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Grammar and usage


牛津版 高一 模块二 Unit 1

Present perfect tense & Present prefect continuous tense

Lead-in
Look at the following sentences and try to explain why the tense is used in

these sentences.

1. We have studied English for about
five years. 2. They have lived there since 1990. 3. She hasn?t finished her homework yet. 4. Eric has just come back. 5. How long have you been here?

1.The form of the Present perfect tense:
We form the present perfect tense with

have/has and the past participle of the
verb. have (has) +过去分词

2. The uses of the present perfect tense:
Justin has disappeared, so Kelly is very sad.
Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk

about things that happened in the recent
past, but are connected to the present.

I have not seen Justin since last Friday
night. Note : We also use the present perfect tense to talk about something that started in the

past and is still happening now.

I haven?t seen your for ages. He has just gone out. It has been very cold lately. She has already finished her homework. He hasn?t seen her since the meeting.

Note: We use the present perfect tense when the exact time of an action is not clear or important.

We use it with time expressions such as: already ever for just lately never recently since yet We use already for affirmative statements, yet for negative statements. We use for + a period of time, since + a point in time.

He has just gone out.(= He went out a few minutes ago.) I have just heard the news. (= Now I know the news.) Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about actions that were completed only a short time ago.

They say that they have been to America many times. Note: We can also use the present perfect tense for repeated actions, that is, we use the present perfect tense with the time expressions once/twice/three times…

Look at the sentences and find the difference:

Tom has rung up three times this morning.

Now it is still in the morning.

Tom rang up three times this morning.

Now it is not still in the morning.

Note:
Actions occurring in an incomplete period might be indicated by today or this morning/afternoon/ evening/ week/ month/ year/ century or all day/night/week, all the time, always etc.

Point out what tense or tenses are used in the sentences and the reasons why they are used. 1. We have studied English for about five years. We began to study it five years ago. 2. They moved to the south in 1990 and have lived there since then.

3. Eric left home last year and has just come back. 4. They bought this house three years ago and they have lived here since then. 5. My brother went to see my grandpa last week. He has visited him three times this month.

Complete the sentences.
1 ?_____ you _____ my pen?? ?Yes, I____ Have seen saw it on your desk just now.? (see) 2 ?_____ you ____ dinner?? ?Yes, I ____ Have had had it with Mary.? (have) 3 _____the postman_____ yet this morning? Have come ____ the postman_____ this morning? come Did (come)

Note: The present perfect tense is normally
used for an action which lasts

throughout an incomplete period,
but with the past simple tense, we use time expressions which a fixed point in the past.

e.g.
Bill has smoked since he left school.

He still smokes.

Bill smoked for six months.

It means that he stopped smoking then.

Note Sometimes, however, The present perfect tense used for the action finishes at the time of speaking. e.g. It has been very cold lately but it?s just beginning to get warmer. On meeting someone, you may say: I haven?t seen you for ages. (But I see you now.)

Note The present perfect tense used for a past action whose time is not definite and often has a result in the present.

e.g. Tom has had a bad car crash.
He?s probably still in hospital now.

Tom had a bad

car crash.

He is probably out of

hospital now.

Answers for the diary: (2) __________ saw (4) __________ loves (6) __________ has seen (3) __________ has visited (5) hasn?t visited __________ (7) has never met _________

(8) __________ has travelled
(10) hasn?t found _________

(9) _________ has found
(11) Has, been ________

Look at the sentences:
Sorry. Have you been waiting long?

I have been waiting for an hour.

waiting
arrive Past One hour ago Present

The form of the Present perfect continuous tense: We form the present perfect continuous tense with have/has been and the present participle of the verb. have (has) +been + doing

The uses of the present perfect continuous tense: We sometimes use the Present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions

that started in the past and are still
continuing, or have just finished but are

still connected to the present in some way.

Answers of Dr Frank?s website
have been talking (2) ______________ (3) _____________ have been talking (4)______________ (5) _____________ have been studying have seen

(6) have been writing ______________

Present perfect or present perfect continuous tense? Li Jia has been reading a

book about Stonehenge.

She is still reading the book.

Li Jia has read a book about Stonehenge.

She finished reading the book.

She knows the content of the book now.

Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about an action completed in the recent past, and the present prefect continuous tense for an action that started in the past and is still happening.

I have visited Egypt twice this month.

I have been touring Egypt for two months.

Note: The present perfect continuous tense can?t be used with time expressions such as twice or how many times, because in this tense the action is continuous, not stopped and started again. We can use the present perfect tense for repeated actions, and the present perfect continuous tense for non-stop actions.

How long have you been swimming in the lake? How many times have you swum in the lake?

Note: We usually use the present perfect tense to ask questions beginning with how many/much, and the present perfect continuous tense to ask questions beginning with how long.

A state verb or an action verb?
1. I have had this camera for five years. state verb 2. I have taken photos of UFOs with this camera. with this camera. action verb state verb 3. I have been taking photos of UFOs

An action means something happening or changing. A state means something staying the same. Some examples of action verbs are do, go, and play. Some examples of state verbs are like, know and exist.

Note: We can use either a state verb or an action with the present perfect tense, but we usually can only use an action verb with the present perfect continuous tense. A state verb doesn?t mean an action, so it can?t be used in a continuous tense.

e.g.
They?ve always had a big garden. How long have you known each other? He?s been in hospital since his accident.

I?ve never visited Paris. I?ve already been to Paris.

Note: We use the present perfect tense, not the present perfect continuous tense, with the words like always, never, yet, already and ever.

How long have you been learning English?

How long have you learnt English?

It has rained for a long time.

It has been raining for a long time.

Note: An action which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just finished can, with certain verbs, be expressed by either the present perfect or present perfect continuous. Verbs which can be used in this way include expect, hope, learn, lie, live, sleep, sit, study, wait, want, snow, etc.

Answers of part A on page 11:
(1) __________ heard (2) __________ been doing
(3) been researching (4) __________ __________ done started (5) __________ (6) _________ achieved (7) __________ (8) _________ read found

(9) _________ started
(11) _________ been making

(10) been drawing ________

Sample answers on page 11 part B
1. He has been waiting at a bus stop in a city. 2. They have been travelling in a UFO. It looks like a saucer.

3. They probably have talked to animals or plants on Earth as well as creatures on other plants. 4. They have visited Mars, Venus, Jupiter and some other planets.

Exercises
1. ___ that dress when I first saw you

at the station?
A. Were you wearing B. Have you worn C. Did you wear D. Do you wear

2. ―Kate doesn?t look very well. What?s
wrong with her?

―She has a headache because she ___
too long, she ought to stop work.

A. has been reading B. had read
C. is reading D. was reading

3. “Tell the students to stop shouting. We ____ our essays .” A. write B. have been writing C. are writing D. have written

4. My uncle, Sam, _____ manager of the firm. A. has just made B. is just being made C. has just been made D. is just made

5. This is the first time the students __ to Hyde Park. A. have gone B. have been gone

C. have been going
D. are being gone

6. She ______ her mother?s work since

she was admitted into hospital.
A. is doing B. has been doing

C. has done D. has been done
7. It ___ every day so far this month.

A. is raining
C. has rained

B. rains
D. has been rained

考点考例
1. I haven?t heard anything from him yet.

(P8)
[考点] 现在完成时表示动作发生在过去, 但对现在仍有影响,句中可以没有具体 的时间状语。肯定句中用already,否定 句和疑问句中用yet。

[考例1] ----____ you _____ him around the museum yet? ----Yes. We had a great time there. A. Have;shown C. Had;shown B. Do;show D. Did;show

[点拨] 此句强调过去发生的动作对现在的
影响,即:是否已经带他参观了博物馆。

[考例2] We _____ our new neighbors yet, so we don?t know their names. A. don?t meet C. haven?t met 在造成的影响。 B. won?t meet D. hadn?t met

[点拨] 此句表示发生在过去的动作对现

2. He has sent me an e-mail, telling me about his travels around the world. (P8) [考点] V-ing 短语作后置定语,表示 V-ing形式和被修饰的名词之间 是主动关系。

[考例1]

Peter received a letter just now _____ his
grandma would come to see him soon.

A. said
C. saying said ...。

B. says
D. to say

[点拨] saying 修饰a letter,相当于which

[考例2] Don?t respond to any e-mails ___ personal information, no matter how official they look. A. searching B. asking C. requesting D. questioning [点拨] search和ask后面应加介词for; request意为“询问”;question意为 “提问,盘问,审问”。故选C。

3. Kelly: Sorry I?m late. Have you been waiting long? Mavis: Yes. I?ve been waiting for an hour. (P9) [考点] 现在完成进行时表示从过去某时 开始的动作到现在为止一直在进行,且 可能持续下去。有时含有不耐烦、责备 等感情色彩。

[考例1] —I have got a headache. —No wonder. You _____ in front of that computer too long. A. work B. are working C. have been working D. worked [点拨] 由语境可以看出work动作开始于 过去,持续到现在,对现在还有影响,且 含有责备的口吻,所以用现在完成进行时。

[考例2] Cathy is taking notes of the
grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School, where she _____ English for a year. A. studies C. is studying B. studied D. has been studying

[点拨] 句意:凯茜正在阳光学校的课堂上 做语法笔记,她一直在那里学英语,到现

在已经一年了。

Homework
1. Finish Part C1 and C2 on page 88 in

Workbook.
2. Review Task part.


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