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英语语法专题复习 名词和冠词 ppt


高三英语第一轮复习

Revision of the Sentence Structures 句法结构复习

简单句的五种基本句型
句型种类 S+Vi (主+谓) S+Vt+O (主+谓+宾) 主语 Pat She 谓语动词 arrived. plays 谓语部分 表语 宾语 补语

the piano.

r />
S+Link.V+C (主+系+表)
S+Vt+InO+DO (主+谓+双宾) S+Vt+O+Oc (主+谓+复合宾语)

They
I Ann

are heroes. (系动词)
offered made him 5 dollars. (人间物直) me cry.

句子成分详解
句子成分 主语 意义 表示句子说的是什么人或什么 事 说明主语做什么,是什么或怎 么样 表示动作行为的对象 与联系动词连用,一起构成谓 语,说明主语的性质或特征 充当词类 名,代,数,不定 式,动名词,短语或 句子 动词或动词词组 同主语 同主语 例句 We study in HuangQiao Middle School. She is dancing under the tree. Both of us like English. Her father is a chemist. His words sound reasonable.

谓语 宾语 表语

定语 状语

用来修饰名词或代词 修饰动词,形容词,副词,表 示动作发生的时间,地点,原 因,目的,方式,结果等
逻辑上与宾语是主谓关系

形,代,数,名, 副,介词短语或句子 副词,介词短语或句 子
形容词,名词,介词 短语等

We have eight lessons every day. He works very hard. They held a party in Hollywood.
She always keeps the house clean.

宾语 补足语

主语谓语是基础,宾表定状补辅助。宾主来自名代数,动词作谓不可无!

句子的分类
分类 简 单 句 并 列 句 复 合 句 说明 例句 由一个主语或并列主 语和一个谓语或并列 1. Tom and I found her there. 谓语构成的句子。即 2. We all breathe, eat and work. 一套主谓关系。 由并列连词 (and,so,but, or等) 把两个或两个以上的 简单句连在一起而构 成的句子。 由一个主句和一个或 一个以上的从句构成 的句子 1. He likes eggs, but he doesn’t like chickens. 2. Work hard or you will fall behind. 1. I believe you are right. 2. If you study harder, you will pass the exam.

复合句的种类
1. ____ makes this shop different is that it

offers more personal services.(06辽宁)
A. What C. Whatever B. Who D. Whoever

2. See the flags on top of the building? That was ____ we did this morning. (06全国I)

A. when

B. which

C. where D. what

复合句的种类 3. Please remind me ____ he said he

was going. I may be in time to see
him off. ( 06全国I ) A. where B. when C. how D. what 4. Engines are to machines ____ hearts are to animals. ( 06山东 ) A. as B. that C. what D. which

复合句的种类
5. He spoke proudly of his part in the game, without mentioning ____ his teammates

had done. ( 06上海 ) A. what B. which C. why

D. while

6. --- It’s thirty years since we last met.
--- But I still remember the story, believe it

or not, ___ we got lost on a rainy night.
A. which B. that C. what D. when

复合句的种类
7. Nobody believed his reason for being absent form the class ____ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. ( 06重庆 ) A. why B. that C. where D. because

8. The other day, my brother drove his car
down the street at ____ I thought was a dangerous speed. A. as B. which C. what D. that

复合句的种类 9. ____ leaves the room last ought to

turn off the lights. ( 88 ) A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. Who 10. Carol said the work would be done by October, ____ personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which

高中英语语法复习专题之02

名词和冠词
海丰县梅陇中学 许玮俊

名词的分类

专有名词(Proper Nouns)和普通名词 (Common Nouns)

专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称, 如Beijing,China等。 普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词, 如:book,sadness等。

普通名词又分为四类

1)个体名词(Individual Nouns):表示某类人或东西中的 个体,如:apple。

2)集体名词(Collective Nouns):表示若干个个体组成的 集合体,如:family。

3)物质名词(Material Nouns):表示无法分为个体的实 物,如:milk。

4)抽象名词(Abstract Nouns):表示动作、状态、品质、 感情等抽象概念,如:work。

个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词(Countable Nouns) 物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns)

所以一般情况下我们所说的名词复数指的就是可数名词的复数问题

归纳表格如下
? | |专有名词 | | |名 | | 个体名词 | | | | | | 可数名词 | | | | 集体名词 | | | |普通名词 | | | |词 | | 物质名词 | | | | | | 不可数名词| | | | 抽象名词 | |

名词复数的规则变化(1)

一般情况

加 -s

1.清辅音后读/s/

map-maps

book-books

2.浊辅音和元音后读 /z/

bag-bags

car-cars

名词复数的规则变化(2)

以s, sh, ch,x 等结尾的词

加 -es

读 /iz/

bus-buses watch-watches

bridge- bridges

以ce,se,ze,(d)ge等结尾的词

加 -s

读 /iz/
exercise-exercises

名词复数的规则变化(3)

以辅音字母+y 结尾的词

变y 为i 再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies

以y 结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加-s变复数: two Marys monkey---monkeys the Henrys holiday---holidays

名词复数的规则变化(4)

以f 或 fe 结尾的名词变复数时: a. 加-s roof---roofs

b. 去f, fe 加-ves

half---halves wolf---wolves

knife---knives leaf---leaves life---lives thief---thieves

c. 均可

handkerchief -- handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

一个首领(chief)带着一个农奴(serf)在海湾(gulf)的悬崖(cliff)上发现一个屋顶(roof) 上面有个保险箱(safe)。 一个贼人(thief)的妻子(wife)冒着生命(life)危险用半(half)片树叶(leaf)似的小刀(knife) 杀死了一只狼(wolf)。

名词复数的规则变化(5)

a tomato

some tomatoes

Heroes love tomatoes and potatoes.

some potatoes

some heroes

foot -- feet

tooth -- teeth

名词复数的不规则变化(1)

child - children

mouse -- mice

名词复数的不规则变化(2)

man -- men men doctors

woman -- women

women teachers

a German

some Germans

American --Americans

Australian--Australians

Canadian--Canadians

a policeman

some policemen

Englishman – Englishmen

Frenchman -- Frenchmen

一些需要强调的表示人的名词复数

名词复数的不规则变化(3):单复数形式相同

one sheep

two sheep

a Chinese

two Chinese

a Japanese

several Japanese

one fish 一条鱼 可数名词

three fish
三条鱼

fishes 不同种类的鱼/各种 各样的鱼

不可数名词

some fish一些鱼肉

名词复数的不规则变 化(4):好玩的 “fish”

⑤有些名词的复数形式表示特别的意义。 papers(报纸,稿件) works(工厂,作品) times(时代) drinks(饮料) manners(礼貌) 备注:有些名词只有复数形式。例如。 ⑥部分物质名词可以用复数表示种类。 goods( 货物) glasses( ) compasses(圆规) silks fruits 眼镜foods thanks( 感谢 ) clothes(衣服) remains (遗物,遗体) ⑦ word 用做“消息”“通知”不与冠词连用, trousers(裤子) 也不用复数。 Word came that the meeting would be held on Friday. keep one’s word 守信 与某人说句话 have a word/a few words with sb. have words with sb. 与某人吵嘴 leave word 留言 in a word 简而言之 in other words 换句话说

必须注意的若干名词方面的问题(1)
a.有些词既可数又不可数但意思不同: paper time glass room fish … 报纸/试卷/文件/讲义 – 纸张 次数/倍数 – 时间 玻璃杯 – 玻璃 房间 – 空间 鱼 – 鱼肉

b.有些词虽以-s结尾但却是单数: news , math(s) , physics , politics, ... c.有些词始终是复数形式: people(人们), clothes, trousers, glasses(眼镜) , works(著作), goods(货物), times(时代)... 有些词通常都是复数形式: shoes, gloves, …

必须注意的若干名词方面的问题(2)
d. people有两种意思:人/人们;民族
There are 56 peoples in China. There are 56 people in the room. 民族(加-s构成复数) 人(们)(本身就是复数)

e.这些是最常见的不可数名词,一般都没有复数形式 news, information, weather, work(工作), bread, knowledge, advice, fun

但是可以加上一些表示单位的名词来够成短语:
a ____ of paper / bread / meat / work / advice piece a ____ of tea / coffee a ____of water / milk a ____ of glasses / trousers / gloves cup glass/bottle pair

a.“数词+名词”构成的合成词作定语时该名词用单数形式 a two-month holiday an 8-year-old boy 试比较 the boys’ 400-metre race the boys’ 400 metres

必 须 注 意 的 特 殊 用 法

b.关于几个表示数量的单位词 hundreds / thousands / millions of 9 hundred / thousand / million

people (表示约数时) people (表示准确数量时)

名词的格
? 在英语中有些名词可以加’s来表示所有或所属关系,带这种词 尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher’s book。名 词所有格的规则如下:(修饰有生命的名词用’s,无生命的一 般用of结构) ? 1) 单数名词词尾加 ’s,复数名词词尾没有s,也要加‘s, 如the boy’s bag 男孩的书包,men‘s room 男厕所。 专有名词s结尾(一般应加’s)Charles’s job 2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加’s,如:the workers‘ struggle 工人的斗争。 3) 凡不能加“’s”的名词,都可以用“名词+of +名词”的 结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。 4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的 后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber‘s 理发店。 5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有’s,则表示“分别有”; 只有一个‘s,则表示’共有‘。 如:John’s and Mary‘s room(两间) John and Mary's room(一间) 6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。 如:a month or two's absence

双重所有格
在英语中,-’s所有格与of所有格放在一起使用所构成的结构叫双 重所有格。例如: Some photos of my parents’will be put away. An old friend of hers wrote a letter to her last week. A lot of clothes of my aunt's were bought in Shanghai.

双重所有格的用法
(1)of前面的名词之前通常有一个限定词,如a/an, any, some, no, few, several, two等。例如: some books of Lu Xun 's 鲁迅的一些作品 a few friends of mine 我的一些朋友 several toys of the child ‘s 这个孩子的几件玩具 (2)of前面的名词通常可以用指示代词this, that来强调某种感情色 彩。如This ball of Hu Ping’s is not expensive.胡平的这个球不贵。 I’m not pleased with that answer of hers.我对她的答案感到不满意。

(3)of后带-’s的名词通常是表示具体的人的名词,或是名词性物

主代词。例如: That 's the spirit of the worker's. This is a daughter of theirs. 3)of所有格与双重所有格结构的区别 (1) 侧重点不同。试区别: She is a sister of my father's. (侧重说明父亲的妹妹不止一个) She is a sister of my father. (侧重说明“她”是父亲的惟一一个 妹妹) (2)当of前的名词是picture等词时,含义不同。试区别: It is a picture of my mother's. 这是我妈妈收藏的一幅画。 It is a picture of my mother. 这是我妈妈的一张照片。

名词的句法功能:
名词在句中可以做主语,表语,宾语,宾语补足 语,定语,状语,同位语和呼语等.如:
Yesterday a boy came to see you. (主语)
Edison was a world-famous inventor. (表语)

Would you like some bananas? (宾语)
We chose him monitor of our class.(宾语补足语)

They will meet at the school gate. (定语)
The new film will last two hours. (状语) Mr Smith, my first teacher, died yesterday.(同位语) Boys and girls, please look at the blackboard. (呼语)

高考题选:
1. I wrote a letter to show my ___ of his thoughtfulness.
A. achievement C. attention B. agreement D. appreciation

2. We all know that _____ speaks louder than words. A. movements C. operations B. performances D. action

3. My parents always let me have my own ___ of living.

A. way

B. method C. manner

D. fashion

4. The new law will come into __ on the day it is passed. A. effect B. use C. service D. existence

高考题选:
5. You’ll find this map of great _____ in helping you to get round London.
A. price A. Palmer’s C. The Palmers B. cost C. value D. usefulness

6. –Who did you spend last weekend with? --______.
B. The Palmers’ D. The palmer’s

7. I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible. Just have a little __. A. wait B. time C. patience D. rest

8. The number of people invited ____ fifty but a number of them ___ absent for different reasons. A. were, was B. was, was C. was, were D. were, were

高考题选: 9. As a result of destroying the forests a large ____ of desert ____ covered the land. A. number, has B. quantity, has C. number, have D. quantity, have 10.Here is my card. Let’s keep in ____. A. touch B. relation C. connection D. friendship 11.We have missed the last bus. I’m afraid we have no ___ but to take a taxi. A. way B. choice C. possibility D. selection 12. We have worked out the plan and now we must put it into ____. A. fact B. reality C. practice D. dead 13. –How can I repair it? ---Well, look at the _____. A. explanations B. expressions C. instructions D. introductions

高三英语第一轮复习 语法专题之02

Revision of the Articles 冠词复习

考点1考查不定冠词和定冠词的基本用法 1(2005.湖南)I can’t remember when exactly the Robinsons left ____ city. I only remember it was ___Monday. A. the; the B. a; the C. a; a D. the; a 2 (2004.全国) If you buy more than ten, they knock 20 percent off ______. A. a price B. price C. the price D. prices
说听双方均知晓的事物或定指的事物用定冠 词;泛指用不定冠词

1 (2006.I) -Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? -Sorry, wrong number. There isn’t ____ Mr. Smith here. 2 (2004)-John, there is ____ Mr. Wilson on the phone for you. -I’m in the bath. A. / B. a C. the D. one 1、不定冠词放在姓名前=a certain, 意为“某一(个)”。

不定冠词的特殊考查要点1

不定冠词的特殊考查要点2
John had made up his mind to give it up, but on ___ second thought he determined to try ____ third time. A. /; a B. /; / C. a; a D. the; a 2、不定冠词放在序数词前表“再一, 又一”。

1 One way to understand thousands of new words is to gain ____ good knowledge of basic word formation. A. / B. the C. a D. one 2 China first-ever F1 race has proved __ great success. It provides ___ platform for Chinese companies to connect with the international market. A. a; a B. /; a C. /; the D. the; the

不定冠词的特殊考查要点3

3. 抽象名词具体化和不可数名词具体话常加定冠词 a success/failure/shame/surprise/honor/pleasure

不定冠词的特殊考查要点4
1. (2005安徽)After dinner he gave Mr. Richardson ___ ride to the Capital Airport. 2. The driver was at ___ loss when word came that he was forbidden to drive for speeding. A. a; B. / C. the D. one 4、常用于一些固定搭配中

常考不定冠词使用搭配
a most important tip, a 17th century cottage, have a gift for, a collection of, a world of, give sb. a ride(载某人一程), keep up a good state of mind(处于良 好的状态或情形), be at a loss, in a mess, a means of, make a living, have a better understanding of…, there was a time when….., make a discovery, without saying a word,

常考不定冠词搭配
on a second thought, have a break, make a study of, make a stir(产生轰动), take/have a walk, all of a sudden, keep it a secret,

develop an interest in, in a hurry, pay a visit to, an average of…., many a +n(不 止一个)

定冠词的特殊考查要点1
1 (2005安徽) After dinner he gave Mr. Richardson __ ride to ___ Capital Airport. A. the; a B. a; the C. a; / D. the;/ 2 (2004重庆) The most important thing about cotton in history is ___ part it played in ___ Industrial Revolution. A. /; / B. the; / C. the; the D. a; the

1、由普通名词构成的专有名词前加定冠词。 the great wall, the WHO等

(山东模拟)In China, ____ car is becoming ____ popular means of transportation. A. the; a B. a; / C. the; the D. a; the (2004广东) While he was investigating ways to improve the telescope, Newton made __ discovery which completely changed ___ man’s understanding of color. A. a; / B. a; the C. /; the D. the; a

定冠词的特殊考查要点2

2、the+可数名词单数特指某一类别。 注意:man表示“人类”时只能用单数, 不能加冠词。

定冠词的特殊考查要点3
-Who invented ____ computer? -I don’t know. A. a B. the C. / D. one 3、发明创造物前加定冠词the。

定冠词的特殊考查要点4
(2000北京春)Summer in ___ south of France are for ____ most part dry. A. /; a B. the; / C. /;/ D. the; the 4、表示方位的名词前加定冠词the。但 在a town east of Chongqing等结构中 方位名词前不用冠词。

定冠词的特殊考查要点5
The cleaning women get paid by __ hour. A. / B. the C. an D. one 5、按….方式的表达中。 get paid by the hour/the day… 注意:be sold by weight/time… by the +度量衡单位名词=in+名词复数 by +度量衡名词

定冠词的特殊考查要点6
-This is out of ___ question an example of an important rule that applies to all machines. -Thank you for your explanation, but it left me none ____ wiser. A. the; a B. a; the C. /; the D. a; / 6、在固定短语和搭配中

knock 10% off the price, on the phone, the same, the former….the latter…., break the silence, in the South of China, for the most part(整体上,多半), the Chinese/Japanese/French language, the first one, the largest one, the Smiths, none the +比较级(一点也不比….), the city of London/Shanghai, make the most of, for the moment(暂时), in the event of….(=in case of), play the piano the sun/moon/universe

常考定冠词的固定搭配

零冠词的特殊考查要点1
Five years ago her brother was ____ university student of ____ physics. A. a; the B., an; the C. an; / D. a; /

1、在学科名词前不用冠词。

零冠词的特殊考查要点2
(北京模拟) In face of ____ failure, it is the most important to keep up ____ good state of mind. A. /; a B. a; / C. the; / D. /; the 2、在专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词前 不用冠词。如:Australia, wool, air, life, love, education, society, failure等等。但注意抽象名词具体化前 加冠词。

零冠词的特殊考查要点3
He was elected ____ president of the USA. Jorge Bush, ____ president to the USA, is visiting China. 3、独一无二的头衔、职位名词作表语, 补语或同位语。

零冠词的特殊考查要点4
1. _____ word comes that China has won the FIFA World cup. A. / B. One C. A D. The 2. (广东) While he was investigating ways to improve the telescope, New ton made ___ discovery which completely changed ___ man’s understanding of color. A. a; / B. a; the C. /; / D. the; a

4、word表“消息” man表“人类”前不 用冠词。

零冠词的特殊考查要点5
1. His dream was to turn ____ doctor. 2. ____ child as he is , he knows a lot. A. / B. the C. a D. one

5、turn doctor/teacher turn 表当…. 名词前不用冠词;在as引导的让步状语从 句中,提前的名词前无冠词。Child as he is,…..

零冠词的特殊考查要点6
(2004年天津) When he left ____ college, he got a job as ____ report in a newspaper office. A. /; a B. /; the C. a; the D. the; the 4、零冠词的常见考查短语

零冠词的常考短语
leave school/college, in case of fire, without doubt, by train/bus=in a bus, on foot, take office(就职), in quantity(批量地), in danger, in trouble, under pressure, go to bed, turn doctor, put sb in prison, out of date, take sb prisoner, listen to music, live in peace with…, be in use, at sea, under construction, in debt, come to power, in good condition, in time of, in honor of, in favor of,

冠词的位置
1. _____ box cannot be lifted by a boy of five. A. So a heavy B. So heavy a C. A such heavy D. Such heavy a 2. It is generally believed that teaching is ____ it is a science. A. an art much as B. much an art as C. as an art much as D. as much an art as

冠词的位置
1、how/that(那么)/so/as +adj + a/an+ n; 2、quite/rather/what/such/many + a/an +(adj) +n; 3、all/both/half/twice the + n…. 例如:so heavy a box=such a heavy box; that expensive a car=such an expensive car; all the students; twice the size of... He is as good a student as you. She sang quite a beautiful song.

冠词与比较级
(2006全国) Your story is perfect; I’ve never heard ___ before. A. the better one B. the best one C. a better one D. a good one Mr. Smith owns ______ collection of coins than anyone else I have ever met. A. larger B. a larger C. the larger D. a large

-Did you enjoy yourself at the party? -Yes. I’ve never been to______ one before. A. a more excited B. the most excited C. a more exciting D. the most exciting

总 结
目前高考试题单纯考冠词的定指、泛指 等较少,多数结合具体语境进行考查。 在做题是不可一味套用冠词用法的固 定规则,而需要根据具体语境判断定 指还是特指;判断抽象名词具体化的 各种情况;有些名词被形容词修饰则 前面可用定冠词或不定冠词。总之, 根据语境解题符合表达习惯是解题的 最根本手段。

Homework:
抄写模块1 Unit1的安 妮日记部分,划出其中 的名词和冠词,并说明 其用法。


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