Unit 3 Inventors and inventions Ⅰ. 单元教学目标 技能目标 Skill Goals ▲Talk about inventors and inventions ▲Learn about the stages used in scientific research ▲Learn to use the past participle as the at
tribute ▲Write an entry for an encyclopedia about some inventions ▲Write a letter asking for a job Ⅱ. 目标语言 Make a telephone call Hold the line, please. Hang on, please. Just a moment, please. I’m sorry, but this phone is out of order. I can’t get through. Sorry. He / She isn’t him / her right now. Can I ring back later? I’ll ring him / her up again. I must ring off now because... 1． 四会词汇 patent, courtyard, walnut, distinguish, merciful, product, powder, perfume, stainless, cube, abrupt, convenient, caution, expectation, passive, merry, seize, criterion, valid, file, ripe, string, glue, freezing, greengrocer, identification, directory, dial, rainfall, innocent, lantern, bear, jam, forehead, dynamic, dot, tap, wire, straw, current, helicopter, triangle, stable, associate, practical, refrigerator, court, extension, version, competence, jeep, personnel 2． 认读词汇 amphibious, Stephenson, George Stephenson, jelly, freezer, overnight, release, recognition, claim, rod, precede, Alexander Graham Bell, microphone, occasionally, multiple, Morse code, inspiration, reproduce, tetrahedron, invaluable, James Dyson 3． 词组 call up, now and then, set about, in case, beaten track, dive into, set out (to do), hang on, get through, ring back, ring off 4． 重点词汇 discovery, convenient, distinguish, application, importance, practical, bear Appositive clause — that 可引导同位语从句 expectation,
功 能 句 式
重 点 句
1. The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. P20 2. Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes when cooled. P20
3. The criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. P21 4. Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. P21 5. He found that by pressing his lips against his mother’s forehead, he could make his mother understand what he was saying. P25 6. He designed a machine that would separate different sound waves and allow different conversations to be held at the same time. P25 7. Although he is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, he was indeed a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody’s life. P26
Ⅲ. 教材分析和教材重组 1. 教材分析 本单元以 Inventors and inventions 为话题，旨在通过单元教学，使学生了解发明和发现的区别， 了解发明创造的过程和获得专利的条件，学习发明家的成功事例；能灵活运用基础句型描述中外古代和现 代发明，谈论不同发明的优缺点及其现实意义；根据不同问题及条件设计、改进发明并阐述自己的观点； 能写一封有创新的求职申请，阐述自己的特长和优势，能对别人的发明、创造或观点提出意见或建议；并 能运用所学知识利用现实生活中有限材料进行发明创造。 1.1 Warming Up 提供了三幅不同发明或发现的图片，让学生运用已有的知识和经验，区分发明和发现的 不同含义；并能与同伴合作描述现代发明在现实生活中的作用。 1.2 Pre-reading 要求学生将课本所列关于进行科学研究或发明创造所必须经历的几个阶段（步骤或 过程）进行正确的排序。了解每一项发明在得到社会承认前都必须经历一个过程。 1.3 Reading 是一篇记叙性的文章。作者在文中详细介绍了从发现问题（snake trouble）、分析问 题（products that might help）到解决问题（remove the snakes）的全过程，并介绍了专利申请方 面的一些知识。 1.4 Comprehending 第一个训练题要求学生根据课文内容回答问题；第三个训练题要求学生运用科 学步骤设计一项发明解决课本所提供的三个问题，并与同学交流观点。 1.5 Learning about Language 分两部分。第一部分要求学生利用填空、改写句子的方式复习所学 词汇及表达法。第二部分重点练习过去分词作定语的用法。 1.6 Using Language 分成四部分。第一部分 Reading 要求学生阅读一篇介绍发明家 Alexander Graham Bell 的文章并回答有关问题，了解电话发明者贝尔的发明及其成功的原因。第二部分 Listening and speaking 是一段关于 Zhou Rui 对一家发明公司的工程师进行电话采访的听力材料。要求学生掌握 电话交谈常用表达；并在此基础上进行角色扮演活动，即求职者与公司考核人员之间的电话交谈。第三部 分 Writing 要求学生写一封求职信，列举自己的优势、特长和工作经历向这家发明公司提出求职申请。 2． 教材重组 2.1 从话题内容及训练目的分析， Warming Up 与 Speaking 和 Workbook 中的 TALKING 相一致， 可将这三部分整合在一起，设计成一节任务型“口语课”。 2.2 将 Listening and speaking 和 Workbook 中的 LISTENING, LISTENING TASK 整合在一起， 设计成一节“听力课”。 2.3 可将 Pre-reading, Reading 和 Comprehending 三个活动整合在一起上一节“阅读课（一）”。 2.4 可将 Learning about Language 与 Workbook 中的 USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS, USING STRUCTURES 整合在一起，上一节“语法课”。 2.5 可将 Using Language 中 Reading 和 Workbook 中 READING TASK 整合起来，上一节“阅读 课（二）”。
2.6 将 Using Language 中的 Writing 和 Workbook 中的 WRITING TASK 整合为一节“写作课”。 3. 课型设计与课时分配 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period 6th period Ⅳ. 分课时教案 The First Period Speaking Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 重点词汇和短语 discovery, application, evaluate, presentation, alternative, messenger, get together, make a case for, add up 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about inventions and discoveries. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to talk about inventions and discoveries. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to talk about inventions and discoveries. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion. Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Warming up Talk about inventions and discoveries. T: The importance of inventions to social progress can never be changed. Each invention carries the world a step forward and provides stimulation for later ones. With inventions turning up all the time, our world is always taking on a new look. But do you know what an invention is? S1: The creation of something new. S2: A creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation. S3: The creation of new things. … Ask the students to talk about the pictures with the teacher’s help, and then discuss the first two questions. T: And what is a discovery? What’s the difference between a discovery and an invention? Now look at the pictures on page 1. Work in pairs and talk about the three different things, telling them apart and giving reasons. Show the following. 1. Which of these pictures show inventions? Does any of them show discoveries?
Speaking Listening Reading (Ⅰ) Grammar Reading (Ⅱ) Writing
2. Work out two rules that will help you decide what is a discovery and what is an invention? S1: I think the first two are inventions, i.e. the amphibious car and Stevenson’s “Rocket” while the last picture about the DNA is a kind of discovery. Because the first two products were quite new to people at that time and no one had ever seen or designed such kind of vehicles before though some others had made similar cars or machines which had less functions and advantages as these two. I think the picture about the DNA is a kind of scientific discovery in biology because such cells and their structure do exist in living creatures and they have been found out by a certain scientist and are made known to the public nowadays. So I think a discovery is something existing before but unknown while an invention is something unknown and not existing before. S2: I think the first two pictures show us great human inventions about the transportation because they were invented by people for certain purposes and they had special advantages and could satisfy people’s needs in some ways. On the other hand the third picture showing the formation of DNA is a kind of discovery because these special cells exist and function in the body of life all the time no matter who discovers it or when and where it is discovered. In my opinion a discovery is something found out or brought to view now but it was unknown before while an invention is something created or designed by people , which is completely new not only now but in the past. … T: Well, from these pictures we can see that there lies differences between a discovery and an invention. There are certain rules or questions you should pay attention to while distinguishing them. Did it exist in the past? Is it created or developed by people? An invention is something that is created by a human being, such as the lightning rod. To the contrary, a discovery merely makes known something that already existed in nature, such as the discovery on the New Continent by Columbia. OK. Let’s go on with some other questions of this part. You may talk with your partner first before we have a check five minutes later. Show the following. What modern inventions do you know? Describe them to your partner and how useful they are in life today. S1: Adidas 1 is the thinking shoes with a built-in microprocessor that decides how soft or firm the wearer needs the support. It has been chosen by Popular Science magazine as the best recreation invention of 2004. It is very comfortable to wear it all day without worrying about your toes being hurt and you can adjust the height and stiffness according to your demands whenever you want and wherever you go. Thus it is a very practical choice for both the young and the old when having exciting sports outdoors or resting at home during holidays. S2: Camera phones have opened up a new way to communicate. Because many of them look like regular cell phones, you can snap pictures as discreetly as any spy and, with the push of a few buttons, pop them into an e-mail or upload them to the Web in less than a minute. No wires or computer hookups necessary. To be sure, most camera phones end up taking pictures of friends, family, babies and pets. But they have also been used to snap pictures of VIPs at private parties, copy recipes from cookbooks at bookstores and even document crimes in progress. But with an estimated 80 million camera phones sold in 2003, 6 million in the U.S. alone—the cat may already be out of the camera bag. Like it or not, these camera phones have been very popular and widely used by people even today. S3: A kind of robot heart called AbioCor was invented in 2001. On July 2, 2001, the
59-year-old grandfather and retired librarian Robert Tools became the first human to get one. It’s been long since the operation, and Tools’ new heart is still beating. He can walk a city block without stopping and he’s even making plans for the future. Though not everybody needs a new heart, hundreds of thousands eventually may. Nor will an artificial heart rid the world of sickness or poverty or terror. But sometimes it really helps. T: Very good! I am glad to see that all of you have known so many modern inventions both at home and abroad and you have thought a lot about them. It’s certain that modern di scoveries and inventions do have great effects on people’s life and can always represent the advanced science and technology, so you should learn to distinguish them and make good use of them. Step Ⅱ Talking T: Suppose you are working for a mobile company. It is your job to suggest new ways of developing a mobile. In pairs discuss some new applications of a mobile. Make a list of the ones you like and that seem the most useful. Choose one you both like and think will be popular with other people. Now work in groups of four to discuss the question. S1: I suggest the new applications of mobile should be: portable entertainment players, cameras, member-ship and loyalty cards, guidebooks, maps, tickets, watches, and devices for accessing everything from news to corporate databases. Among them, we like the applications of devices for accessing everything from news to corporate databases. We both think they are useful and will soon be popular with others in the near future because the ability will enable a whole class of workers to rely less on their memory and more on their company’s and even world’s knowledge maintenance, sales, construction, transportation, taxicab drivers, and many other workers spend a great deal of time from offices. Thus, when they need information, they must either have it in their heads or stop what they are doing and make a phone call. S2: I think the new mobiles can be developed better with 4G to listen to the radio, watch TV, play games, do shopping, chat on the QQ,, surf the internet, control the electrical equipment at home in the distance, give off harmless rays and be used as computers with special operating systems which can do business, have fun and work as intelligent P4 computers. Among them, we like the new application of surfing the internet and doing shopping and we both think they are useful and will soon be popular among youngsters because it is very convenient for people to find various useful information whenever and wherever possible. As there are different kinds of goods to choose from online and it’s very funny and exciting to make choices and buy what we need at a reasonable price without going out and bargain with sellers in the markets. … T: Very good. Now get together with another pair to discuss whether your suggestion is a good one. Make a case for your idea. Let the other pair evaluate it. Then swap so that you evaluate their idea. Decide which idea you like better and prepare to explain it. Then present it to the class. S1: I think the first classmate’s expectation that the mobile phones can do so much, maybe more than they can offer. The mobile phones usually have limited size and capacity. So I think it will take time before the mobiles are designed to meet his needs. S2: I think it’s practical and meaningful for the second classmate to develop the mobiles in that way. Though it has been used in some ways but we can do better because every day we have much information to look for and different types of things to do and the smart mobile can
make it more convenient for us to achieve our goals in life. … T: Now, I’d like you to discuss in groups and try to tell the others about your ideas and the others who act as the leaders of the company may ask some questions for him or her to answer. Then I’d like some of you to report your group work. Five minutes later. (L=Leader of the company) S: I think the new mobiles can be developed better with 4G to watch TV and do shopping on the internet. L1: Well, have you thought about the cost of this kind of new mobile which has a large capacity and such functions? S: Yes. I’ll make a good survey of the international electronic markets in advance and try to reduce the cost as much as possible. L2: Are you sure of the security measures of using these mobiles, especially when they are used to shop on the internet? S: Sure. I’ll keep the new mobiles designed so in order that they will give warning messages whenever there is misleading information or dishonesty in selling and buying things on the internet. L3: I think it would be difficult for the new mobile of limited size to be used to watch live broadcast and pick out all sorts of goods on the internet. Have you taken these into consideration? S: Yes. Now, I come to realize that I have to design the mobiles with larger screens, which can make it more convenient and comfortable for the users. Thank you! T: Very good! I can see all of you have done a good job in the presentation. Next I want you to evaluate the ideas using the following criteria. First, do you know about the words, such as originality and quality argument? S: Yes, originality just means the quality of being new and interesting and quality argument just means different opinions about the quality of the product. T: Quite right! Now let’s look at the criteria and go on with the next step. Show the following After each group has taken part, add up the scores and award the contract to the winner! T: Next, I’d like to divide you into four teams and the leader of the company will write down the scores according to the criteria while helping everyone present the ideas. At last the winner will be awarded in class. Step Ⅲ SPEAKING TASK (若时间不足，可改为作业) T: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a painter, but a true inventor. Now look at the picture in 1 on page 68. I’d like you to work in pairs and discuss what this invention of Leonardo da Vinci was. Several alternative explanations are provided, but only one is correct. Be prepared to give your ideas to the class with your reasons. S: I think it’s a kind of water slide because we can clearly see the long slide way connecting the water tower, equipment on the roof of the building and the base on the ground. If there is a lack of water down on the ground, the working machine will be used to carry water from the tower above to the ground along the slide way. Just so, this specially fixed machine can also carry water up to store in the tower if the water on the ground is more than needed. This
kind of invention is really useful especially in some dry or mountainous areas. T: Good! You are very creative in thinking about the use of the machine in different cases and from this we can see Leonard da Vinci is really a great inventor. He contributed to people’s everyday life besides painting wonderful pictures. Well, let’s go on with Activity 2. Please look at the pictures and read the instructions below, discuss in groups and finish the exercises. Sample answers: What was its possible use? Why? 1. Its possible use is calculation because it is usually called “the Chinese computer” by foreigners. 2. Its possible use is to spread the development of culture because it is usually used to print papers for people to read. 3. The south pointer was used to find the most harmonious position to place new buildings. It seems possible that it dates back to the Qin Dynasty. It was the first application of magnetism in people’s lives. When and where did it appear in Europe? About the middle of the 15th in Russia About the late 15th in Germany
The navigational compass appeared in Europe in the 12th or 13th centuries. This is similar to the time when Zheng He used it on his voyages to Africa.
Step Ⅳ Project T: “Creativity is the soul of a nation and an inexhaustible source of a country’s prosperity.” Chinese former President Jiang Zemin said in the speech delivered on November 24 to the scientific and technological community in the Science City of Novosibirsk. As a young generation, every one of us should be creative and inventive in order to contribute more to make our country richer and more beautiful. Now, please look at the project exercise on page 69. I’d like you first read the introductions and th en discuss in pairs about the pictures and solutions to the problems. Finally I’d like someone to present your work. One possible solution: S: In this kind of situation, I will have to use the sticks and ropes to make a fishing rod with the nails made in shape of hooks. I will cut the pumpkin or the nuts on the trees into halves so as to make a water container. And as for the shelter I’d use the piece of cloth combined with sticks, ropes and nails. I will have to need a magnifying glass found on the island to focus the heat on the leaves and wood so that there will be much smoke rising from the fire caused by the strong light and heat from the sun. If I’m not lucky enough to be saved by someone, I would have to use the ropes cut by the knife to link the pieces of wood together so as to make a raft as means of escape. T: Good! You all have good imaginations and you have known much about how to design and make effective inventions especially in emergency. I am very proud of you and I’m sure you will do more research about the inventions after class until you make them perfect. Step Ⅴ Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1．Search for more information about mobiles on the Internet.
2．Prepare for the listening part on page 26. The Second Period Listening Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 词汇和短语 refrigerator, court, version, hang on, out of order, get through, ring back, ring off b. 重点句子 Hang on, please. I’m sorry, but this phone is out of order. I can’t get through. I must ring off now because... Can I ring back later? 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to listen to the description of mobile phones and make a telephone interview. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to listen to the description of mobile phones and make a telephone interview. Teaching important points 教学重点 Listen to the description of mobile phones. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to make a telephone interview. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision and lead-in Greet the students as usual. Talk about the applications of mobiles. T: Telephone is really a great invention in human history. With it, we can talk with friends, families or others far away from us. Suppose you want to apply for a job in James Dyson’s company in England. The quickest and cheapest way may be a telephone conversation. So you ring up one of his engineers to ask what kind of person he needs. Now work in pairs and make a telephone conversation with your partner. Remember to ask for as much information as you can. Of course, we have learned about how to make telephone calls in English-speaking countries. Who can give me some examples? S: I’ll try. When making a telephone call, we often say: Hello! Is that... speaking? Yes, this is... Can I take a message? Wait a minute, please, and so on. T: But the following expressions may be of great help. Before listening, please read and learn them by heart. Show the following. Hold the line, please. Hang on, please.
Just a moment, please. I’m sorry, but this phone is out of order. I can’t get through. I’ll ring him / her up again. I must ring off now because... T: Now, you may work with your partner and discuss about the questions and answers. A sample dialogue: (S-student; E-engineer) S: Hello! Is that James Dyson’s company? E: Yes, Who’s that? S: This is Li Ping. Is that the personnel manager? E: Just a moment, please. Sorry. He isn’t here right now. Can I take a message? S: No, thanks. Maybe I’ll ring him again some other time. By the way, May I ask you some questions? E: Sure, go ahead. S: I want to apply for a job in your company and I want to ask what kind of person you need. E: Well, as far as I know, we need some skilled workers who are good at machinery and have a good knowledge of repairing some electrical equipment used at home, for example washing machine, refrigerator, electric fan and so on. S: Are we graduates needed in some departments in your company? E: It’s hard to say now. Maybe you will have some chance to work and learn in some department, but you have to wait and see. If you are free, you may call the personnel manager at three o’clock this afternoon. S: OK, I will. By the way, how much will I get if I can work as your colleague? E: Usually the average salary for newcomers is $2,000 per month. And you may get a rise if you progress well or have some invention in your work. S: Well, I know. I must ring off now because I have to go back home for lunch. Thanks a lot. Bye! E: Goodbye and good luck! T: Next please swap roles and answer your partner’s questions. Remember you must behave as if you are a member of Dyson’s company and answer the questions honestly. Step Ⅱ Listening and speaking T: Zhou Rui has decided to do a project on a living British inventor called James Dyson. So he telephoned Dyson’s company in England to interview one of its engineers about the great man’s ideas. Now listen to the conversation between them and finish the exercises on page 26. Before that, please look through the introductions first. Ask the students to finish the exercises after listening and then check the answers with them. T: While listening, you’d better make notes of the listening points like this: Show the following. The object of his invention: The problem of his invention: The improvement of his invention: Step Ⅲ LISTENING (Workbook) T: Millions of people in China and around the world use cellular phones. They are such great
inventions —with a cell phone, you can talk to anyone on the planet from just about anywhere! These days, cell phones provide an unbelievable array of functions, and new ones are being added at a breakneck pace. Now look at the pictures and questions on page 62. Work in pairs and have a discussion about the three questions. Sample answers: S1: A mobile phone can now be used to receive phone calls, send and receive messages, listen to music, watch videos, surf the internet and so on. I find it very useful to use the mobile phones to make telephone calls and send and receive messages because we should always be informed and it’s important and necessary to communicate with each other in modern society. I also expect a mobile phone to show pictures of the person I call so that we can see clearly whether we are calling the right person and I hope one day we can use it to have meetings with people in the distance, and see films and show DVD in public. S2: Nowadays mobile phones can be used to do calculations, record pictures in life, play games, chat online, set time limit, wake up people, find out various information online and so on. I find they are very useful because we can enjoy ourselves when we use them to play games and chat online and talk with friends about different subjects. I expect mobile phones can be used one day to watch TV, cook meals, pick up foreign languages, do homework and take exams for me. Then I’ll be free from different kinds of worries and complaints and live a more comfortable and convenient life in the future. T: Good! You have known much about mobile phones and we’ll listen to some other functions of them, which you might feel more interested in. Now, listen and do Part 2 and then answer the questions in Part 3. While listening, please make notes as follows. OK? Show the following. The mobile Mary will buy: The extra applications of mobiles: The extra application of the 3-G mobiles: The reason why Mary is worried: The advantages of the 3-G mobiles: What might go wrong? Then check the answers with the students. Step Ⅳ LISTENING TASK (Workbook) Deal with the LISTENING TASK on page 67. T: First look at the three pictures on page 67 and discuss what inventions they might be. Any opinions? S: It looks as if it is a kind of machine moving on wheels and it can move very fast driven by a certain kind of force. T: It’s another invention by Leonardo da Vinci. Now, listen to the tape and decide if you agree with the people on the tape. What do you think it was? Fill in the chart below with the ideas of the two girls and make your own suggestions. Now please listen to the tape and fill in the chart on page 67. Make some notes while listening as follows. Show the following. Listening points: The girls’ suggestions: Reasons for: Reasons against:
My suggestion: Then check the answers. Step Ⅴ Homework T: Boys and girls, today we have listened to some materials about different inventions and their functions and applications. I do hope you can listen to the materials again after class so that you can get very familiar with them. Besides, please finish the USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS on pages 63-64 and then preview the Reading. Here are two questions for you. 1. What is the problem talked about in the text? 2. How did the writer solve the problem? List some of the steps. The Third Period Reading (Ⅰ) Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 patent, distinguish, product, power, perfume, cube, abrupt, abruptly, convenient, expectation, monitor, passive, criterion, valid, application, file, rod, call up, now and then, set about, in case b. 重点句子 1. The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. 2. Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes when cooled. 3. The criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. 4. Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to describe the problem of the snakes and what has been done by the writer to solve the problem. Make them realize it takes steps to catch the snakes and it’s not easy to get a patent. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students to learn how to retell the story and how to meet the requirements of getting a patent. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to describe the problem of the snakes and what has been done by the writer to solve the problem. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Learn how to meet the requirements of getting a patent. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based activities. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and some slides. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision 1. Greetings
2. Check the answers to the multiple choices in USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS. 3. Ask some students to show the answers to the preview questions. T: Last period, you were asked to preview the text and answer the two questions. Did you get ready? Sample answers: 1. The problem talked about in the text is how to catch snakes in the courtyard. 2. The writer solved the problem in different steps. For example placing the frozen bowl and the ice-cubes on top of the bowl to keep it cool, freezing the bowl and ice-cubes again in the evening as the temperature was starting to cool and using a net used for catching fish. Step Ⅱ Pre-reading T: Problems can arise anywhere at any time. Now here is a problem of snakes. Look at the title of the reading passage. What can you guess about the content of the passage from the title? To answer the question you should try to predict the content of the reading material by reading the title and looking at the pictures in the text. The title of the text is THE PROBLEM OF THE SNAKES. Next, I’d like you to discuss this question with your partner. Then I’ll ask some students to report your work. Are you clear? After a few minutes T: Now who’d like to answer the question? Volunteer! S1: Let me try. Someone was once frightened at the sight of snakes, the brave and clever writer helped solve the problem of the snakes, as we can see from the picture that she finally caught them with a net. S2: Judging from the title, I think the passage is mainly about the serious problem of the snakes around the house and how the girl made efforts to catch the snakes in the end. S3: The title tells us that the content of the text will be about different ways of catching snakes tried by the girl and her success in doing it. T: Very good! Now, let’s go on with Exercise 1 in the pre-reading. Inventing is a scientific activity. Every inventor must go through certain stages before they can have their inventions approved. Look at the list of the stages and work out a suitable order. S: The suitable order of the steps every inventor must go through before they can have their inventions approved: 1. Finding a problem 2. Doing research 3. Thinking of a creative solution 4. Testing the solution 5. Applying for a patent 6. Deciding on the invention T: Well done! You’ve worked the order out. Now read the text and check the order you wrote above to see whether it follows the correct stages in producing an invention. First, you should skim the passage by reading the introduction, the topic of each paragraph and the conclusion. After a few minutes. T: How about your arrangement of the stages? Are they all right? S: I find the above steps are correctly arranged according to the text. At first the writer found the problem of the snakes, and then she made a study of the methods of catching them and thought of a creative and practical way to solve the problem. She then tested and improved the method before applying for a patent and whether there will be a decision on her invention remains to be seen.
T: Quite right. Since you have got the general idea of the text, let’s go through the text again. Step Ⅲ While-reading Get the students to comprehend the passage carefully and accurately, and then divide the text into several parts and work out the main idea for each paragraph. T: Now, please read the passage carefully, divide the whole passage into several parts and find out the main idea of each part. Part I (Para.1): the discovery of the problem of the snakes Part II (Paras.2-3): the research on the approaches to solve the problem Part III (Paras.4-6): the attempts to catch the snakes Part IV (Paras.7-8): the requirements of getting a patent T: Now, please go through the whole text again and I’d like you to analyze the text in details. Discuss these questions on the slides. Show the following. 1. What are the writing techniques of this text? 2. What’s the main idea of the text? 3. What should we learn from this text? 4. What’s the writing purpose of the writer? Sample answers: 1. In this text the writer puts forward the problem of the snakes, makes research and analyzes the problem, lists the steps of solving the problem according to the arrangement of ideas, and finally illustrates what is needed for getting a patent. By listing the creative steps she takes to catch the snakes without hurting them, the writer has efficiently recorded and narrated to the readers the beginning, the development and the final result of the incident clearly. 2. The text narrates the problem of the snakes and presents the procedures of catching them and applying for a patent, from which we have got a better understanding of how to do scientific researches and how to apply for a patent. After learning, we know that it usually costs some time and continuous efforts in order to solve some practical problems in a scientific way. 3. We can learn from the text the way of doing scientific researches and how to apply for a patent. We can also learn that it takes an inventor great determination and persistence to achieve his or her ambition in life. 4. The writer wants to inform us of the scientific methods to solve present problems so that we students can not only broaden the horizons but become more skilled in discovering and considering carefully the problems in daily life. We are also encouraged by the writer to be creative and hardworking as well as thinking independently. Help the students deal with the difficult language points in the text. T: Now, everyone, I wonder if you have any difficulties in understanding the text. S1: I have one question. I can’t understand the structure of the sentence in Para. 2 on page 20: The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. Would you please explain it and put it into Chinese for us? T: Sure. This sentence tells us the first step of the writer’s resea rch on the problem of the snakes. The words the first thing is modified by an attributive clauses I tried to do and the words powders is modified by an attributive past participle phrase designed to kill snakes. The
clause if there were products that might help me serves as an objective clause. 全句汉语意思： 我设法做的第一件事是看看是否有能帮我忙的产品，但是好像只有一些用来捕杀蛇的粉末。 S2: I don’t know much about the last but one sentence of the third paragraph on page 20: Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes hard when cooled. What’s the sentence structure like? Why is “when cooled” used? What does it mean? Please explain it in details. T: As a whole, this sentence is an inverted sentence with the prepositional phrase Between the outside and inside walls of the bowl put in the front, which tells us what the writer used in order to cool the snakes. which freezes hard when cooled is a non-restrictive attributive clause modifying the sentence in front of it. When cooled is an elliptic form of when it is cooled. 全句意思是：在碗内外侧有一些果子冻，冷却时它们会冻得很结实。 S3: I find it difficult to understand the first sentence of the last paragraph: Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. Can you explain it? Thank you. T: Well, this sentence tells us another requirement of getting a patent. This is an inverted sentence of adverbial clause, with the negative word Nor at the beginning of the sentence. that your product really is different from everybody else’s is an objective clause. In the normal order, this sentence can be paraphrased like this: You will not receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. 全句意为：直到做了一次调查后发现你的产品确实与众不同，这时你才会获得专利。 Step Ⅳ Comprehending T: Now, please look at Exercise 1 on page 21. Listen to the recording of the passage to get the answers to the questions. While listening, pay more attention to the correct pronunciation and tone. Then read the text by yourselves to get the answers to the next questions (slide). You can work in groups. Step Ⅴ Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Go over the whole passage. 2. Recite the key sentences in the text. 3. Prepare for Learning about Language and USING STRUCTURES in the workbook. The Fourth Period Grammar Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 committee, bear, jam, mess, expectation, embarrasses, traffic jam, set about, take up b. 重点句子 So nothing went according to plan and that is why... The twin sisters are so much alike that... The weather upset... so much that... When I watch..., I feel as if... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to use the past participle as the attribute. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to use the past participle as the attribute.
Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to use the past participle as the attribute. Teaching methods 教学方法 Individual work and practice. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a blackboard. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision Check the students’ homework and ask the students to retell the text. A sample retelling version: My mother lived in the countryside and was upset about the snakes in the yard. She wanted me to help her get rid of them. How to catch these snakes without hurting them? First I checked if there were products that might help, but there seemed to be only some powders. So I had to find out a new way. I began researching the habits of snakes. Then I decided on three possible ways and used the last one: to cool the snakes and catch them. I bought an ice-cream maker and took the bowl from the machine. I put some jelly on the outside and inside walls of the bowl. Then I put the bowl into the freezer and waited. At the same time, I prepared some ice-tubes. In the following two days, I tried to catch them. But I failed. Then I decided to use a net to catch the snakes after they became passive. This time, I made it. My friends and relations pressed me to send my invention to the patent office to get recognition. So I filled the form and filed my patent application with the patent office and waited for the result. Ask the students to translate some sentences or spell some key words in the text. Show the following. Put the following sentences into Chinese. 1. The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. 2. Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes hard when cooled. 3. Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. Sample answers: 1. 我做的第一件事是看看是否有能帮我忙的产品，但是好像只有一些用来捕杀蛇的粉末。 2. 在碗内外侧有一些果子冻，当冷却时它们会冻得很结实。 3. 直到做了一次调查后发现你的产品确实与众不同，这时你才会获得专利。 Step Ⅱ Grammar focus T: Now, please look carefully at some examples on the slides and answer some questions below: Show the following. 1. The Titanic is a sunk ship in the ocean. 2. The book intended as a surprise to him was lost in the mail. 3. He seems moved to tears by the film. 4. If bitten by a snake, you should call for help.
5. We left them caught in the storm. Qs: 1. What’s the function of the words in bold? 2. What kind of voice do they have? Why? 3. What part of speech does each of them have? 4. What’s the difference between the structures of the first two sentences? Can you rewrite them in the attributive clause? T: Now, please talk with your partner and then we will deal with the questions one by one. S1: All the words in bold in the sentences are all past participles, which explain and add more information to the meanings of the sentences. S2: Usually the past participle shows the passive voice to the related part of the sentence. For example in the first two sentences, the verbs sunk and intended indicate the passive relationship to the nouns they modify ship and book while in the third and the fourth sentences the passive relationship is between the subject He and moved; you and bitten. From the last sentence, we know they were caught in the storm. S3: The past participles act as attribute as in the first two examples while they serve as predicative, adverbial, object complement respectively in the next three examples. S4: The past participle in the first sentence modifies the noun following it while in the second sentence the modified noun is in front of the past participle. They can be rewritten as The Titanic is a ship which is sunk in the ocean. The book which was intended as a surprise to him was lost in the mail. Step Ⅲ Discovering useful structures T: First I’d like you to look at the example and talk about the part of speech of the past participle and then look through the text and find out three more sentences used in this way. I’ll give you three minutes. Then we’ll check the answers together. Ask the students to do Exercise 1 on page 23 and Exercises 2-4 on page 24. And then check the answers. Step Ⅳ Using structures (Workbook) T: First let’s look at the pictures on page 65 and try to talk about them using the -ing form and the past participles. I’d like you to talk about each picture by asking and answering the questions and try to use complete sentences so that you may know the relationship between the verb form and the exact thing it explains, for example, as to the first picture, one may ask. Show the following. S: What are the boys doing? R: They are looking at the bulletin board showing the result of the football match. S: What is disappointing? R: The score of their team is disappointing to them. T: Now, work in pairs and practise talking about the pictures. Check the answers. And then ask the students to do Exercise 2. T: Next, try to rewrite the sentences in Exercise 2, paying attention to the sentences given and try to use verbs in their -ing forms and past participle forms so as to make the two sentences similar in meanings. Then we’ll have a check together in about ten minutes. Step Ⅴ Homework
Ask the students to do the following. 1. Finish the exercises on grammar in this unit. 2. Preview the reading materials in Using Language . The Fifth Period Reading (Ⅱ) Teaching goals 教学目标 1.Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 forehead, dot, tap, wire, straw, current, importance, helicopter, triangle, stable, practical, beaten track, dive into, set out (to do), in truth b. 重点句子 He found that by pressing his lips against... He designed a machine that... Although he will always be known for..., he was... He realized that by understanding how... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to learn about the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell and his inventions. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell invented telephones. Teaching important points 教学重点 How the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell invented telephones. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Help the students learn what the key is to become a successful inventor. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and fast reading. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision and lead-in Check homework: Get the students to put the following sentences into English. Show the following. 1. 一阵闪电之后，接着就是一声巨响。 2. 被汽车撞伤的小孩马上被送到了医院。 3. 本书是用浅显的英语写的，适合初学者。 4. 那位手持鲜花的姑娘也许在等那个被警方带走的男人。 Sample answers: 1. There was a sudden burst of lightning followed by a terrible noise. 2. The boy hurt by the car was sent to the hospital immediately. 3. This book, written in simple English, is suitable for beginners. 4. The flower-carrying girl may be waiting for the man taken away by the police. Ask the students “Do you know who invented the telephone?” S: Yes, a British inventor called Alexander Graham Bell. T: Good. Everyone knows what an amazing invention telephone is! When we make telephone calls every day, we shouldn’t forget the great inventor Alexander Graham Bell. Today, we’ll learn something more about him.
Step Ⅱ Pre-reading T: Next, please look at the picture of the great inventor on page 25. First I’d like you to discuss the following questions in groups. Show the following. 1. What do you know about the inventor? 2. How useful is his invention to human society? Why? After a few minutes. T: Now, who’d like to show your answers? S1: Let me try. I know Alexander Graham Bell was born in Scotland and he was very curious about the world around him when very young. He did many tests to improve what he had invented and he had made many other inventions in his life. As we all know, it is very convenient for people to communicate with each other through telephones. It is certainly true that telephones have become part of our everyday life. Living in this “information age”, we cannot bear a world without the ringing of phones almost anywhere we go. S2: I think Bell was a very great inventor. He deeply loved his mother who was almost deaf and was determined to do something for the disabled to live a better life. What a great son! I think he was also hardworking because he took a lot of trouble doing many experiments to solve the problems and invented a lot of things. I can’t imagine what the life would be like without telephones. Maybe we will live in a silent world without knowing of the things around us, which is unbearable for us human beings in modern society. And it becomes more and more important to use telephones to receive and send information with the development of modern IT. … T: I agree. Alexander Graham Bell is really a famous inventor who has made great contributions to human beings and we are going to learn more about him in the following text. Step Ⅲ Listening & Reading Let the students read the four questions first to get a general idea of what should be paid attention to and then play the tape for students to follow and give the answers to the questions. When they finish, let them exchange notes with their partners and find the supporting sentences. Then check the answers with the whole class. T: Now, please read the first sentence of each paragraph and the key words in bold and then tell me the main idea of it. After a few minutes. S: It mainly talks about the life of Alexander Graham Bell and how he made the great inventions. T: Very good! Next please go through the four questions on page 26 and find the answers after listening. Ask the students to listen to the recording and try to answer the questions. Step Ⅳ READING TASK T: Do you know about the world famous painting “Mona Lisa”? S: Sure. The woman is very attractive especially with her perfect smile! T: Do you know who painted the great picture? S: Yes. His name is Leonardo da Vinci, a great Italian artist.
T: Do you think Leonardo da Vinci is really a good painter? What else do you know he is famous for? S: Of course. As far as I know, he is an Italian artist, scientist, and engineer. And an all-round genius whose paintings and inventions changed the world. As he intended to be a painter by profession he carefully studied drawing from life. Besides, he made designs for mills, working machines and engines that could be driven by water power. In a word, he is a true Renaissance man. T: Good. Leonardo da Vinci is in fact an outstanding talent in many fields. Now, I’d like you to read a passage entitled WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI JUST A PAINTER? And then work with your partner to complete Exercises 1 and 2. Sample answers: 1. Because painting did not always provide a steady income when he was young so he had to develop his drawing skills to earn money in other ways and he learnt to design whatever his employer wanted. 2. Because he had developed a new attitude towards machines. He realized that by understanding how each separate machine part worked, he could improve them and combine them in different ways to improve existing machines. 3. While he was studying under Verrochio, Leonardo observed and used a variety of machines. By studying and drawing the machines, Leonardo gained knowledge about their design and structure. His drawing skills enabled him to produce clear drawings of his mechanical ideas easily, many of which can still be used to create perfect working machines. The use of mechanical gears was his most interesting part and he came up with numerous inventions based on the gear. 4. His understanding of machines for his painting was more important because by understanding how each separate machine part worked, he could improve them and combine them in different ways to improve existing machines, which lead to a lot of inventions. T: As we all know, one of the remarkable things about Leonardo da Vinci was his natural ability in so many subjects. Are you as clever as Leonardo? I’d like you to make a comparison about da Vinci and you yourself and find out by filling in the chart in Exercise 2. Sample answers: Possible skills artist Evidence from Leonardo By the 1480s he had begun to produce paintings of his own. a. Some of his early drawings showed clearly how various machine parts worked. b. In this way he began to design machines no one had ever seen before. He learnt to design whatever his employer wanted: cities, canals, bridges or weapons. He set out to write the first systematic explanation of how machines worked and how the parts
Evidence from you I could pictures young. draw when nice very
I sometimes look at books about different machines and try to design perfect working machines. I am interested in modern architecture. I love children and enjoymaking friends with them.
of a machine were combined in the whole. doctor His talent was so rare that he mastered any subject to which he turned his attention. a. He came up with numerous designs based on the gear. b. If he had never been a painter, we would still appreciate him as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He might have been a scientist if he had not been so skilled in other areas. I feel merciful for those sick people who suffer great pain. No time spent on making inventions.
Maybe there will be some evidence after I graduate and major in certain subject in the university.
T: Well, you may like or dislike some subjects. However, I firmly believe all of you have certain natural ability in some areas. You can offer more evidence to fill in the chart after class. But now, let’s have a discussion about the questions in Exercise 3. Now, work with your partner and I’d like some of you to show your opinions. Five minutes later. S1: Leonardo managed to earn his living in two ways, i.e. by painting pictures and designing cities, canals, bridges, weapons, bicycles, helicopters, automobiles and some working machines. I am only familiar with the way of painting because I am interested in drawing pictures and I enjoy painting myself. As a girl, I am least happy with the knowledge of machinery and I am a bit worried about it because with the development of modern industry, more and more advanced machines will be produced and I will fall behind the times if I don’t try to know some information about them. I will read more books and go to visit workers in the factories so as to learn more about how modern machines are designed and how they work. S2: Unlike Leonardo, who was very good at drawing skills and made a living partly by them, I have no talent in painting. However, I know something about the design of bridges, bicycles and automobiles, by which Leonardo once earned his living. I am least happy with the knowledge of drawing and I am very worried about it because I have to develop the skills of drawing if I decide to learn more about the design of bridges, bicycles and automobiles. I have to learn from my art teacher and practise drawing lines and figures every week in my spare time so that I can have a better sense of drawing and designing certain products. S3: Leonardo used to earn his living by painting pictures and designing cities, canals, bridges, weapons, bicycles, helicopters, automobiles and some working machines. I am familiar with painting pictures because I took an interest in it when I was a boy, but I am least happy with designing cities, canals and weapons. I’m rather worried about it because they are very important skills for us to live a healthy and peaceful life. I decide to learn more about geography and history so as to make our cities more beautiful and provide the citizens with a better environment. And I am determined to work hard and get well prepared for learning military engineer when I enter college. T: Very good! I am glad to see you are eager to learn a lot in order to realize your dreams in
the future. I really feel proud of you. And I believe your dreams will come true if you make great efforts. Well, a good beginning is half done. I hope you can start from now and here. Make good plans and lay a solid foundation for the future use. OK? May your dreams come true soon! Step Ⅴ Homework 1. Ask the students to write a short passage about da Vinci. 2. Preview Writing in Using Language and WRITING TASK in the workbook. The Sixth Period Writing Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇 assistant, grateful, version, debate, conclusion, reaction, leave out, attract attention, water container b. 重点句子 I would like to apply to become... I would be grateful if you could... If that is the case, you must discuss which... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to write a successful letter applying for a job. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to write an application letter for a certain purpose. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to write an application letter. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to write about a Chinese invention. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based activities. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision Check the homework. Ask some students to show their work. A sample version: Leonardo da Vinci is honored by people not only as a successful painter but a great inventor. He was born in a poor family but he had such a gift for painting that he was accepted by a famous painter from Florence to develop his drawing skills. He learnt a lot about the design and structure of various machines and developed a new attitude towards machines, which made it possible for him to produce more drawings of mechanical ideas and create perfect working machines. Da Vinci was such a talented man that he was skilled in almost every field he turned his attention to. Step Ⅱ Pre-writing T: In the listening period, we have known something about James Dyson and his Company.
Do you remember? S1: Yes. I have known James Dyson is a famous British Inventor who has made great inventions. T: Well, would you like to get a job in his company in the future? Why? S2: Sure. I think it will be pleasant and worthwhile for us young people to have a chance to go abroad and work in a famous company like this. I’m sure both my English and my work experience can be greatly improved if I am lucky enough to work there. T: If there is a job of an assistant in his company, what will you do in order to get it? S3: I will first make a phone call to the personnel manager and ask for as much information as possible so as to get well prepared for the job interview. In the letter to the company I would like to list all my skills, experiences and abilities in all aspects and try my best to get the job. Step Ⅲ Writing T: Next, please write a letter to apply for the job as an assistant, please read the instructions in the writing part on page 27 first. A sample version: Dear Mr Dyson, I would like to apply to become an assistant in your company. As a child I often accompanied my father to his small coin shop and spent hours watching him work. When I grew up, I sometimes set up displays, waited on customers, and even balanced the books. This experience instilled in me the desire to own and manage my own business someday, yet I understand that the business world today is more complex. This complexity requires more education, and with that in mind, I am applying to work in your company to gain more experience and learn more about business. In addition to my helping out in my father’s business, I have had numerous other work experiences that further enhance my qualifications for this job. My resume enumerates the various positions I have held at Kerasotes Theaters, Chili’s restaurants, and Indiana University’s new Student Recreational Sports Center (SRSC), and what all of these positions have in common is an emphasis on serving the public effectively. Further, as an assistant manager at the Showplace 11 and a staff coordinator at the SRSC, I have gained valuable expertise in managing employees and creating work schedules. Both of these positions have allowed me to develop my sales and personal skills, which are extremely important in an increasingly service-driven marketplace. Also, I recently participated in an internship program for academic credit with the Eli Lilly Corporation in the personnel division. As a management intern, I was able to watch the workings of a major corporation up close and would like the opportunity to combine my experiences with the theoretical background available in the MBA program at IUB, with its emphasis on computers, marketing and human resources. My successful internship is one element of my overall academic success as an undergraduate at IUB, yet I have also made time for a variety of extracurricular activities, including working for my sorority and competing in intramural basketball matches. My positive experiences here have resulted in my desire to work in your company; furthermore, continuing my education here would allow me to make important business contacts, with the career goal of opening my own computer consulting firm in the near future. I would be grateful if you would consider employing me in your company.
Yours sincerely, Li Hua Step Ⅳ WRITING TASK T: Look at the writing task on page 68, read the instructions and write an entry for an encyclopedia. A sample version: The abacus is typically constructed of various types of hardwoods and comes in various sizes. The frame of the abacus has a series of vertical rods on which a number of wooden beads are allowed to slide freely. A horizontal beam separates the frame into two sections, known as the upper deck and the lower deck. The standard abacus can be used to perform addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. The abacus can also be used to extract square-roots and cubic roots. The abacus is prepared for use by placing it flat on a table or one’s lap and pushing all the beads on both the upper and lower decks away from the beam. The beads are manipulated with either the index finger or the thumb of one hand. Each bead in the upper deck has a value of 5; each bead in the lower deck has a value of 1. Beads are considered counted, when moved towards the beam that separates the two decks. After 5 beads are counted in the lower deck, the result is “carried” to the upper deck; after both beads in the upper deck are counted, the result (10) is then carried to the left-most adjacent column. The right-most column is the ones column; the next adjacent to the left is the tens column; the next adjacent to the left is the hundreds column, and so on. Floating point calculations are performed by designating a space between 2 columns as the decimal-point and all the rows to the right of that space represent fractional portions while all the rows to the left represent whole number digits. The abacus is one of many counting devices invented to help count large numbers. The earliest counting device was the human hand and its fingers. Then, as larger quantities (larger than ten human-fingers could represent) were counted, various natural items like pebbles and twigs were used to help count. Merchants who traded goods not only needed a way to count goods they bought and sold, but also to calculate the cost of those goods. Until numbers were invented, counting devices were used to make everyday calculations. Step Ⅴ Homework Ask the students to summarize what they have learnt in the unit and prepare for the next unit.
附 件 I. 语法: 过去分词作定语 1. 过去分词作定语既可以放在所修饰的词之前，作前置定语，也可以放在所修饰的词后面，作后置定语。 表示被动和完成意义,其作用相当于一个定语从句。例如： Where are the reserved seats? (=Where are the seats which have been reserved?) 预定的座位在哪里？ The injured workers are now being taken good care of in the hospital. 受伤的工人现正在医院受到很好的照料。 We needed much more qualified workers. 我们需要更多合格的工人。 My friend is a returned student.
我的朋友是个归国留学生。 2. 过去分词作后置定语可分为限制性（紧跟在所修饰的中心词之后）和非限制性（用逗号与其所修饰的中 心词分开）两种，其作用分别相当于一个限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。例如： The funds raised (= which have been raised) are mainly used for helping the homeless. 筹集的资金主要用来帮助那些无家可归的人。 He is a teacher loved by his students. 他是个很受学生爱戴的老师。 Who were the so-called guests invited (=who had been invited) to your party last night? 昨晚被邀请参加你的晚会的那些所谓的客人是谁呀? This book, written (= which is written) in simple English, is suitable for beginners. 本书是用浅显的英语写的，适合初学者。 The student dressed in white is my daughter. =The student who is dressed in white is my daughter. 穿白色衣服的学生是我的女儿。 3. 过去分词常和形容词、副词或名词构成合成形容词作定语。例如： The newly-built building is our office building. 这座新建的大楼是我们的办公楼。 This is a state-owned factory. 这是一家国营工厂。 This is our school-run factory. 这是我们的校办工厂。 4. 有些不及物动词的过去分词作定语， 并不表示被动的意思而是表示完成。 这类过去分词常作前置修饰语。 例如： There are a lot of fallen leaves in autumn. 秋天有许多落叶。 The film describes the story about the police who pursue an escaped man. 这部电影描述的是警察抓逃犯的事。 常用的这一类词有：fallen, faded, returned, retired, risen, grown up, vanished 等。 5. 如果被修饰的词是由 every/some/any/no + thing/body/one 所构成的复合代词或指示代词 those 等时，即使一个单一的分词作形容词用，也要放在被修饰词的后面。例如： Is there anything unsolved? 还有没解决的问题吗？ There is noting changed here since I left this town. 自从我离开这个城镇以来，几乎没有什么变化。 6. 过去分词作定语时与定语从句的关系： (1) 及物动词的过去分词可改为动词为被动形式的定语从句。 lost time—time which is lost a well-known writer—a writer who is well- known a beaten team—a team which is beaten (2) 部分不及物动词的过去分词作定语时可改为动词为完成式或动词为表示状态的定语从句。 a returned soldier—a soldier who has returned retired workers—workers who have retired a learned man—a man who is of much learning a sunken ship—a ship which has sunk [练习] 1. First he made a list of the names of those ______. Then he began to write the invitation cards.
A. invited B. being invited C. to be invited D. having been invited 2. The first textbooks _____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 3. This method, ______ in areas near Shanghai, ______ in a marked rise in total production. A. trying; resulting B. tried; resulted C. trying; resulted D. tried; resulting 4. The Olympic Games, _____ in 776 B. C., did not include women players until 1912. A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing 5. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door , _____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading 6. The picture _____ on the wall is painted by my nephew. A. having hung B. hanging C. hang D. being hung 7. Next he is going to write a science story about outer space _____ by Science and Technology Press. A. published B. being published C. to be published D. publishing 8. The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the _____. A. 20 dollars remained B. 20 dollars to remain C. remained 20 dollars D. remaining 20 dollars 9. The Yellow River, ______ to be “the mother river”, runs across China like a huge dragon. A. saying B. to say C. said D. being said 10. The _____ boy was last seen _____ near the East Lake. A. missing; playing B. missing; play C. missed; played D. missed; to play Key: 1-5 CDBAD 6-10 BCDCA II. 文化背景知识 Invention Air Conditioning Apple Lisa Computer Atomic Bomb Year of Invention 1902 1983 1945 Inventor Willis Carrier Apple J. Robert Oppenheimer leading the Manhattan Project team. Ladislo Biro Multi Multi MIT Steve Russell
Ball-Point Pen Mobile/Cellular Phones Modern Computers Computer Game
1938 1947/1979 1936-present 1962
Computer Mouse Electric Chair Drive-In Movie Theater Fiber Optics
1964 1888 1933 1854-1970
Douglas Engelbart Thomas Edison Richard M. Hollingshead Maurer, Keck, Schultz Multi - Tyndall, Bell, Wheeler IBM Alan Shugart Lewis Edson Waterman Multi Microsoft Microsoft Georges Claude Robert Metcalf Xerox Multi Multi Multi Gideon Sundback Whitcomb Judson
“Floppy” Disk 1971 Fountain Pen Internet MS-DOS Neon Network Computing Robots Word Processors Yo-Yo Zippe 1884 1969 1981 1902 1973 1921-1956 1960s to 79 1929 1851-1917
III. The Invention Convention Steps for Students Can you invent something? Can you think of an idea or invention that will help people? Read the five steps below. They will help you to become an inventor. Then bring your idea or invention to the Invention Convention. Step 1 Learning about Inventors Learn about inventors. Read about them in books. Talk to people about them. Step 2 Finding an Idea Think about something people need in order to make life better. Talk to people about something they would like to be changed. Then tell your teacher about it on a special sheet of paper called “My New Idea.” Step 3 Research and Planning Use your plan to make an invention. Or write about how your invention would help to solve a problem. Be sure to follow science safety rules when you make an invention. Step 4 Developing and Testing Test your invention or your plan. Make sure it works and is safe to use. Tell about your invention. You may want to draw a picture of it. Use the sheet called My Invention. Step 5 Attending the Invention Convention Get your invention or plan ready for the Invention Convention. Try to make it look as good as you can. Learn all you can about how it works and what it is good for. Bring it to the Invention Convention. Be ready to answer questions.
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