly of us to believe him. 我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。
It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。

注意
1) 其他系动词如,look,appear等也可用于此句型
2) 不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。
3) 当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is… to…的句型
(对)To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。(错)It is to believe to see.

It's for sb.和 It's of sb.
1) for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult,  interesting, impossible等:
It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。
2) of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。
It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。

for 与of 的辨别方法
用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of,不通则用for。如:You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)。He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用for。)


4. 不定式作表语
不定式可放在be动词后面,形成表语。例如:
My work is to clean the room every day.
His dream is to be a doctor.

5. 不定式作定语
不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后。例如:
I have a lot of work to do. 
So he made some candles to give light.

6. 不定式作状语
1) 目的状语 
To… only to (仅仅为了), in order to, so as to, so(such)… as to… (如此……以便……)
He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。
I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。

2) 作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。
What have I said to make you angry.
He searched the room only to find nothing.

3) 表原因
I'm glad to see you.

典型例题
The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___. 
A. sit  B. sit on  C. be seat  D. be sat on
答案:B. 如果不定式为不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。当动词与介词连用时,常位于"形容词+动词不定式"结构的末尾。

用作介词的to
to 有两种用法:一为不定式+动词原形; 一为介词+名词/动名词, to 在下面的用法中是第二种,即to+ 名词/动名词:admit to承认,confess to承认,be accustomed to 习惯于,be used to 习惯于,stick to 坚持,turn to开始,着手于,devote oneself to 献身于,be devoted to 致力于, look forward to 盼望,pay attention to

注意
省to 的动词不定式

1) 情态动词 ( 除ought 外,ought to):
2) 使役动词 let, have, make:
3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。
 
注意
在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。
I saw him dance. =He was seen to dance.
The boss made them work the whole night.=They were made to work the whole night.
4) would rather,had better:
5) Why… / why not…:
6) help 可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth:
7) but和except:but前是动词do时,后面出现的动词用不带to的动词不定式。
8) 由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去:
9) 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand等词后,可以省去to be:He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。举例:He wants to move to France and marry the girl. He wants to do nothing but go out. 比较:He wants to do nothing but go out. He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.

典型例题
1) ---- I usually go there by train. 
---- Why not ___ by boat for a change? 
A. to try going  B. trying to go  C. to try and go  D. try going  
答案:D. why not 后面接不带to 的不定式,因此选D。
2) Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard. 
A. learn  B. to learn  C. learned  D. learning
答案:B. make后接不带to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。

动词不定式的否定式
Tell him not to shut the window… 
She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。

典型例题
1) Tell him ___ the window. 
A. to shut not  B. not to shut  C. to not shut  D. not shut 
答案:B。 tell sb to do sth 的否定形式为tell sb not to do sth.
2) She pretended ___ me when I passed by. 
A. not to see  B. not seeing  C. to not see  D. having not seen 
答案:A。 pretend 后应接不定式。其否定形式为pretend not to do sth.。
3) Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ___ after drinking.
A. never to drive  B. to never driver C. never driving  D. never drive 
答案:A。warn sb to do sth. 的否定形式为warn sb not to do sth. 此处用的是否定词never.
4) The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ____. 
A. not to  B. not to do  C. not do it D. do not to
答案:A。not to 为not to do it 的省略形式。可以只用to这个词,而不必重复整个不定式词组。及物动词do后应有名词、代词等,否则不对,因此B,D不对。
5) The patient was warned ___ oily food after the operation.
A. to eat no  B. eating not  C. not to eat D. not eating
答案:C。warn一词要求后用不定式,此处为不定式的被动,否定形式为be warned not to do。

不定式的特殊句型too…to…
1) too…to  太…以至于…
He is too excited to speak. 他太激动了,说不出话来。
---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?
---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。
2) 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意 为"不太"。
It's never too late to mend. (谚语) 改过不嫌晚。
3) 当too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常… 等于very。
I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。
He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

不定式的特殊句型so as to
1) 表示目的;它的否定式是so as not to do。
Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。
Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。
2) so kind as to ---劳驾
Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? 劳驾,现在几点了。

不定式的特殊句型Why not
"Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不……?" "干吗不……?"
例如:Why not take a holiday? 干吗不去度假?

不定式的时态和语态

时态\语态 主动 被动
一般式 to do to be done
进行式 to be doing
完成式 to have done to have been done
完成进行式 to have been doing


1) 现在时:一般现在时表示的动词,有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。
He seems to know this.
I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。
2) 完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。
I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.
He seems to have caught a cold.
3) 进行时: 表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。
He seems to be eating something.
4) 完成进行时:
She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years.

动名词与不定式
1) 动名词与不定式的区别:
动名词表达的是: 状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的
不定式表达的是: 目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的
2) 接不定式或动名词,意义相同。
3) 动名词与不定式语义不同的有11 组:

stop to do stop doing
forget to do forget doing
remember to do remember doing
cease to do cease doing
try to do try doing
go on to do go on doing
afraid to do afraid doing
interested to do interested doing
mean to do mean doing
regret to do regret doing
begin/start to do begin/start doing



特殊词精讲
stop doing/to do
stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。
stop doing 停止做某事。
They stop to smoke a cigarette. 他们停下来,抽了根烟。
I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟了。

典型例题
She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___ on a big rock by the side of the path. 
A. to have rested B. resting  C. to rest D. rest
答案:C。由题意可知,她到了山顶,停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此,应选择"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止,所以stop doing sth.不正确。
stop doing/to do

forget doing/to do
forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)
forget doing 忘记做过某事。  (已做)
The light in the office is stil on. He forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作)
He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。( 已做过关灯的动作)
Don't forget to come tomorrow. 别忘了明天来。(to come动作未做)

典型例题
---- The light in the office is still on.
---- Oh, I forgot___.          
A. turning it off  B. turn it off  C. to turn it off  D. having turned it off
答案:C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用forget to do sth.
而forget doing sth表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。

remember doing/to do
remember to do 记得去做某事     (未做)
remember doing 记得做过某事    (已做)
Remember to go to the post office after school. 记着放学后去趟邮局。
Don't you remember seeing the man before? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

regret doing/to do
regret to do  对要做的事遗憾。 (未做)
regret doing  对做过的事遗憾、后悔。 (已做)
I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice. 我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没有办法。
I don't regret telling her what I thought. 我不为告诉她我的想法而后悔。

典型例题
---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
---Well, now I regret ___ that.
A. to do  B. to be doing  C. to have done  D. having done
答案:D。regret having done sth. 对已发生的事感到遗憾。regret to do sth. 对将要做的事感到遗憾。本题为对已说的话感到后悔,因此选D。

cease doing/to do
cease to do  长时间,甚至永远停做某事。
cease doing  短时停止做某事,以后还会接着做。
That department has ceased to exist forever. 那个部门已不复存在。
The girls ceased chatting for a moment when their teacher passed by. 姑娘们在老师走过时,停了会聊天。

try doing/to do
try to do  努力,企图做某事。
try doing  试验,试着做某事。
You must try to be more careful. 你可要多加小心。
I tried gardening but didn't succeed. 我试着种果木花卉,但未成功。

go on doing/to do
go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。
go on doing  继续做原来做的事。
After he had finished his maths,he went on to do his physics. 做完数学后,他接着去做物理。
Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one. 作完这个练习后,接着做其他的练习

be afraid doing/to do
be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕";
be afraid of doing 担心出现doing的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的,意为"生怕,恐怕"。
She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake. 她生怕被蛇咬着,而不敢在草丛中再走一步。
She was afraid to wake her husband. 她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。
She was afraid of waking her husband. 她生怕吵醒她丈夫。

be interested doing/to do
interested to do   对做某事感兴趣,想了解某事。
interested in doing  对某种想法感兴趣,doing 通常为想法。
I shall be interested to know what happens. 我很想知道发生了什么事。 (想了解)
I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you have any idea about that? 我对在瑞士工作感兴趣。你想过这事吗?  (一种想法)

mean to doing/to do
mean to do  打算、想
mean doing 意味着
I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to. 我想去,但是我父亲不肯让我去。
To raise wage means increasing purchasing power. 赠加工资意味着增加购买力。

begin(start) doing/to do
begin / start to do sth
begin / start doing sth.
1) 谈及一项长期活动或开始一种习惯时,使用doing.
How old were you when you first started playing the piano? 你几岁时开始弹钢琴?
2) begin, start用进行时时,后面动词用不定式to do
I was beginning to get angry. 我开始生起气来。
3) 在attempt, intend, begin, start 后接know, understand, realize这类动词时,常用不定式to do。
I begin to understand the truth. 我开始明白真相。
4) 物作主语时
It began to melt.
感官动词 + doing/to do
感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do  表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性
I saw him work in the garden yesterday. 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)
I saw him working in the garden yesterday. (强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)昨天我见他正在花园里干活。

典型例题
1) They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood. 
A. grow  B. grew  C. was growing  D. to grow
答案:A. 因题意为,他们看着她长大,因此强调的是成长的过程,而非正在长的动作,因此用see sb do sth 的句型。

2) The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river. 
A. playing  B. to be playing  C. play  D. to play
答案:A. 本题强调其动作,正在河边玩,应此用see sb. doing sth句型。

第六章 倒装结构




一 全部倒装

 全部倒装是指将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:
 1. here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。例如:
  1) There goes the bell. 铃声渐渐消失了。
  2) Then came the chairman. 然后主席就来了
  3) Here is your letter. 这是你的信。
 2. 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。例如:
  1) Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机下面发出了一颗导弹。
  2) Ahead sat an old woman.
 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。例如:
  1) Here he comes. 他来了。  
2) Away they went. 他们走了。

二 部分倒装

  部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

 1. 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。例如:
  1) Never have I seen such a performance. 我从来没看过这样的表演。
  2) Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 你在哪儿都不会找到这个问题的答案。
  3) Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 妈妈直到孩子睡着才离开房间。
 注意:当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。

 注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。例如:
  1) I have never seen such a performance.我从来没看过这样的表演。
  2) The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.妈妈直到孩子睡着才离开房间。

 2. 带有否定意义的词放在句首,语序需要部分倒装。常见的词语有: not , never , seldom , scarcely , barely , little , at no time , not only , not once , under on condition , hardly … when , no sooner …than …等。例如:
  1) Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. 他不仅拒收了礼品,还狠狠批评了送礼的人。
  2) Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她刚要出门时有个学生来找她。
  3) No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她刚要走时一个学生来看她。

 注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。例如:
  Not only you but also I am fond of music. 我和你都喜欢音乐。

3. 表示"也"、"也不" 的so, neither, nor放在句首时,句子作部分倒装。例如:
  1) Tom can speak French. So can Jack. Tom能说法语,我也能。
2) If you won't go, neither will I. 如果你不去,我也不去。

  注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。例如:
  1) Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. Tom让我去踢足球,我去了。
  2) ---It's raining hard.   ---So it is. ---雨下得很大。 ---的确很大。

 4. only放在句首,强调状语(副词,介词短语或状语从句等),全句语序要部分倒装。例如:

  Only in this way, can you learn English well.你只有用这种方法才能学好英语。
  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 他被请了三次才来开会。

 注意:如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装
  Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 他只有病得非常严重时才会卧床休息。

 三 as, though 引导的倒装句

  as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。此时应注意:1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词;2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。例如:
   Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 尽管他愿意努力工作,但是他好像从来都不能令他的工作満意。

 注意: 让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。

 四 其他部分倒装

 1. so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。例如:
   So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他害怕得动都不敢动。
 2. 在某些表示祝愿的句型中,例如:
  May you all be happy. 望大家开心愉快。
 3. 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。例如:
  Were I you, I would try it again. 如果我是你,我就再试一次。





第七章 定语从句





  定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,有时也可以修饰部分或整个句子。
  被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
  关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which, as。
  关系副词有:when, where, why, how。
  关系代词和关系副词放在先行词和定语从句之间,起连接作用,同时又可做定语从句的一个成分。当关系代词做宾语时可以省略。
  定语从句中的谓语动词必须在人称上和数量上和先行词保持一致。
  定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

1 、关系代词引导的定语从句
1) who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:
Is he the man who/that wants to see you?(who/that在从句中作主语)
He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.(whom/that在从句中作宾语)
2) whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同of which互换),例如: 
Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 
3) which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:
A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.(which / that在句中作宾语)
The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. (which / that在句中作宾语)

关系代词that和which 都可以指物,that 和Who 都可以指人,其用法区别:

不用that的情况:

a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时
(错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.
b) 介词后不能用
We depend on the land from which we get our food.
c) 多用who 的情况
①关系代词在从句中做主语
A friend who helps you in time of need is a real friend.
②先行词为those, people 时
Those who were either fools or unfit for their offices could not see the cloth.
③先行词为all, anyone, ones, one 指人时
One who doesn't work hard will never succeed in his work.
④在There be句型中
There is a stranger who wants to see you.
⑤在被分隔的定语从句中
A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you German.
⑥在有两个定语从句的句子中,其一用who,其二用that,但若先行词后接两个以上的并列定语从句时,后一个必须重复前一个关系代词。
The student who was praised at the meeting is the monitor that is very modest and studies very hard.
There is a teacher who is always ready to help others and who enjoys what he does.

2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
a)在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, everything, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。
All that is needed is a supply of oil.
Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 
b)先行词有the only, the very, the just修饰时,只用that。 
He is the very man that helped the girl out of the water.
c)先行词为序数词(the last)、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。
The first English book that I read was "The Prince and the Pauper" by Mark Twin.
d)先行词既有人,又有物时。
He talked about the teachers and schools that he visited.
e)当主句是以who 或which 开始的特殊疑问句时,用that 以避免重复。
Who is the person that is standing at the gate.
f)关系代词在从句中做表语
He is not the man that he used to be.

2 、关系副词引导的定语从句
关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点、方式或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
关系副词when, where, why, how的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 
Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born.  
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 
I'm surprised the way how (by which) he works out the problem.

注意:

①在非限制性定语从句中,"介词+ which"结构不能代替关系副词。
如:They set up a state for their own , where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves.
②含有介词短语的动词一般不能拆开,介词仍放在动词后面。
Is this the book which (that) she was looking for?

3、名词/数词/代词 /形容词最高级 + 介词 + 关系代词引导定语从句
She has written a book , the name of which I have forgotten.
There are fifty-five students in our class , all of whom are working hard.
There are five continents in the world , the largest of which is Asia.

4、as, which 引导非限定性定语从句的差别
由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。
As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.  
as可引导非限制性从句,常带有“正如”的意思。
As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

用法区别:

(1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。
As we all know, he never smokes.
(2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which。
(3)非限定性定语从句中出现expect, think, suppose 等表示猜测、想象、预料等时。
She succeeded in her doing the research work , as we expected.
(4)As 的用法 the same… as; such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。
I should like to use the same tool as is used here.
We should have such a dictionary as he is using.



定语从句语法专项练习习题精选

用适当的关系词填空:

1. I still remember the night _______I first came to the house.
2. I'll never forget the day________ we met each other last week.
3. Mr Black is going to Beijing in October, _______is the best season there.
4. I will never forget the days _______I spent with your family.
5. I'll never forget the last day______ we spent together.
6. This is the school ______I used to study. 
7. Do you still remember the place______ we visited last week?
8. Do you still remember the place_______ we visited the painting exhibition?
9. Have you ever been to Hangzhou,_____is famous for the West Lake?
10. Have you ever bee to Hangzhou, ______lies the West Lake?
11. Tom will go to Shanghai,______live his two brothers.
12. I live in Beijing,____is the capital of China.
13. There was a time ______there were slaves in the USA.
14. It is the third time ______you have made the same mistake.
15. It was in the street _____I met John yesterday.
16. It was about 600 years ago____the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made.
17. The moment _____I saw you, I recognized(认出)you.
18. This is the very novel about____we've talked so much.
19. This is the way____he did it.
20. Who is the student _____was late for school today?
21. Who _____knows him wants to make friends with him?
22. What else was there in my brother____you didn't like?
23. He lives in the room____window faces to the south.
24. He lives in the room, the window_____faces to the south.
25. This is Mr. John for____son I brought a book yesterday.
26. This is Mr. John for_____I bought a book yesterday.
27. This is the hour_____the place is always full of women and children.
28. And there is one point ______I'd like your advice.
29. Winter is the time of year______the days are short and nights are long.
30. I hope you will find this valley a beautiful place____you may spend your weekend.

KEYS:

1. when 2. when 3. which 4. that/which 5. that
6. where 7. that/which 8. where 9. which 10. where
11. where 12. which 13. when 14. that 15. that
16. that 17. (that) 18. which 19. (that/in which) 20.that
21.that 22 that 23.whose 24. of which 25. whose
26. whom 27. when 28. that 29. that 30. where





第八章 被动语态



一、语态概述

  英语的语态是通过动词形式的变化表现出来的。英语中有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。

  主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。巧记为:主动、主动、主去动。
  被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作的对象。巧记为:被动、被动、主被动。例如:
English is spoken by many people.主语English是动词speak的承受者。

  主动态和被动态指的是动词形式,是词法概念;而主动句和被动句则指的是句子结构,从而是句法概念。所谓主动句就是由主动态动词(词组)作谓语动词的句子,而被动句则是由被动态动词(词组)作谓语动词的句子。例如:
He opened the door.他开了门。(主动句)
  The door was opened.门被开了。(被动句)

  二、被动语态的构成

  被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。人称、数和时态的变化是通过be的变化表现出来的。现以teach为例说明被动语态在各种时态中的构成。

  一般现在时:am/is/are+taught

  一般过去时:was/were+taught

  一般将来时:will/shall be+taught

  现在进行时:am/is/are being+taught

  过去进行时:have/has been+taught

  现在完成时:have/has been+taught

  记忆歌诀:被动语态be字变,过去分词跟后面。

注意:区分被动语态与“be+过去分词”结构

  be+过去分词”并不一定都是被动语态,有时是系表结构。当“be+过去分词”表示动作时为被动语态,be是助动词,be后面的过去分词是主要动词,动作的对象是主语;当“be +过去分词”表示主语所处的状态时为系表结构,be是连系动词。be后面的过去分词是表语,相当于形容词。其区分办法如下:

  1 如果强调动作或句中有介词by引导出动作的执行者,该句一般为被动语态,否则为系表结构。例如:The glass is broken.玻璃杯碎了。(系表结构) The glass was broken by the boy.玻璃杯被那男孩打碎了。(被动语态)

  2 如果句中有地点、频率或时间状语时,一般为被动语态。如:The magazine is published in Shanghai.这家杂志出版于上海。(被动语态)The door is locked.门锁着。(系表结构)The door has already/just been locked.门已经/刚刚被锁上。(被动语态)The shop is opened.这家商店开门了。(系表结构) The shop is opened at 8 a.m. everyday.这家商店每天上午八点开门。(被动语态)

  3 被动语态除用于一般时态和完成时态外,还可以用于其他各种时态,而系表结构中的系动词be只有一般时态和完成时态。

  三、被动语态的用法

  1 不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。例如:
  1) Some new computers were stolen last night.
   一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。(不知道电脑是谁偷的)
  2) This book was published in 1981.这本书出版于1981年。

  2 强调动作的承受者,而不强调动作的执行者。例如:
1) This book was written by him.这本书是他写的。
  2) Eight hours per day for sleep must be guaranteed.每天8小时睡眠必须得到保证。

  记忆歌诀:谁做的动作不知道,说出谁做的没有必要;动作承受者需强调,被动语态运用到。

  四、主动语态变被动语态的方法

  1 把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

  2 把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词),根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数,以及原来主 动语态句子中动词的时态来决定be的形式。

  3 把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾语,将主格改为宾格。例如:
  1) All the people laughed at him.= He was laughed at by all people.
  2) They make the bikes in the factory.= The bikes are made?by them in the factory.

  记忆歌诀:宾变主,主变宾,by短语后面跟。谓语动词变被动,be后“过分”来使用。

  五、含有情态动词的被动语态

  含有情态动词的主动句变成被动句时,由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成,原来带to的情态动词变成被动语态后“to”仍要保留。

  记忆歌诀:情态动词变动,情态加be加“过分”,原来带to要保留。例如:

  1) We can repair this watch in two days. = This watch can be repaired in two days.
  2) You ought to take it away. = It ought to be taken away.
  3) They should do it at once. = It should be done at once



第9讲祈使句



  

一. 祈使句的句式特征

祈使句常常是表达说话人对对方的劝告、叮嘱、请求或命令等。因此,祈使句中一般没有主语,但根据其句意,实际上是省略了主语you。祈使句句末用感叹号或句号,朗读时,常用降调。在表达请求或劝告时,在祈使句前或句末可加, 上please,以使句, 子的语气更加缓和, 或客气。祈使句一般没有时态的变化,也不能与情态动词连用。例如:

Keep off the grass!勿踩草地!

Put the boxes in the small room.把那些盒子放到那个小房间里。

二. 祈使句的肯定句式

祈使句的肯定句式一般分为以下三种类型:

1. 行为动词原形+其他成分。例如:

Make sentences after the model.根据例句造句。

2. Be动词+其他成分(形容词、名词或介词短语等)。例如:

Be careful when crossing the street.过马路时要小心。

3. Let, +宾语+动词原, 形+, 其他, 成分, 。例如:

Let him go back now.让他现在回去吧。

三. 祈使句的否定句式

祈使句的否定句式,通常情况下在句首加上Don’t或Never,一般分为以下四种类型:

1. 在祈使句的肯定句式前加Don’t,构成“Don’t+行为动词原形+其他成分”。例如:

Don’t say that again!别再那样说了!

2. 在Be动词引起的肯定祈使句前加Don’t,构成“Don’t be+其他成分(形容词、名词或介词短语等)”。例如:Don’t be careless.不要粗心。

注意:在这种句型中be不能省略;否定副词not不可置于be之后。

3. Let引起的祈使句的否定形式有两种:(1)Let开头的祈使句,如果后面跟第一、第三人称名词或代词的宾格,可在Let前加Don’t,也可在Let后宾格的名词或代词后面加not。(2)如果以Let’s开头的祈使句,必须在Let’s后加not。例如:

Don’t let me go with her tomorrow. =Let me not go with her tomorrow.

不要让我明天跟她一起去。

Let’s not tell her the truth whenever we meet her.

无论什么时候我们碰到她,都不要告诉她真相。

4. 在公共场合的提示语中,否定祈使句常用“No+名词/V-ing形式”结构,表示“禁止做某事”。例如:

NO PHOTOS! 禁止拍照!

四. 祈使句的反意问句

祈使句的反意疑问句须按其句子结构及讲话人的语气来决定其疑问部分。通常有以下三种形式:

1. 祈使句为肯定句式,其反意疑问句表示请求时,通常用will you;表示邀请、劝说时,用won’t you。例如:

Be sure to write to us, will you?你一定要给我们写信,好吗?

Come to have dinner with us this evening, won’t you?

今晚来和我们一起吃饭,好吗?

2. 祈使句为否定句式,其反意疑问句通常只用will you。例如:

Don’t smoke in the meeting room, will you?

不要在会议室抽烟,好吗?

3. Let开头的祈使句构成反意疑问句时,除Let’s用shall we外,其他均用will you。例如:

Let the boy go first, will you?让个那男孩先走,好吗?

Let’s take a walk after supper, shall we?

晚饭后我们去散步,好吗?

五. 祈使句的回答

祈使句的动作通常是表示将来发生的动作,所以回答祈使句时,一般用will或won’t。在回答具有否定意义的祈使句时,要注意两点:一是“形式一致”,即Yes与will保持一致;No与won’t保持一致。二是“意思相反”,即Yes是“不”的意思;No是“是”的意思。在回答时,要注意分析上下文语境中所提供的条件。例如:

--- Don’t go out, please. It’s raining heavily outside.

请不要出去。外面雨下得很大。

---- Yes, I will. I have to meet my brother at the airport.

不行,我得去机场接我弟弟。

六. 祈使句与陈述句的并列使用

祈使句后接陈述句时,须用连接词连接。如果祈使句与陈述句表示的是一种顺承关系时,要用并列连词and来连接;如果祈使句与陈述句存在一种否定条件关系时,要用并列连词or来连接。例如:

Leave it with me and I will see what I can do.

把它留给我吧,我想想有没有办法。

Hurry up, or we’ll be late.

快点,否则我们要迟到了。

七. 祈使句与条件状语从句的连用

祈使句与条件状语从句连用时,条件状语从句可置于祈使句前或后。例如:

Tell him to make a phone call to me if he comes here tomorrow.

如果他明天来这儿的话,叫他给我来个电话。

八. 祈使句的强调形式

祈使句的强调形式通常在肯定祈使句式前加上助动词Do(Do在句中无意义)。例如:

Do shut up!快住口!

九. 特殊形式的祈使句

在英语中,有些祈使句不是以动词原形来引起一个祈使句,而是以一个名词短语来充当,且后接一个带有并列连接词的分句。实际上,这个充当祈使句的名词短语相当于一个条件状语从句。例如:

More water and the young trees couldn’t have died. =If you had given them more water, the young trees couldn’t have died.

如果你给那些小树多浇点水,他们就不会死了。

十. 运用祈使句的误区

祈使句往往容易与不定式、分词或条件状语从句相混淆。在平时的练习或测试中,如果稍不留神,就会出错。因此,要认真审题,认真分析句子结构,并根据上下文语境,作出正确判断。例如:

___________ your composition carefully, some spelling mistakes can be avoided.

A. Having checkedB. Check

C. If you checkD. To check

析:如果空白处选填B(Check)项,则视为祈使句,但后一分句前没有并列连接词and连接;如选A或D项(分词或不定式),句中逻辑主语some spelling mistakes又不能执行这个动作,故均不符合句子结构。因此,只有C项(条件状语从句)符合句子结构及句意。





第十章感叹句


  。

  感叹句:一般是用来表示说话时的喜悦、惊讶等情感。英语感叹句常用"what"和"how"引导,"what"和"how"与所修饰的词置于句首,其它部分用陈述句语序。

感叹词 修饰对象 感叹部分 主语 谓语+其他!
How(副词) 修饰形容词 How nice
How nice a girl the girl
she is!
is!
修饰副词 How well
How hard the boy
the workers Is swimming!
are working!
修饰动词 How
=what the flowers
How
=how fast She
she
he
he Loves the flowers!
loves!
runs!
runs!
What(形容词) 修饰单数可数名词 What a nice girl
=How nice a girl Jenny
Jenny Was!
was!
修饰复数可数名词 What nice girls They Were!
修饰不可数名词 What fine weather
what dirty water It
he Is!
drank!


感叹句的特殊形式


  感叹句还可由陈述句、疑问句、祈使句,甚至一个词组及单词构成。例如:
There was no face showing!
He’s such a nice boy!
The Great Wall is a magnificent building!
Isn’t it snowing heavily!
Wonderful!
Nonsense!
Happy New Year to you!
Cheer!

第十一章疑问句


   

疑问句(Interrogative Sentence) :

  定义:表达疑问(亦即发问)或请求的句子叫做疑问句。例:

  Is he a friend of your brother's?
  (他是你哥哥的朋友吗?——发问)
  Can you do this for me?
  (你能替我做这件事吗?——请求)

  疑问句的句末必须使用问号(Question mark)“?”来标示问句的结束。

  疑问句:可分为一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反意疑问句和否定疑问句。



种类 特征 语调 举例 回答
一般疑问句 系+主+表+?
助动词+主+动+? 升调 Are you from London?
Do you speak Russian? 用yes, no回答
特殊疑问句 疑问词+系+表+?
疑问词+助+主+动+? 降调 How are you feeling?
When will you get there? 直接回答,不用yes或no
选择疑问句 一般问句:系+主+表+…or…?
助+主+动+…or…? Or前升调。Or后降调 Is he tall or short?
Does he stay home or go there? 直接回答问句中一个,不用yes, no
特殊问句:疑问词+系+主+…or…? 第一部分用降调,第二部分or 前升调,or后降调 Which is bigger, the sun or the moon?
Who runs faster, Tom or Peter? 选一个答案,不用yes, no
反意疑问句 陈述部分肯定:陈述,助(系)+not+主? 陈述部分用降调,一问部分用升调 It is raining, isn’t it?
You did it, didn’t you? 答案肯定时用yes,否定时用no
陈述部分否定:否定陈述句,助(系)+主+? 如对陈述肯定,可用降调 It isn’t fine, is it?
They haven’t come, have they?
否定疑问句 系+not+主+表?
助+not+主+动+? 表示惊异用升调。赞叹、责难用降调 Aren’t they beautiful?
Won’t you come in for a minute?




第十二章 名词


在英语中,名词用以表示人或事物的名称,是各级各类考试的热点之一,主要测试考生辨析近义词和近形词的能力。名词不但有单复数的变化,而且有普通名词和专有名词之分,还有用法独待的所有格形式。

1.名词复数的规则变化
       
情况 构成方法 读音 例词
一般情况 加 -s  1.清辅音后读/s/; 2.浊辅音和元音后读 /z/; book---books bag---bags car----cars
以s, sh, ch, x等结尾的词

加 -es 读 /iz/  bus-buses watch-watches
以ce,se,ze,
(d)ge等结尾的词 加 -s 读 /iz/  license-licenses
以辅音字母+y结尾的词  变y 为i 再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies




2.名词复数的不规则变化
1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数。 
  如: two Marys the Henrys monkey---monkeys 
holiday---holidays  
比较: 层楼:storey ---storeys  story---stories
2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:
  a. 加s,如: photo---photos  piano---pianos
         radio---radios  zoo---zoos;
  b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes
  c. 均可,如:zero---zeros / zeroes 
3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:
  a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs
         safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;
  b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves  
   knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves
   wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves;
  c. 均可,如: handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves


3.不可数名词数的表示方法
1)物质名词
  a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。
    比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数) These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)
  b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。
   This factory produces steel. (不可数) We need various steels. (可数)
  c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。
   Our country is famous for tea. Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。
   我国因茶叶而闻名。
2) 抽象名词有时也可数。
  four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化
  物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量。
  如: a glass of water 一杯水 a piece of advice 一条建议


4.定语名词的复数
名词作定语一般用单数,但也有例外。
 1) 用复数作定语。 如:
sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室  talks table 谈判桌   
the foreign languages school外语学校
 2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。
   如:men workers  women teachers gentlemen officials
 3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。 如:goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产
4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。
   如:two-dozen eggs 两打/(二十四个鸡蛋) 
a ten-mile walk 十里路 
     two-hundred trees 两百棵树
a five-year plan. 一个五年计划


5.不同国家的人的单复数
名称 总称(谓语用复数) 一个人  两个人 
中国人 the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese
俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians
瑞士人 the Swiss  a Swiss two Swiss
澳大利亚人 the Australians  an  Australian two Australians
意大利人 the Italians an Italian  two Italians
希腊人         the Greek a Greek two Greeks
法国人       the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen
日本人     the Japanese a Japanese  two Japanese
美国人     the Americans an American two Americans
加拿大人    the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians
印度人       the Indians an Indian two Indians
英国人      the English an Englishman two Englishmen
瑞典人        the Swedish a Swede two Swedes
德国人       the Germans a Germans two Germans


6.名词的格
在英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
1)单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。
2)若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加"'",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。
4)在表示店铺或教堂名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。
5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。
   如:John's and Mary's room(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)
6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。如:


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