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第十讲、高中英语写作思路与高分指导(上)


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高考英语写作思路与高分指导
“高中英语课程标准” 对高中学生的英语写作能力提出了很高的要求, 这不能不引起我们高度重视。 写作能力的培养需要有一个渐进的过程。及早按照“课程标准”的要求,扎扎实实地从起始年级开始, 注重训练的系统性和科学性,才是提高英语写作能力的唯一途径。自从 85

年到现在,英语写作一直是 高考必考的一个固定题型。它是高考试题中对学生相对较难的部分,考查考生综合运用语言能力。 一、高考英语写作命题思路 1. “课程标准”关于写作技能的评价标准: “课程标准”对学生写作能力的评价内容和等级划分做了非常详细的规定, 这些规定恰好可以作为写 作教学所追求的目标。 等级 优秀 评价内容 内容 逻辑性 拼写与标点 语法运用 创造性 有思想,有观点,有情感,有意义,有趣。 表达清楚,逻辑性强。 完全正确。 反映当前学习水平,有个别错误。 有创造性,表现力强,真实,整洁。

这个写作能力的评价含括了极其丰富的内容, 其中包括单词拼写与标点符号的使用、 语法运用的恰 当程度、写作的内容、写作态度、表达的逻辑性和创造性。 2.“课程标准”关于英语写作体裁问题: 根据“课程标准”6-9 级的有关要求,高中阶段英语写作体裁可以大致分为四类: ? 应用文体:包括日常生活中经常使用的书信、便条、电子邮件、贺卡、通知、报告、表格填写、 申请、个人简历等。 ? 记叙文体:包括叙述事情,描写景物、人物。 ? 论说文体:包括阐述自己的观点,评价周围的事物、所发生的事件以及他人的观点和意见。 ? 其他要求:包括改编短剧、写摘要以及翻译。 3. 上海高考 04-08 年写作题目回顾: (04)老师要求你负责班级墙报(wall newspaper)工作并征求你的意见。在日记中表述你的决定并谈谈 想法。 (05)古人云: “天生我材必有用” (There must be a use for my talent.) 通过描述你生活中的 一件事,说明人各有所长。无论才能大小都能成为有用的人。 (06)下表提供了你所心仪的南、北两所大学的招生信息。通过比较作出选择,并结合个人情况说明理 由。 南方大学 学费 招生人数 优惠政策 8000 元/年 20 人 无 北方大学 5000 元/年 10 人 加 20 分

(07)以“礼物”为主题写一篇作文。该文章必须包括以下内容: 1.你送礼物的对象及所送的礼物;2.该礼物对他(她)可能产生的影响或带来的变化。 (08)你班将组队参加学校组织的集体舞比赛(group dancing competition) ,班长希望大家积极参加。 对此谈谈你的看法。你的文章必须包括以下内容: ·你是否会参加比赛 ·你做出该决定的具体理由

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分析与说明: 试题要求考生根据所给的情景和要求写一篇书面材料。但它并非按照“提示”逐句翻译,而是要求考生在 充分领会“提示”的前提下, 用自己的语言组织成一篇内容充实、 语言正确、 句子连贯、 用词贴切的作文。 据统计,近几年上海和全国英语高考卷中的写作,主要是关于记人、叙事、写信和通知或看图作文等内 容的记叙文、议论文和应用文。 (1)记叙文:一般说来记叙文有时间、地点、人物、事件、原因和结果六要素。记人时,要注意介绍 人物的身世、经历和事迹等。叙事时要描写事情发生与发展的过程,叙述事情发生的前因后果等。 (2)议论文:一般说来议论文由论点、论据、论证三部分构成。要做到:1、论点正确无误。2、论据 可靠充分。3、论证合理严密。论证方法有归纳法、推理法、对比法。议论文一般按提出问题、分析问 题、解决问题的逻辑顺序来安排层次。 (3)应用文:主要以写信为主。英文书信由 6 个部分组成。它们是信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结 束语、签字。格式一定要正确。信的正文和写文章一样,要分段写,每一段有一个中心思想。 4.高考英语写作命题现状与发展趋势: ? 由单一的文字表述发展到看图作文,再到以列表的形式给出写作内容。 ? 叙述与议论相结合,是近几年高考试题的特点之一。 ? 近几年高考可能涉及的文体仍是说明文、记叙文、议论文、书信和日记。 二、上海卷的评分标准与实例分析 1.上海卷评分标准与解读: 档次 内容 语言 组织结构 A 9-10 9-10 4-5 B 7-8 7-8 3 C 5-6 5-6 2 D 3-4 3-4 1 E 0-2 0-2 0 ? 本题总分为 25 分,其中内容 10 分,语言 10 分,组织结构 5 分。 ? 评分时注意的主要方面:内容要点,应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性及上下文的连贯性。 ? 评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言初步确定所属档次,然后对照相应的组织结构档次给予加分。其 中,内容和语言两部分相加,得 15 分或以上者,可考虑加 4-5 分,15 分以下者只能考虑加 0,1, 2,3 分。 ? 词数少于 70,总分最多不超过 10 分。 (1)内容部分 A. 内容充实,主题突出,详略得当。 B. 内容较充实,能表达出作文要求。 C. 内容基本充实,尚能表达出作文要求。 D. 漏掉或未能写清楚主要内容,有些内容与主题无关。 E. 明显漏掉主要内容,严重离题。 (2)语言部分 A. 具有很好的语言表达能力,语法结构正确或有些小错误,主要因为使用了较复杂结构或词汇所致。 B. 具有较强的语言表达能力,语法结构和词汇的应用基本正确,错误主要是因为尝试较复杂结构或词 汇所致。 C. 有一些语法结构和词汇方面的错误,但不影响理解。 D. 语法结构与词汇错误较多,影响了对内容的理解。

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E. 语法结构与词汇的错误很多,影响了对内容的理解。 (3)组织结构部分 A. 自然地使用了语句间的连接成分,全文流畅结构紧凑。句子结构多样,词汇丰富。 B. 能使用语句间连接成分,全文流畅结构紧凑。句子结构多样,词汇较丰富。 C. 能使用简单的语句间连接成分,全文内容连贯。句子结构有一定的变化,词汇使用得当。 D. 尚能使用语句间连接成分,语言连贯性较差。句子结构单调,词汇较贫乏。 E. 缺乏语句间的连接成分,语言不连贯,词不达意。 2. 近几年高考英语高分作文评析: (04) I was so glad that the teacher asked me to make some plans for the wall newspaper today. And the suggestions for it are as follows. First of all, there should be some information on the world issues. Although we high school students are busy with our study, we should keep an eye on what is going on around the world, which will broaden our horizons. In addition, I suggest there be a section on our school life. For example, the news on the school sports meeting and the good methods of study in our class. Finally, each group should prepare the wall newspaper in turns so that each student can have an opportunity to display his or her talent. In a word, I hope the wall newspaper will be popular with the students in our school. 评析: 本文考生在表明自己态度(愿意接受老师布置的负责班级墙报任务)后,给出了具体三条意见,最 后希望大家喜欢自己设计的墙报。文章语言准确流畅,体现出考生已经具备了较强的英语表达能力,能 够较好地使用单词、词组和句型。此外,文章结构完整。虽然客观地说,本文在内容和语言方面并非十 全十美,但是考虑到考生是高三学生,又是在考试这一特定场合中完成的,所以本文被判为优秀,得分 为:内容 9 分,语言 9 分,组织结构 5 分,总分为 23 分。 (05) Do you ever worry about your future, wondering if your education will lead to a successful career? (1) Just like many other students, especially those who are not particularly good at their studies, I used to be filled with such self doubt. That was until I came across the old Chinese saying; there must be a use for my talent.(2)(3) I started to analyze the lives of the rich and famous, and was surprised to find that an academic education was not a common factor. But talent was. Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft (4) and Li Jiacheng, one of the world’s most successful businessmen, (5) do not hold university degrees. For me, my talent is photography. While I will continue to study hard, I now know that being successful in life is not completely dependent on getting excellent grades. As such, I no longer worry about where life will take me. But I do know that wherever it does, I’ll be there with a camera in my hand---because there is a use for my talent. (6) 评析:1)记着用趣闻或疑问句开头来吸引读者。如果你只是简单的重复题目要求的内容你的文章 和其他考生的文章相比就不会有什么特别之处。要想让自己的文章更出色,就要这么做!2)注意句子 的长短变化。3)没有直接引入题目要求,却让你的文章很有必要个性。4)记住充分使用同位语及定 语从句等其他复杂的句子结构。5)使用标点符号时要多动脑筋,如:这句话中的两个逗号充当了概括

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的作用,将附加信息分割开来。6)结尾很好,呼应了题目要求,也使文章很完整。读者看到整篇作文 完满的结束了。 ? (06) Everybody has big dreams and regards universities as the ideal place for making those dreams come true. Choosing an ideal university can be one of the most important choices we make in life. Between the two universities, North and South, I think that the Southern University is more suitable to me. Although the cost in the Southern University is much higher, the number of students to be admitted from my area is also higher. If I choose to go to the Southern University, I will be able to experience beautiful scenery that I have never experienced before, eat food that I have never eaten before, and learn about cultures that I have not learned about before. With all this in mind, I think it is to my benefit to choose the university in the South. My chances of success will be much greater, and I think it will help me to succeed in reaching my goals and seeing my dreams come true. (07) My grandma is a really wonderful woman. She has been working very hard all through her life for our family. And I owe her a lot. She is now becoming older and older, but still leads a poor life. I feel sorry for her, so I want to send her some presents, hoping that they can comfort her lonely heart. I’ll first send her a pair of special glasses. Her eyes have already become a barrier to her and my glasses will help her see the world clearly. She must feel very delighted to have my glasses. I’ll then send her a suit of clothes. She has been dressing her old dress, which was bought about 40 years ago. My clothes will make her look more beautiful. I’ll last send her some medicines which will cure her ache. Hard work has made her body ache terribly. I really feel sorry. My medicines will cure her and give her a healthy body. (08) I'm very glad that a class team will be organized to take part in the group dancing competition by our school and the monitor expects all to be active. I've decided to join the team and win the top honor with my classmates. First, in the past two years the group dancing has been introduced all over the campus with the adoption of a practical policy issued by the national educational authority. As well as other social activities such as charity contribution, touring around the orphanages and nurseries and serving the public in the neighborhood, the group dancing has become more and more popular among us. Second, the group dancing, regarded as one of the most popular group activities, it helps us to learn to be more cooperative, more confident and more optimistic. It also serves to develop a full personality, both physically and mentally. With the reasons listed above, I'm looking forward to the day when our class team will win the first prize in the competition with our great efforts. 3.英语写作常见错误与分析: (1) 不一致 例: When one have money, he can do what he want to. 剖析:one 是单数第三人称,因而本句的 have 应改为 has ;同理,want 应改为 wants.本句是典型的主谓

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不一致. 改为:Once one has money, he can do what he wants (to do) (2) 修饰语错位 例: I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus. 剖析:better 位置不当,应置于句末. (3) 句子不完整 例: There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on . 剖析:本句后半部分"for example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on .”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不 连贯的词语,不能独立成句. 改为:There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV, radio, and newspaper. (4) 悬垂修饰语 例:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 改为:When I was ten, my grandfather died. 例: To do well in college, hard work is essential. 剖析:句中不定式短语 “to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚. 改为:To do well in college, a student needs hard work. (5) 词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech) 例: None can negative the importance of money. 剖析:negative 系形容词,误作动词。 改为:None can deny the importance of money. (6) 指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns) 例: Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid. 改为:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid. 例: We can also know the society by serving it yourself. 剖析:人称代词 we 和反身代词 yourself 指代不一致。 改为:We can also know society by serving it ourselves. (7) 不间断句子 例: There are many ways we get to know the outside world. 剖析: 这个句子包含了两层完整的意思: “There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world.”。 简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。 改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或: There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world. (8) 措词毛病 例: The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution. 剖析:显然,考生把 obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作 substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增 加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。 改为:The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution. (9) 累赘 如:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him. 改为:In spite of his laziness, I like him. 例: For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need. 剖析:整个句子可以大大简化。 改为:Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need. (10) 不连贯

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Ok 学习网 例: The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth. 剖析:The fresh water 与逗号后的 it 不连贯。It 与 things 在数方面不一致。 改为:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

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4. 影响文章整体质量的因素: (1)单词拼写错误。 (2)词语搭配不当或用词不准确。考生对常用短语、表达法掌握不够,出现不当搭配。比如: look book (read the book), look the film (see the film), Many people cost much money (spend much money), prefer to seeing the film (prefer to see the film), spend us a short time (takes us a short time), after read the book (after reading the book), write skill (writing skill) ... (3)画蛇添足。有些考生在全文结束时画蛇添足,加上一句错误的问句,让人大倒胃口。比如: Are you agree? So what do you choice? (4)书写潦草。在阅卷中发现,有相当一部分考生的作文卷面不清,书写潦草,影响信息的传递。评 分原则中有一条表明:若书写较差,以至影响交际,将分数降低一个档次。 (5)语言平乏,词汇档次欠高。不少考生大脑记忆库词汇量储存不够,难以灵活运用语言,导致语言 平乏,同一种表达重复较多。 (6)汉语式英语。在书面表达中所体现的中文式思维是极为普遍的现象。如:Seeing the film will save much time. (7)文章缺乏连贯性。有些考生在词汇的运用和内容的表达上都基本达到要求,但由于句与句,段与 段之间没有添加恰当的连接成分,使句子之间和段落之间缺乏必要的过渡和衔接,影响了表达的效果。 (8)死背范文。部分考生死背范文或是套用结构,表达不灵活。 三、英语写作步骤与技巧: 我们知道,在建造一座高楼之前,需要由工程师设计出图纸,并按要求备好材料,而后才能动工。 写作也一样,动笔之前学生应首先确定主题,拟好提纲,并尽可能多地收集素材。换句话说,就是要做 到胸中有数,然后才能动笔写作。 写作的四个步骤: ? 构思阶段 ? 语言加工、整合阶段 ? 段落的组织 ? 检查与修改 1.构思阶段 在动笔之前,首先要确定好主题,比如“我最喜欢的音乐”“最有趣的一次郊游”等等。定写作题 , 目时要注意题目不要过大,应该具体一些。比如老师让你对图书馆发表意见,与之相关的想法可能是: ? The Library Plays a Very Important Part in a Student’s Life ? The Efficiency of the Library Needs Improving ? The Library Is a Nice Place to Study in ? How to Make Use of the Library 确立好主题之后,学生就要考虑与题目有关的各个方面。准备材料,收集信息, 为开始写作积累素材。这时,不必在意句子的先后关系,也不必在意观点的完整,单词拼写,词语及语 法等。 例如:对主题 My Superstitions 这个题目时,我们可能在平时生活中遇到很多类似的这方面的事情。 因此我们会联想到:

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? Friday 13th breaking a mirror ? always wear pearl necklaces for tests ? sit on the left side of the plane ? sit in the center of the room for test ? wear lucky T-shirts for games ? don’t walk under ladders ? use lucky shoelaces in tennis shoes ? never start a trip on Friday… 再如:当我们看到 The Way to Achieve Success 这个题目时,我们就会想到,一个人要成功,必须具 有谦虚的美德、 勤奋的精神, 饱满的热情和具有创造力的作风等等。 所以, 我们可能想到这样一些词汇: ? Honesty ? industry/ diligence ? enthusiasm ? creation ? co-operation ? modesty 我们又可以联想到谦虚是成功之路中最重要的策略,勤奋会使人工作好,热情是最大的动力等等。于是 就会想到: ? the best policy ? work well ? a great force 2.语言加工、整合阶段 经过酝酿和构思,要写的东西基本上有了头绪,下一步就要进行语言的加工和整合,从所列出的词 汇和事例中选出最能表达主题的重点事例来写。这时你需要从新审查那些杂乱无章的细节,精心策划, 由此及彼。删去与主题无关的或并不重要的细节,并把所需要的细节按逻辑顺序重新排列。 例如:对主题 Give opinions or points of view on the library: The library plays a very important part in a student’s life. Students can borrow books, magazines, periodicals and even newspapers there. But the efficiency of the library needs improving because sometimes it takes students much time to borrow a certain book. Anyhow, the library is a nice place to study in. Every student should learn how to make use of the library. 再如:对主题 My Superstitions,我们可以把构思阶段的这些语言材料按分类组织起来。 (1). Superstitions about school a. Always wear pearl necklaces for tests b. Sit in the center of the room for tests c. Switch watches to right wrist for tests (2). Superstitions about travel a. Sit on the left side of the plane b. Never start a trip on Friday c. Wear green when I fly (3). Superstitions about game a. Wear lucky T-shirts for games b. Use lucky shoelaces in tennis shoes c. Eat scrambled eggs (炒鸡蛋)for breakfast on the day of a game

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再如:对主题 The Way to Achieve Success,我们可以这样组织语言: Honesty, industry, enthusiasm and creation are keys to achieve success. Honesty is the best policy. Industry gives every man and woman, every boy and girl, proper work to do. To do nothing is bringing ruin to oneself. Enthusiasm is a great force. One’s soul will expand if one devotes oneself to a noble cause. It is only in this way that we can achieve success. 3.段落的组织 (1). 主题句 主题句是文章的中心思想。主题句的内容应该是整段内容的概括,或者是限定整段内容的范围。它 关系到读者是否对这篇文章感兴趣,是否能继续读下去。 好的主题句应该是: a. 要有能说明段落中心思想的内容 主题句既不要太笼统,也不要太具体。如果太笼统,段落就显得松散,庞大,很难将主题句说明清 楚。例如: Learning how to write in a foreign language can be a frustrating experience for many students. 分析:上面句子缺少继续叙述的指导性,同时,也没有文章展开的线索供读者去把握。如果主题句太具 体,就难以自我解释或自我调控,很难展开使之成为一个整体段落。 例如:Russian is a difficult language to learn. 分析:过于局限于某个事物,因此无法深入展开,因为缺乏概括性的特点。 b. 要有能体现中心思想的关键词 主题句中应含有能体现主题意义或范围的关键词。主题句的关键词是段落的主要信息。 例如: The clothes we wear often reflect a lot about our personality. 分析:关键词:the clothes we wear, personality 例如:Life without music would not be exciting. 关键词:music, life, exciting (2) 阐述句 在主题句的基础上,把它展开形成一个段落。围绕着主题句起着描述、说明段落中心思想作用的句 子叫做阐述句。 例如: (1)The effects of global warming on the environment could be disastrous. (2) For one thing, deserts will become hotter and drier and drier and continue to expand. (3) Rising seas, caused in part by the melting of half the world’s mountain glaciers, will flood low-lying islands and coasts, threatening millions of people. (4) Global warming will change the climate regionally and globally, altering natural vegetation and affecting crop production. (5) Finally, higher temperature could also cause more extreme storms, allowing tropical diseases to invade temperate areas. 句(1)为主题句,句(2)(3)(4)(5)为阐述句。阐述句提供具体事例说明段落中心思想。 、 、 、 使整个段落保持意义上的统一。 再如: (1)My apartment is in a terrible location. (2) First of all, it is too far away from the important stores and services. It is several miles away from a grocery store, and I have to take two buses to get there. There are no local banks, laundromats, hardware stores, or pharmacies that I can walk to from my apartment. (3) My apartment is also in a high-crime area. Gangs of teenagers roam the streets, threatening the neighbors. (4) In addition, because my apartment is near an industrial area, the pollution is awful. There is so much smog from the chemical plant that it is often hard for me to breathe. (5) Finally, there is no convenient public

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transportation in my neighborhood. The one bus line near my apartment runs only one bus an hour and has a very limited route. 分析: 句(1)为主题句,句(2)(3)(4)(5)为阐述句。具体说明所处环境的恶劣。 、 、 、 (3)结束句。 概括或总结全段的一个或几个句子。 是对全文的总结, 要重点突出, 画龙点睛。 例如: Time is very (1) precious. We should value time as much as our life. (2) Realizing the preciousness of time is the first step in saving it. (3) Next, we should make good plans in doing things. That will be a great help too. (4) Lastly, don’t idle away our time at any moment. (5) Be productive every day. 显然,以上例子中的最后一句是结束句。 再如:Is Money All-powerful? As we all know, most of the material things in our daily life have to be bought with money, but money is not all-powerful. There are many things which money cannot buy, such as time. (主题段) There are twenty-four hours in a day. Sometimes when we are very happy, we wish that the period of happiness would last longer. But no matter what we do, or how much money we are willing to pay, we cannot make a day last longer than twenty-four hours. On the other hand, when we are unhappy, money cannot make the unhappy time pass away more quickly, nor can it bring us a day without sadness and worries. We may be rich, but our money can’t bring back out lost time. As the saying goes, “Time past can’t be called back.”(展开 段) Here we can say very clearly that money can buy a lot of things, but never time. So money, after all, is not all-powerful.(结论段) 注意:结论段不是简单的重复主题段的内容,而是烘托全文主题并加以深化。 在段落的写作过程中要注意如下几个方面的问题: (1)段落的统一性。 一段文章的统一性是指段落思想的统一。 所有的句子都是围绕一个中心展开的。 在一个段落中不应 该包括与该段的中心观点无关的内容,这样才是达到了文章的统一性。例如: Boston was the first city in the United States to launch a special event to celebrate New year’s Eve. Called First Night, the Boston New Year’s celebration is now an annual event that attracts over 1.5 million people. Boston is the higher education capital of America. The two largest universities within the city itself are Boston University and Northeastern University. In nearby Cambridge and Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The evening begins with a grand costumed parade around the Boston Common and ends at midnight with fireworks over Boston Harbor. In between, there are more than 200 performances of international music, dance, and theatre, and many films to choose from. The purpose of the First Night is to create good will and promote anticipation of a happy new year. 在这个段落里, 划线部分是与主题毫无相关的句子,应该删去,才能达到段落的统一。 再如: To most people, education means schools. But education has many other sources as well --- the home, the farm, museums, television, advertisements, newspapers and magazines, sports events and practical experience. When one thinks of education, it is important to consider all these sources. 本段内容不是很多,但每一句都是围绕中心展开的, 整篇文章具有很强的统一性。 (2)段落的连贯性。

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连贯性是指段落中的句子应是结构有条理,层次分明,按逻辑的顺序来排列。而且句与句之间过渡 自然。 例如: Climate that we live in affects our life. For instance, climate affects the kinds of clothes we wear and even the colors we choose to wear. Since it affects the kinds of crops we can grow successfully, it influences our eating habits. Architecture is also affected by climate. Engineers and architects must think about climate when they make decisions about the construction, materials, design, and style of buildings. Even our choices in transportation are determined. A climate that is too hot, too cold, or too dry makes farming, industry, and transportation difficult and slows down economic development. 这篇文章条理清晰,句与句过渡平滑自然,连贯性很强。 (3)过渡问题。 一个段落的连贯性如何, 不仅要看句子的意思是否表达清楚, 更为重要的是要看句与句之间的过渡 是否恰当、自然。常见的过渡词有: 按时间发展段落常用的过渡词 first earlier before while soon afterward by the time 按空间发展段落常用的过渡词 to the left to the right in (the) front of at the back of next to 按实例与细节发展段落常用的过渡词 first of all second the third reason next also 按类比和对照发展段落常用的过渡词 in the same way that both have in common however even though but similarly is similar to just as nevertheless in spite of on the contrary compared to is like likewise unlike while is different from besides furthermore in addition moreover finally last the most important another reason beside across above below behind at the center between near then later after meanwhile from then on next eventually as since at last

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Ok 学习网 in contrast conversely 按因果发展段落常用的过渡词 as a result due to thus for this reason since therefore then so because consequently differs from

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as a consequence and that is why

4. 检查与修改 检查与修改是写作过程中必不可少的环节。 对学生来说, 在写作时出现这样或那样的错误是在所难 免的。但如果坚持在写每一篇文章时进行检查和修改,在反复修改的同时,你可能会增加一些新的思路 或删去一些与主题无关的句子等。 这种修改会使文章结构更加合理, 文章更加完善, 因此是非常必要的。 对于文章的检查应该注意以下几个方面: (1) 文章的开头是否吸引读者。 (2) 中心句是否表达清楚。 (3) 每段是否都有明确的主题句。 (4) 每段的阐述句是否都有明确的主题句。 (5) 每段的阐述句是否都是围绕主题句展开的。 (6) 每句或每段所运用的过渡词是否正确。 (7) 每一段是否遵从了一致性和连贯性的原则。 (8) 单词拼写,句子结构,标点符号是否正确。 四、热点话题写作训练 1. 汶川地震中范跑跑出名了,他是一个老师,他竟然在危难时刻弃学生而不顾,自己先跑了。 他是一 个好老师吗?什么样的老师才是一个好老师呢? 2. 什么是慈善?个人的理解不同。请谈谈你的看法并介绍一次难忘的慈善活动。 3. 最近国家教育部就高中文理分科问题展开了全国性的讨论。请谈谈自己的看法。 4. 菲尔普斯以 8 块金牌成为在一届奥运会上获得最多金牌的人。最近英国媒体曝光了菲尔普斯吸食大 麻的照片后,他的英雄形象会在你心中改变吗?谈谈自己的看法。 5. 如今世界粮食短缺,价格飞涨,给部分地区造成社会动荡。假设在你校开展的研究性学习中,你们 小组以“World Food Crisis”为题进行研究,现在请你代表你们小组向全体同学简要介绍你们的研究成 果。 6. 自 08 年 9 月金融危机全面爆发后,各国政府携手出台救市政策应对经济危机。从一个学生的角度谈 谈自己对经济危机的看法。 7. 塑料袋的确给我们生活带来了方便,但是一时的方便却带来长久的危害。谈谈你对“白色污染”污 染的理解。 8. 父母该不该给孩子零花钱呢?谈谈自己的看法。举例说明。 范文 1: What is a good teacher? As is known to all, a teacher called Fan Paopao became famous in Wenchuang earthquake. When faced with the disaster, he ran away with no thought of his students’ safety, which amazed us all the Chinese. In the earthquake, many teachers risked their lives to save their students and even lost their own lives. Is Fan a good teacher? Of course not. Then, what is a good teacher?

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Some people are of the opinion that a good teacher should be at first a well-read person, while others claim that he must be devoted to the education. Personally, in addition to the two points, a good teacher should be responsible, be patient, be experienced, and even be selfless. First of all, a good teacher must be well-read. He not only knows his own field well, but also knows what is relevant to the subject. Also, he should be patient to his students and be responsible for them. He should plan his courses well before having a class and teach efficiently in the class. A good teacher should also be interested in his students and their progress. Besides, he should be experienced. After class he should like to reflect upon his teaching and read more books to improve himself. Finally, the most important of all is the spirit of devotion. A good teacher must be devoted to his work, regard teaching as his life-long career and even devote his life to the students in face of adversity. To conclude, if a teacher can do as what is mentioned above, he will be a good teacher, a qualified teacher. No doubt, Fan Paopao will be rejected by his students, because his behavior made him a disqualified teacher. 范文 2: Should liberal arts and science subjects be separated? There is a heated discussion these days about whether liberal arts and science subjects should be separated. As the saying goes, every coin has two sides. The views on the problem vary from person to person. Studying both science and liberal arts subjects makes you a more rounded person. First, a good liberal arts student that isn’t good at science is like a general who talks meaninglessly about wars. And a good student of science doing badly in liberal arts is like a working machine without emotions. Students should have all-round abilities. Second, science subjects make students look into details and develop the art of reasoning. Liberal arts subjects broaden our horizons and teach us about human society. There is great demand in today’s society for all-around talents. Third, under china’s current educational system, students are either good at liberal arts, but do not know much about science, or do well in science, but know little about liberal arts. It is not good for students’ all-round development. Focusing on fewer courses makes us experts on specific areas. First, a fast-developing society needs “experts” in specific fields, instead of people who are “Jack of all trades” but “master of none”. Our time is limited, so it’s better to focus on one thing. Second, the fewer subjects we have, the more we can focus on what we are interested in, and it lightens our burden. And we have more time and energy to do what really interests us and what we are better at. Third, it’s not possible for students to study well at all subjects. If students are forced to learn the subjects they are not good at, they will feel great pressure and lose interest in studying.

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