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外研版高中英语 Book 4 Module 2 Grammar


1. 你算出来旅行要花多少钱了吗? Have you figured out how much the trip will cost? 2. 我不明白该如何做。 I can’t figure out how to do this/what to do. 3. 我们打算提高我们所有电脑的价格。 We aim to bring up prices on all our computers. 4. 改革( reform )引起了很多变化。 The reform brought about a lot of changes. The police are searching the woods for the lost child. 5. 警察正在搜索树林,寻找失踪的孩子。 He is searching for the lost necklace. 6. 他正在寻找丢失的项链。 You can replace bowing with shaking hands. 7. 你可以用握手代替鞠躬。 It’s a lot cheaper if you buy it in quantity. 8. 如果你大批买会便宜得多。

Learning aims 1.By doing 2.The passive voice

1. The train disappeared in the distance. 2. Something unexpected happened. 3. We respect him. 4. We’ll finish the work tomorrow. 5. He finally escaped. 6. The boss fired Tom. 不及物动词(vi.) 及物动词(vt.)

be done

1. We respect him. be done He is respected (by us). 2. We’ll finish the work tomorrow. The work will be finished (by us) tomorrow. 3. The boss fired Tom.
Tom was fired (by the boss).



一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时
含情态动词的完成式 含情态动词的进行式

am/ is/are +过去分词
was/were +过去分词 shall/will +be+过去分词 would +be+过去分词 am/ is/are +being +过去分词

was/ were +being +过去分词 has/have + been +过去分词
had been +过去分词 will/shall have been +过去分词 情态动词 +be+ 过去分词 情态动词 +have been + 过去分词 情态动词 +be +being + 过去分词

1.水稻在亚洲的许多国家种植. Rice is grown in many countries in Asia. 2.去年从全国各地带来了很多研究人员。 Researchers were brought in from all over China. 3.明年将从英国进口更多的小麦。 More wheat will be imported from Britain next year. 4.那些污染的河流现在正在清理。 The polluted rivers are being cleaned now. 5.当我们经过的时候,那条路正在修理。 The road was being repaired when we passed it.

6. 他说那幅油画一天后就会完成。 He said that the painting would be completed in one day. 7.水稻已经在中国种了数千年了。 Rice has been grown for thousands of years. 8.当我到达书店时,那本书已经卖出去了。 The book had been sold out when I got to the bookshop. 9.到明年春季为止,那座楼房将竣工。 The building will have been completed by next spring. 10.昨晚他一定烧毁了那封信了。 He must have burnt the letter last night. The letter must have been burnt by him last night.

II. 短语动词的被动语态:

1) set up, put off, deal with, laugh at, make use of, Vt. pay attention to, get rid of, take care of 2) come about, break down, go up, come back, show up 及物的短语动词可用于被动, 但其介词或副词_____ 不能 省略。
那位老人以前经常被嘲笑。 The old man used to be laughed at. 会议已被推迟。 The meeting has been put off. 孩子将会很好地照顾。

The children will be taken good care of.

Ⅲ. 接省to的不定式做宾补的主动句变为被动句时,要 _________, 此类动词有 加上to 看: see watch notice observe 使: have let make 听: hear listen to 感: feel look at

I noticed him cross the street. (变被动)
He was noticed to cross the street by me. We made him sing last night. (变被动) He was made to sing by us.

Ⅳ. 带双宾语的主动句变为被动句时,把其中一个宾语变 为主语 即可。 We gave him some books. was given some books. → He______________________________________ →Some books___________________________ were given (to him).

Ⅴ【不用被动语态的情况】 1)have(有),own (拥有),belong to(属于), hold(容纳), contain(包含), consist of(由…组成), equal(等于), mean(意 味着), cost (花费), lack(缺乏),join(参加) The book cost him $20. It took me 50 minutes to watch the TV play. 2). 动词write, sell, wash, open, lock, last, read等与副词连 用,表示主语的内在品质或具有的性能时,不用被动语态。 The pen writes smoothly. 这笔写起字来很流畅。 This kind of cloth washes easily. 这种布料洗起来很容易。 这本书很畅销。 The book sells well.

3). 连系动词 feel, look, seem, taste, sound, smell , appear 加形容词可表示被动含义。 The material feels very soft.

That music sounds beautiful.

He seems/appears ill.

VI. want , need, require 后,要用动名词的主动形式表 示被动含义。 这些鞋需要修补了. These shoes need/want/require mending. =______________________ These shoes need to be mended.

Ⅸ.“get+过去分词” 被动结构: “受到...,被...” He’ll get punished if he goes on like this.
He got hurt for two days. (改错)

He has been hurt for two days.

by + v–ing Ⅰ. “by + doing” 意为 “凭借,依靠干某事”,常充当方式,
条件或原因状语等。可以与一些从句或句子互换。如: (1) You can make the cake by mixing eggs and flour.(条件) = You can make the cake if you mix eggs and flour. (2). He earns his living by writing.(方式) (3). He gained rapid promotion by working hard.(原因)

II. by的其他用法 1. It takes a long time to go there _______( by train 乘火车). by road. 用公路) 2. It’s quicker ________( 3. He hired the bicycle __________. by the day 他按日租用自行车。 by the dozen 这些鸡蛋按打出售。 4. The eggs are sold _____________. weight 香蕉通常按重量卖 5. Bananas are usually soldby _________. 6. The production of the factory has ____________________ increased by 50% this year. (增长了50%).

1. 通过做某事:by doing
2. 交通方式:by ship, by sea, by air, by road...

3. 计量单位:by the hour/the day/the dozen,但:
抽象计量方式去掉the, 如:by weight, by height, by age

4. 表示差额, 如: Paul is my senior by two years.
5. 表示尺寸时,“….乘…” : This room is 10 meters by 6.

【课堂巩固】Translation 1. 中国大多数学校教英语。 English is taught in most schools in China. 2.研究工作得到政府的支持。

The research work was supported by the government.

3. 你可以通过尽可能经常地练习提高英语口语。( by-doin

You can improve your spoken English by practicing as often as possible.


1. More attention should be paid to __________ developing (develop) children’s education if possible. 2. Had it not been for the fact that she ______(get) got

Injured in the leg, she might have passed the exam.
3. The cause he had devoted himself to ________ proved (prove) a perfect success. 4.The Second World War _________(break) out broke the following year.



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