Many a small thing has been made large by the right kind of advertising. -- Mark Twain
著名的美国市场营销协会给广告下的定义是： Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.
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信息功能（Information Function） 唤起需要功能（Demand Creation Function） 说服功能（Persuasive Function） 促使行动功能（Get Action Function） 扶植信用功能（Goodwill Establishment Function）
The Structure of this text
Advertising is part of our daily lives. To find proof, you have only to leaf through a magazine or newspaper or count the radio or television commercials that you hear in one evening. Most people see and hear a mass of advertising messages every day. And people respond to the many devices that advertisers use to gain their attention. (a fall into pit, a gain in your wit) 2 Adverting is a big business—and , to many people, a fascinating one, filled with attraction and excitement. It is part literature, part art, and part show business.
Magazine ＆ newspaper
Advertising is the difficult business of bringing information to great numbers of people. The purpose of an advertisement is to make people respond– to make them react to an idea, such as helping to prevent forest fires, or to make them want to buy a certain product or service.
want to buy a certain product
want to buy a certain service
At the beginning of the 20th century, advertising was described as ―salesmanship in print‖ . If this definition were expanded to include radio and television, it would still stand today. 5 The most effective way to sell something is through person-to-person contact. But the cost of person-to-person selling is high. Because it takes a great deal of time, it increases the cost of the product or service. Advertising, then, distributes the selling message to many people at one time.
Advertising is very old. It can be found as far back as the public criers of ancient Greece-who, for a fee, shouted out messages about a company’s products to one and all.
Down the road
But it first became important in the late 15th century, when the trader of the rapidly growing cities and rural towns needed a way to tell people where their goods could be bought. 7 The first printed advertisement in the English language appeared in 1478, more than a century before Shakespeare’s first play was produced. This early ad was the work of William Caxton, English’s first printer, who used it to advertise religious books from his own studio.
Caxton posted small printed notices along London’s main streets. Besides advertising his product, he identified his shop with a certain trademark so that customers could find it easily. 8
This same sort of simple, informational advertising is still used. Examples include the roadside signs that tell travelers that they can buy fresh corn just down the road or that there is a restaurant in the next town.
The Industrial Revolution, in the 18th and 19th centuries, brought a new kind of advertising. Large factories took the place of small workshops, and goods were produced in large quantities. Manufacturers used the newly built railroads to distribute their products over wide areas. They had to find many thousands of customers in order to stay in business. They could not simply tell people where shoes or cloth or tea could be bought– they had to learn how to make people want to buy a specific product.
Thus modern advertising was born. Advertising helped to create new markets and to raise standards of living as people came to feel that they had a right to new and better products. 10 Advertising agencies began to develop in the United States just after the Civil war. At first, the chief objective if these agencies was to sell space in the various media (medium), mainly newspapers and magazines. But they soon added the service of writing and producing advertisements.
From these modest beginnings, advertising has developed into a highly specialized and profitable business.
Useful phrases: leaf through one and all take the place of specialize (in)
Specialize a. be or become a specialist成为专家；专门从事；专攻 Example: He specializes in oriental history.
b. give particular attention to (a subject, product, etc)；be well known for 专注于(某项目、产品等)/因……而闻名 Example: This shop specializes in chocolates.
Using the right word
The__ of College English Tests is to help students learn English better, isn’t it? A. objecting B. subject C. objective D. aiming They have used the cinema as a weapon, as a(an)__ to express their views. A. media B. medium C. aids D. mean These shops normally__ in old and antique items, not in modern ones. A. buy B. make C. specialize D. sell
The book is endlessly__ and richly rewarding; I highly recommend it to you. A. boring B. dull C. fascinating D. expensive
“五羊” 牌自行车 “Five Goats” Goat在英语中可以比喻不正经的男子、色鬼，因此无论男人还是女人 都不愿骑这个牌子的自行车”。 “紫罗兰”男士衬衫 “Pansy” Pansy是没有男子气概的意思。这种衬衣男士就很可能不会购买。
“ white” 白色表示洁白、纯洁 但在英文中有时意思恰好相反。 上海产的“白翎”钢笔打入国际市场时， 因其译名“White Feather” 而无人问津。英语中有句成语“to show the white feather”，表示软弱胆怯，有临阵脱逃之意，这样的译名肯定不受欢迎。
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Avon—雅芳（化妆品） Sprite—雪碧（饮料） Goldlion—金利来（男士服饰） Colgate—高露洁（牙膏） Canon—佳能（相机） Revlon—露华浓（化妆品）“露华浓”出自李白诗《清平调》“云想衣 裳花想容，春风拂榄露华浓” 引经据典，音义并重非常贴切，即高雅又 具有女性的魅力。 Coca-Cola 原文中的Coca和Cola只是两种植物的名称，而中文的“可 口可乐”却把饮料的特点巧秒地融合在一起。
Discussing the merits and demerit of advertisements What ads do you like best? What ads do you dislike most?
Thanks for listening
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