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高考英语:“12 条规律”在手,完胜非谓语动词不再 是梦!
2015-05-20 奇速英语

非谓语动词是英语高考中占分值最高的语法考查项目。然而,该语法项目形式多样,用 法既灵活又复杂, 难于理解, 导致学生谈 “非” 色变。 为帮助考生轻松应对非谓语动词的 “刁 难”,奇速英语小编结合高考非谓语动词考查热点,归纳了 12 条通俗易懂的解题规律。 规律一:作定语时,doing 表主动、进行,being done 表被动、进行,done 表被动、完成, to do 表有待发生,to be done 表有待被发生。 考例 1:The witnesses ______by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the fight. (2013 陕西卷) A. questioned B. being questionedC. to be questioned D. having questioned 答案:A 。句意:那些刚才被警察询问的目击者就这次打架事件给出了完全不同的描述。 空白处为后置定语,与被修饰的名词 the witnesses 是被动关系,而且表示已经发生的动作, 故选 A。 考例 2: We’ re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ______ at the meeting will influence the future of our company.(2012 重庆卷) A. to be made B. being madeC. made D. having been made 答案:A。句意:我们半小时后开会,会上所作的决定会影响我们公司的未来。空白处为后 置定语,与被修饰的名词 decision 是被动关系,而且是将要发生的动作,故选 A。 规律二:作主语时,doing 表抽象、一般的动作,to do 指具体、将要发生的动作,表被动要 用 being done,done 不能作主语。 考例:_____ basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies.(2013 福建 卷) A. Known B. Having knownC. Knowing D. Being known 答案:C。句意:了解基本的急救技巧能帮你快速应对紧急情况。分析句子结构可知画线处 作主语,并表抽象动作,所以选择 C 项。奇速英语暑假网络互动直播课程,九天让你的英语 成绩华丽转身,来不及的不是时间,而是行动,心动就马上行动,当你还在犹豫的时候,先 报名的童鞋已经甩你很远了。又如: _______to sunlight for too much time does harm to one’s skin. A. Exposed B. Being exposedC. Having exposed D. After being exposed 答案:B。 规律三:作补语时,to do 表动作全过程,doing 表主动进行,done 表被动或完成。 考例 1:When we saw the road ______with snow, we decided to spend the holiday at home. (2013 北京卷)

A. block B. to block C. blocking D. blocked 答案:D。句意:当看到道路被雪封住后,我们决定在家过假期。空格处作宾补,且 road 和 block 之间是被动关系,故选 D。 考例 2:I looked up and noticed a snake ______ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast.(2012 四川卷) A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound 答案:C。句意:我抬头,看到一条蛇正蜿蜒前行去抓自己的早餐。句中 winding its way 与 宾语 snake 之间为主动关系且动作正在进行,故选 C。 规律四:变否定时,非谓语动词前加 not,构成 not to do,one’s not doing,one’s not having done,not to have done 等形式。 考例 1: _______ which university to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice.(2013 四川 卷) A. Not knowing B. Knowing notC. Not known D. Known not 答案:A。主语 the girl 与 know 之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,用现在分词作原因状语,且分词 的否定形式是在其前加 not,所以答案为 A。 考例 2:The lawyer listened with full attention, ____ to miss any point.(2010 四川卷) A. not trying B. trying notC. to try not D. not to try 答案:B。句意:律师全神贯注地听,试图不遗漏任何要点。not 否定 to miss,意思是“不 要漏掉,不要丢掉”。此题考生易误选 A,如选 A 的话,not 否定的就是 trying,意思就是 “不试图漏掉任何信息”,很明显错了。 规律五:作结果状语时, (only) to do 表意料之外,doing 则表意料之中或自然而然。 考例 1:The sun began to rise in the sky, ____ the mountain in golden light.(2013 湖南卷) A. bathed B. bathingC. to have bathed D. have bathed 答案:B。句意:太阳从天边升起,使整座山沐浴在金色的阳光之中。逗号后是结果状语, 表自然而然的结果,故选 B。奇速英语暑假网络互动直播课程,九天让你的英语成绩华丽转 身,来不及的不是时间,而是行动,心动就马上行动,当你还在犹豫的时候,先报名的童鞋 已经甩你很远了。 考例 2:George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him.(2012 山东卷) A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told 答案:A。句意:乔治在战争后回到家,不料被告知妻子已经离开。这里 George 和 tell 之间 是被动关系,因此用 to be told 表意料之外的结果,故选 A。 规律六:to do 作状语,只可表目的、原因或意料之外的结果。 考例 1: I stopped the car ____ a short break as I was feeling tired.(2013 山东卷) A. take B. taking C. to take D. taken 答案:C。句意:当感到疲劳时,我停下车稍作休息。停下车的目的是休息,所以应用不定 式表目的,故选 C。 考例 2:The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy _____ anything that happened to be on.(2012 全国卷 II)

A. to watch B. watchingC. watched D. to have watched 答案:A。句意:老人每天坐在电视机前,看上演的任何节目都很高兴。后半句是形容词短 语作状语,happy 的原因就是观看电视节目,要用不定式,故选 A。 规律七: 动词不定式的三种形式与其所在句子的另一个动词的关系——to do 后于动词发生, to be doing 与动词同时发生,to have done 先于动词发生。 考例:The engine just won’t start. Something seems ____ wrong with it.(2013 重庆卷) A. to go B. to have goneC. going D. having gone 答案:B。句意:发动机启动不了,好像是哪里出问题了。动词 seem 后接不定式,排除 C 和 D;根据句意可知,go 这一动作发生在 won’t start 之前,故选 B。 规律八:作状语时,主动进行用 doing,主动完成用 having done,被动用 done,被动完成用 done 或 having been done。 考例 1:________ at the cafeteria before, Tina didn’t want to eat there again.(2013 山东卷) A. Having eaten B. To eat C. Eat D. Eating 答案:A。句意:因为在那家自助餐厅吃过饭,所以 Tina 不想再去那里吃了。Tina 与 eat 之 间是主谓关系,并且第一个 eat 发生在第二个 eat 之前,故用 having eaten。 考例 2:_______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks.(2012 年北京卷) A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use 答案:C。句意:省点用的话,一听罐头可用六周。句中 tin 和 use 是被动关系,故用过去 分词形式。 规律九:及物动词作状语时,如其后加宾语,用 doing,不加宾语,则用 done。 考例 1: _______ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later.(2012 江苏卷) A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base 答案:B。句意:如果你根据情感而非理智作出一个重要决定,那么你迟早会后悔的。空格 后有宾语,因此用 doing。A 选项 based 后面往往有 on 跟着,故排除。 考例 2:Film has a much shorter history, especially when such art forms as music and painting. (2012 全国新课标卷) A. having compared to B. comparing toC. compare to D. compared to 答案:D。句意:电影的历史要短得多,尤其是与像音乐和绘画这样的艺术形式相比时。这 里 film 和 compare 之间是被动关系,用过去分词。compared to 意为“和??相比”。 规律十:非谓语动词逻辑主语与主句主语不一致时,需用独立主格结构。 考例 1:The party will be held in the garden, weather_______ ..(2012 全国新课标卷) A. permitting B. to permitC. permitted D. permit 答案:A。句意:如果天气允许,聚会将在花园举行。主句的主语 party 和 weather 不一致, 所以 weather 保留,作 permitting 的逻辑主语,构成独立主格结构。另外,weather 与 permit 之间是主动关系,故用现在分词。 考例 2:Bats are surprisingly long-lived creatures, some ______ a life span of around 20 years. (2011 浙江卷) A. having B. had C. have D. to have 答案:A。句意:蝙蝠有出奇长的寿命,一些蝙蝠有 20 年的寿命。根据句子结构可知,该

处为独立主格结构作状语,some 与动词 have 之间是主动关系,所以选择 having 作状语。 规律十一:There be+名词(主语)+to do/doing/done 句型,动作发生在将来用 to do,表主动、 进行用 doing,表被动用 done。 考例 1:Laura was away in Paris for over a week. When she got home, there was a pile of mail ______for her.(2013 辽宁卷) A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. was waiting 答案:C。there be 句型中 be 就是谓语部分,可先把 D 排除,mail 和 wait 之间是主动关系, 且动作正在进行,所以选择 waiting。 规律十二:主动表被动的 to do 句型——主语+be+ adj.+ to do; 主语+have+ sth.+ to do。 考例 1:This machine is very easy . Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes.(2012 辽宁卷) A. operating B. to be operatingC. operated D. to operate 答案:D。在句型“主语+be+adj.+to do”中,如果这个主语又是不定式动词 do 的逻辑宾语, 则用主动表被动,所以选 D。 考例 2:I have a lot of readings before the end of this term.(2010 山东卷) A. completing B. to completeC. completed D. being completed 答案:B。句意:我有很多本读物要在本学期结束前看完。不定式表示未完成的事情。在“主 语+have+sth.+to do”句型中,如 do 是主语自己发出的动作,不定式用主动形式表被动意义; 如 do 不是主语自己发出的动作,不定式则用被动形式。腾讯认证蔡章兵主编 qq757722345 每天有 5 篇免费文章更新! 如: (1) I’ m going to go shopping, but you are too busy to go with me. Do you have anything to be bought? (2) I’ m going to go shopping, for I have something to buy .

高考英语有关非谓语动词的11个重要考点 一、考查不定式、现在分词与过去分词的基本区别 从时间关系上看,不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成,同时注意不定式 和现在分词的完成式也表完成(尤其是表示有明显的先后关系的完成);从主动与被动来看, 不定式和现在分词表主动, 过去分词表被动, 同时注意不定式和现在分词的被动式也表被动 (不定式的被动式在表被动的同时还兼表未来,现在分词的被动式在表被动的同时还兼表进 行)。如: 1. I send you 100 dollars today,the rest ____ in a year. (2005 湖南卷) A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed 分析:答案选 C。动词不定式表示未来的动作。 2. ____ from other continents for millions of years,Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. (2005 湖北卷) A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. To be separated 分析:答案选 C。因为 Australia 与 separate 是被动关系,且 separate 发生在谓语动 词 has 之前,所以用现在分词的完成被动式作原因状语。 二、考查非谓语动词的主动式与被动式

结合句子意思,考查非谓语动词与相应逻辑主语的关系,若为主动关系,用主动式;若 为被动关系,用被动式。此时要特别注意,过去分词没有相应的被动式,因为它本身可以表 示被动。如: 1. The repairs cost a lot,but it’s money well ___. (2005 湖北卷) A. to spend B. spent C. being spent D. spending 分析:答案选 B。因 money 与 spend 是被动关系,所以用过去分词。 2. The prize of the game show is $30,000 and an all expenses ____ vacation to China.(2005 北京卷) A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid 分析:答案选 B。因 all expenses 与 pay 是被动关系,故用过去分词。注意句中的 an 不是修饰 expenses,而是修饰 vacation。 3. When ____ help,one often says, “Thank you.” Or “It’s kind of you.” (2005 福建卷) A. offering B. to offer C. to be offered D. offered 分析:答案选 D。因一个人说“谢谢”,应当是他“被”提供了帮助,所以要用过去分 词,When offered help... 可视为 When he is offered help...之省略。 三、考查非谓语动词完成式的用法 非谓语动词(不定式、动名词和现在分词 )的完成式主要表示发生在谓语动作之前的动 作。做题时要注意根据题干所提供的语境来推断这种先后关系。如: 1. The storm left,____ a lot of damage to this area. (2005 全国卷Ⅰ) A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused 分析:答案选 D。因 The storm 与 cause 是主动关系,排除选项 A;不定式作状语, 前面通常不用逗号,排除 B 和 C;因暴风雨给这个地区“造成损失”是在“结束”之前, 所以用完成式。 2. More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays,____advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. (2005 上海卷) A. taking B. taken C. having taken D. having been taken 分析: 答案选 A。 因 people 与 take advantage of 是主动关系, 排除选项 B 和 D; take 不会发生在谓语 are signing up 之前,不用完成式,排除 C。 四、考查非谓语动词用作伴随状语 在通常情况下,表伴随情况的应用现在分词。如: 1. “You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted,____ away. (2005 全国卷Ⅲ) A. run B. running C. to run D. ran 分析:答案选 B。现在分词作伴随状语。 2. He glanced over at her,____ that though she was tiny;she seemed very well put together. (2005 广东卷) A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted 分析:答案选 A。因为 he 与 note 是主谓关系,且 note 与谓语动词 glanced 的动作 同时发生,所以用现在分词的一般式作伴随状语。 3. Daddy didn’t mind what we were doing,as long as we were together,____ fun. (2005 重庆卷) A. had B. have C. to have D. having

分析:答案选 D。用现在分词表伴随情况。 说明:有时过去分词也可表伴随(注意过去分词同时还表被动关系),但高考很少考查此 用法。如: He came in,followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。 五、考查非谓语动词用作目的状语 在通常情况下,用作目的状语只能是不定式。如: 1.“Can the project be finished as planned?” “Sure,____ it completed in time,we’ ll work two more hours a day.”(2005 福建卷) A. having got B. to get C. getting D. get 分析:答案选 B。作目的状语只能用动词不定式。 2. ____ more about university courses,call (920) 746-3789. (2005 浙江卷) A. To find out B. Finding out C. Find out D. Having found out 分析:答案选 A。作目的状语要用动词不定式。 3. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just ____ a look at the sports stars. (2005 上海卷) A. had B. having C. to have D. have 分析:答案选 C。“看看体育明星”是“在体育馆外等三个小时”的目的,作目的状 语只能用动词不定式。 六、考查非谓语动词用作结果状语 1. 用现在分词表结果。如: He fired,killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。 Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year,____ a record US $ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. (2005 山东卷) A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching 分析:答案选 B。伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在分词作结果状语。 2. 用不定式表结果。如: He returned home to find his wife waiting for him. 他回到家发现他的妻子在等他。 He hurried to the station only ____ that the train had left. (2005 广东卷) A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found 分析:答案选 A。only 后接不定式表结果时通常指一种意想不到的结果,常译为“结 果却,不料”。 七、考查非谓语动词用作宾语补足语 原则上说,所有的非谓语动词形式均可用作宾语补足语,其区别是:不定式表未来,现 在分词表进行,过去分词表完成和被动。如: 1. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise ____. (2005 北京卷) A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 分析:答案选 A。作 with 的宾语补足语要用非谓语动词,排除选项 B 和 C;与谓语 动作同时发生用现在分词作宾语补足语,排除表示将来的不定式选项 D。 2. You should understand the traffic rule by now.You ’ ve had it _ _ _ _ often enough.(2005 天津卷) A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained

分析:答案选 D。宾语 it 与 explain 是被动关系,用过去分词作宾补。 八、考查非谓语动词的逻辑主语问题 按照英语习惯,非谓语动词的逻辑主语应与句子一致,否则就应调整句子结构。如: While watching television,____. (2005 全国卷Ⅲ) A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings 分析:答案选 C。因为 watching 的逻辑主语一定是 we,排除选项 A 和 B;又因在 hear 后作宾语补足语的是省略了 to 的不定式,所以选项 D 中的 rings 是错误的。 九、考查非谓语动词用作主语的问题 原则上说,动词用作主语,只能是不定式或动名词,不能是分词形式。这类考题还往往 用动词原形作为干扰项进行考查, 同学们做题需引起注意。 奇速英语暑假网络互动直播课程, 九天让你的英语成绩华丽转身,来不及的不是时间,而是行动,心动就马上行动,当你还在 犹豫的时候,先报名的童鞋已经甩你很远了。如: It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. ____ the answers ready will be of great help. (2005 北京卷) A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having 分析:答案选 D。动名词的一般式用作主语。 十、考查“(be +)过去分词+介词”结构 有一类“be+过去分词+介词”结构,如 be interested in,be worried about,be lost in, be dressed in 等,也往往是命题的热点。如: 1. ____ in the mountains for a week,the two students were finally saved by the local police. (2005 江苏卷) A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing 分析:答案选 B。因表示“迷路于”是 lose oneself in,题中没有 oneself,所以 the two students 与 lose 是被动关系,应该用过去分词作状语。 2. ____ in a white uniform,he looks more like a cook than a doctor. (2005 湖南卷) A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed 分析: 答案选 A。 由 dress 的宾语一定是人或 oneself 可知, dress 与 he 是动宾关系, 即 he 与 dress 是被动关系,要用过去分词作状语,Dressed in...=As he is dressed in... 十一、非谓语动词的综合考查 有时命题者会将多个知识点综合起来进行考查, 如在考查被动式的同时兼考完成式, 在 考查不定式的同时兼考分词,等等。如: 1. I don’t want ____ like I’m speaking ill of anybody,but the manager’s plan is unfair.(2005 天津卷) A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded 分析: 答案选 A。 表示 “想要做某事” want 后只能接 to do, 排除选项 C; sound like 中 sound 是系动词, 属不及物动词, 不能用于被动语态, 排除选项 B; sound 发生在 want 后, 故不用完成式,排除选项 D。

2. “Is Bob still performing?” “I’m afraid not. He is said ____ the stage already as he has become an official.” (2005 江苏卷) A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left 分析:答案选 A。因 he 与 leave 是主动关系,不用被动式,排除选项 C 和 D;由 already 可知,要用完成式。

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