句子成分(Members of a Sentence)
什么叫句子成分呢？句子的组成成分叫句子成分。 在句子中， 词与词之间有一定的组合 关系，按照不同的关系，可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。句子成分由词或词组充当。现代 汉语里一般的句子成分有六种，即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分 有七种： 主语 （subject） 、 谓语 （predicate）
、 表语 （predicative） 、 宾语 （object） 、 定语 （attribute） 、 状语(adverbial) 和补语（complement） 。 （一）主语（subject） ：主语是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、 疑问句（当主语不是疑问词时）和倒装句中，主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语 可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词、主语从句等表示。例如： During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.（名词） We often speak English in class.（代词） One-third of the students in this class are girls.（数词） To swim in the river is a great pleasure.（不定式） Smoking does harm to the health.（动名词） The rich should help the poor.（名词化的形容词） When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.（主语从句） It is necessary to master a foreign language. （it 作形式主语， 真正的主语为后面的不定式）
练习：指出下列句中主语的中心词（4 分， 4 分钟） ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.
（二） 谓语(predicate )： 谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。 动词在句中作谓语， 一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下： 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构成。如：He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语： （1）由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如： You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. （2）由系动词加表语构成。如：We are students. 练习：选出句中谓语的中心词（10 分， 10 分钟） ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall
② The days get longer and longer when summer comes.
③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus
④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon
⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast
⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework
⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is
⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor
⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music
⑩ Whom did you give my book to? A. give B.did C. whom D. book
（三）宾语(object )：宾语表示动作的对象或承受者，一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如： They went to see an exhibition（展览）yesterday.（名词） The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.（代词） How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.（数词） They helped the old with their housework yesterday.（名词化形容词） He pretended（假装） not to see me.（不定式短语） I enjoy listening to popular music.（动名词短语） I think（that）he is fit for his office.（宾语从句） 宾语种类： （1）双宾语【间接宾语(人)+直接宾语（物） 】 ，例如：Lend me your dictionary, please. （2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补） ，例如：They elected him their monitor. （四）宾语补足语(object complement )：英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还 要有一个宾语补语，才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为：某些及物动词
（如 make 等+宾语+宾补） 。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从 句充当。例如： His father named him Dongming.（名词） They painted their boat white.（形容词） Let the fresh air in.（副词） You mustn't force him to lend his money to you.（不定式短语） We saw her entering the room.（现在分词） We found everything in the lab in good order.（介词短语） We will soon make our city what your city is now.（从句） 练习：1）挑出下列句中的宾语（10 分， 10 分钟） ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. 2）划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语（5 分， 5 分钟） ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me? 3）挑出下列句中的宾语补足语（6 分， 6 分钟） ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work.
④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
（五）表语(predicative)：表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态，它一般位于系动词（如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等）之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数 词、不定式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。 Be 动词（am，is，are, was, were） 系动词 表保持（keep, stay, remain） 表改变（get， become， turn） 感官动词（feel，sound（听起来） ，seem/look（看起来） ，taste（尝起来） ，smell Our teacher of English is an American.（名词） Is it yours?（代词） The weather has turned cold.（形容词） The speech is exciting.（分词） Three times seven is twenty one?（数词） His job is to teach English.（不定式） His hobby（爱好）is playing football.（动名词） The machine must be out of order.（介词短语） Time is up. The class is over.（副词） The truth is that he has never been abroad.（表语从句） 练习：挑出下列句中的表语 ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.
（六）定语(attribute )：修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。以下等成分表示： Guilin is a beautiful city.（形容词） China is a developing country; America is a developed country.（分词） There are thirty women teachers is our school.（名词） His rapid progress in English made us surprised.（代词）
Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.（不定式短语） The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.（动名词） He is reading an article about how to learn English.（介词短语） 练习：挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!
（七）状语(adverbial modifier )：修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子，说明动作或状态特 征的句子成分，叫做状语。可由以下形式表示： Light travels most quickly.（副词及副词性词组） He has lived in the city for ten years.（介词短语） He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.（不定式短语） He is in the room making a model plane.（分词短语） Wait a minute.（名词） Once you begin, you must continue.（状语从句） 状语种类如下： How about meeting again at six?（时间状语） Last night she didn't go to the dance party because of the rain.（原因状语） I shall go there if it doesn't rain.（条件状语） Mr Smith lives on the third floor.（地点状语） She put the eggs into the basket with care.（方式状语） She came in with a dictionary in her hand.（伴随状语） In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.（目的状语） He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.（结果状语） She works very hard though she is old.（让步状语） I am taller than he is.（比较状语）
挑出下列句中的状语（8 分， 8 分钟）
① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine （八）同位语：同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分，近乎 于后置定语。如：
We students should study hard. (students 是 we 的同位语，都是指同一批‘学生’ ） We all are students. (all 是 we 的同位语，都指同样的‘我们’ ）
1. Lily is cleaning the desk now. 2. Her garden is the best in our town. 3. Liu Ming is thirteen years old. 4. I like this book very much. 5. The girl on the blue bike is Jane’s sister. 6. She didn’t come to my party because she was ill. 7. Wang Ping does his homework carefully. 8. Anyway I won’t stop you from doing it . 9.I said it in fun . 10. It sounds good. 11. His name is Paul. 12. We always go to school early.
13. There are many film that I’d like to see. 14. Seeing this ,some comrades became very worried . 15. Much interested , he agreed to give it a try . 16. Some farmers saw something strange in the sky . 17. We think it necessary that everyone should attend the meeting . 18. It’s strange that she doesn’t come today . 19. He likes drawing at times when he isn’t working . 20. We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door. 21. Whether we’ll go depend on the weather . 22. We should serve the people heart and soul.
（一）句子种类两种分类法 1、按句子的用途可分四种： 1）陈述句（肯定、否定） ：He is six years old. ./ She didn't hear of you before. 2） 疑问句 （一般、 特殊、 选择、 反意） ： Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can't she? 3）祈使句：Be careful, boys. Don't talk in class.
4）感叹句：How clever the boy is! 2、按句子的结构可分三种： 1）简单句：只有一个主语（或并列主语）和一个谓语（或并列谓语） 。 e.g. He often reads English in the morning.（一主一谓） Tom and Mike are American boys.（并列主语） She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.（并列谓语） 2) 并列句：由并列连词（and, but, or 等）或分号（； ）把两个或两个以上的简单句连在 一起构成。 e.g. You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的，道路是曲折的。 3）复合句：含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含：名词性从句（主语从句、
宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句） 、定语从句和状语从句等。 What he did was admirable .（主从） I don’t care what he says . （宾从） China is no longer what she used to be . （表从） We heard the good news that our country had won first in the game . （同位从） Please lend me the book (that) you bought yesterday . （定从） The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.（状从）
英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五 种基本句型，是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下： 一： Ｓ Ｖ （主＋谓） 二： Ｓ Ｖ Ｐ （主＋系＋表） 三： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ （主＋谓＋宾） 四： Ｓ Ｖ O Ｏ （主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾） 五： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ Ｃ （主＋谓＋宾＋宾补） 基本句型 一：Ｓ Ｖ （主＋谓） 主语：可以作主语的成分有名词（如 boy） ，主格代词（如 you） ，动词不定式，动名词 等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家！ 谓语：谓语由动词构成，是英语时态、语态变化的主角，一般在主语之后。不及物动词 （vi.）没有宾语，形成主谓结构，如：We come. 此句型的句子有一个共同特点， 即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。 这类动词叫做 不及物动词，后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。 Ｓ │ Ｖ （不及物动词） 1. The sun │was shining. 太阳在照耀着。 2. The moon │rose. 月亮升起了。 基本句型 二： Ｓ Ｖ Ｐ （主＋系＋表） 此句型的句子有一个共同的特点： 句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思， 必须加上 一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语， 才能表达完整的意思。 这类动词叫做连系动 词。 Ｓ │Ｖ（是系动词）│ Ｐ 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。 2. The dinner │smells │good. 午餐的气味很好。 3. He │fell │in love. 他堕入了情网。 There be 结构： There be 表示‘存在有’ 。这里的 there 没有实际意义，不可与副词‘there 那里’混淆。 此结构后跟名词，表示‘ （存在）有某事物’ 试比较：There is a boy there.（那儿有一个男孩。 ）/前一个 there 无实意，后一个 there 为副词 ‘那里’ 。
基本句型 三： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ （主＋谓＋宾） 此句型句子的共同特点是：谓语动词都具有实义，都是主语产生的动作，但不能表达完 整的意思， 必须跟有一个宾语， 即动作的承受者， 才能使意思完整。 这类动词叫做及物动词。 Ｓ │Ｖ（及物动词）│ Ｏ 1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案？ 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。 3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。 4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。 基本句型 四： Ｓ Ｖ ｏ Ｏ （主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾） 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语，如：give 给，pass 递，bring 带，show 显示。这两个宾 语通常一个指人，为间接宾语；一个指物，为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为：动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如：Give me a cup of tea,please. 强调间接宾语顺序为：动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如： Show this house to Mr.Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词：动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。 如：Bring it to me,please. Ｓ │Ｖ（及物）│ ｏ（多指人） │ Ｏ（多指物） 1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。 3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。 4. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片 基本句型 五： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ Ｃ （主＋谓＋宾＋宾补） 此句型的句子的共同特点是： 动词虽然是及物动词， 但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整 的意思，必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语，才能使意思完整。 Ｓ │Ｖ（及物）│ Ｏ（宾语） │ Ｃ（宾补） 1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。 2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色 3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。
（三）并列句的分类 1、表示连接两个同等概念，常用 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等连接。 The teacher's name is Smith, and the student's name is John. 2、表示选择，常用的连词有 or, either…or…, otherwise 等。Hurry up, or you'll miss the train. 3、表示转折，常用的连词有 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等。 He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively . 4、表示因果关系，常用的连词有 so, for, therefore 等。 August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.
I hope you are very well（复合句）. I'm fine, but tired（简单句）. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm（并列句）. August is the hottest month here（简单 句） . It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. （并列句） Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors （简单句） . We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat（并列复合句）. We have a lot of machines on the farm（简单句）. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him （复合句） . But he employs more men for the harvest （简单句） . My brother takes care of the vegetable garden（简单句）. It doesn't often rain in the summer here（简单句）. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden（简单句）. Every evening we pump water from a well（简单句）. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden（简单句）. Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time（简单句）. These parties often make us very happy（简单句）. We cook meat on an open fire outside（简单句）. It's great（ 简 单句） ! Americans eat a lot of meat - too much in my opinion （简单句） . Some of my friends drink beer（简单句）. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party （复合句）. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States （简单句） . There are five different time areas in the States （简单句） . In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time （简单句） . How many different time areas do you have in China（简单句）? Well, I must stop and get some sleep（简单 句）. Please give my best regards to your parents（简单句）.
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