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姓名:张星圆 班级:三(5)班 一、单词 1.senery 美丽的自然风光 sight 人造风光或自然风景 scene 电影的画面、片段,生活 中的场景 sign 标牌、标识 2.object n.物品;宾语;实验对象 v.反对→ object to sth. object to sb doing sth subject n.学科;话题,主题;主语

;实验对象 reject v.拒绝,反对 3.supply n.?供应量;储备→The water supply is unsafe. ?补给品→Our supplies were running out. v. ?supply sb./sth. ?supply sth to sb/sth (大量)供应,提供 offer n.减价, 削价, 处理价→The special offer is valid (有效)until the end of the month. v.?offer sth(to sb)(for sth) ?offer sb sth 主动提出, 自愿给予→He offered $4000 for the car provide v.?提供, 给予, 供应 provide sb with sth, provide sth for sb ?规定 provide that. provide against sth 预防,防备 provide for sth 为...做好准备 4.interfere v.干涉,介入 interrupt v.干扰,打断(讲话) 5.stick—stuck—stuck 粘贴,卡住 stick to sth strike—struck—struck 击打,碰撞,突 然想到,划(火柴) 6.lie—lay—lain—lying 躺下,位于 lay—laid—laid—laying 产卵 lie—lied—lied—lying 撒谎 7.hide—hid—hidden 隐藏 freeze—froze—frozen 冷冻, 结冰 sink—sank—sunk 下沉, 沉没 tear—tore—torn 流泪:撕破:猛冲 steal—stole—stolen 偷窃 dig—dug—dug— digging 挖:钻研:收集 shoot—shot—shot 射击 ring—rang—rung 戒指:环围住 8.Separate:多指不正常的摆在一起的隔离开来 separate A from B/A be /get separated from(注:连体婴儿用 separate)→n. Separation After several year’s separation, they burst into tears the moment they saw each other Divide:多指原来在一起的分开 →n. division Isolate: 使之隔离或孤立 isolate A from B A be isolate from B 9.Fit: (衣服鞋帽等大小、尺寸)适合,合身;大小适合安装(在某处) Suit: (指衣服的颜色、花样、款式)等合身;和(某人的)心意 Match: (指衣服之间的搭配) ; (与某事物)相一致,相协调 10.transfer:搬迁,转移;转职,转学,改变环境;转让;换乘;改编 transform 使形态 改变;使改观 transformation 改革;彻底的变化 transfusion 输血;资本的注入 transit 运输;搬运;通过;中转过渡 transition 过渡,变 革,变迁 transmit 传送,发射,传染;传声,使通过 transparent 透明的,清澈的,易识破的,显而易见的,移动的 transplant 移居,移植, 移栽 transpose 是调换顺序;使转移变性 transport 交通运输系统;交通车辆;输送,搬用 二、短语 1.There is no point/sense in doing sth. 做...没有必要 There is no need to do sth.做... 没有必要 It’s no good/use doing 做...是没有用的→It’s no good/use crying over spilt milk It’s useless doing 做...是没有用的 1

2.can't help doing sth =can't resist doing sth 忍不住做某事 3.have mercy to→They showed no mercy to their hostages.他们对人质丝毫不讲仁德. have mercy on→God have mercy on us.上帝怜悯我们吧. 4.assume that / supposing that / suppose that 想象一下;假设→Assume that you can still live like a child without anything.想象一下你仍可以像个孩子一样一无所有的生活 5.reflect on sth 反思 reflect sth 反映 in turn 反过来 in return 作为回报 6.show sympathy to=have sympathy for 对...感到同情 7.by accident=accidentally=by chance 无意的:偶然的 by design=on purpose 故意的 by coincidence 巧合 8.sth. be aimed at / sb aim at sth. 9.break 词组 break away 突然离开;逃跑,脱身 break down 打破;发生故障;中止 break faith 背信, 背弃信仰 break in on 打扰;打断 break in 训练;强行进入;打断 break into pieces (使)成为碎片 break into 闯进;突然… 起来 break off (使)折断;中断;断绝 break one's word 失信,食言 break out into 长出(嫩芽等);迸发出 break out (战争等)爆发; 逃出 break the ice 打破沉默 break through 突破,冲垮;突围 break up 打碎;(关系)破裂 break up 分裂,分解;解散 10.bring 词组 bring sth back 送回某事物/恢复某事物/回想起某事物 bring sb back to sth 使某人恢复某事物 bring down 使倒下,使下降 bring forth 使产生,引 起 bring forward 提出建议=put forward/提前 bring in 使得到某种收入 /引进(方法、设备人才等)bring up sb 抚养某人 bring up sth 提 出 bring up 呕吐 bring to an end 结束=come to an end 11.way 词组 By the way 顺便 in a way=in one way =in some way=to some degree 从某种程度上,不 完全的 on the way to 在…的路上 all the way 一路上,自始至终 always the way 老是 这样 go sb’s way 与…同路 In no way 绝不可能是 12.all 词组 in all 总共 above all 尤其是, 最重要的是 after all 毕竟, 终究 at all 根本, 全然 not…at all 一点也不 and all 而且,还 13.渴望做某事 long for sb./sth. long for sb to do sth. yearn for sth/sb yearn to do have yearning for sb. to do be keen to do sth./that /on doing sth be mad for sb/sth. 非常喜欢,极为需要,对某物想得 发狂 be crazy about sth,热衷的,狂热 三、句型 1.before 引导的时间状语从句 ?It will be two weeks before we meet again. ?It will not be long before we meet again. ?It didn’t take long/a long time before we meet again. Mary had finished her homework before her mother returned.在...之前就 2

They worked day and night about three days before everything returned to normal.过了多 久后才 She was angry before I could explain to her.来不及, 尚未...就... (常与情态动词 can, could 连用) 2.After 引导从句 ?作连词 After scolded by his teacher,the student ran away from school without asking for leave. ?作介词 After having been scolded by his teacher,the student ran away from school without asking for leave.(=Having been scolded by his teacher,the student ran away from school without asking for leave.) 3.强调句 It is/was + 被强调的部分 + who(主要指人时)/that + 其余部分 It wasn’t until his father came back from work that he did his homework. It is only when you nearly lose someone that you fully realize how much you value him. It was because the traffic was very heavy during the rush hour that I was late again. 4.疑问句式:一般疑问句 Is / Was it +被强调部分 +who / that …? 特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词+is /was +it +who / that…? What is/was it that…? Who is/was it that…? When is/was it that…? Where is/was it that…? Why is/was it that…? How is/was it that…? Where was it that you saw him yesterday afternoon? . 4.疑问词+ever whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however 用来引导让步状语从句,相当于 no matter 和 what, who, which, when, where, how 连用。Whatever (=No matter what) may happen, we shall not lose hope. 无论发生什么事,我们都不能失去希望。 Whatever reasons you (may) have, you should carry out a promise. 无论你有什么理由, 你都应该遵守诺言。 Whoever (=No matter who) comes, he will be warmly welcome. 无论谁来,都会受到热烈 欢迎。 ★ 注意: whatever, whoever, whichever, whomever 等引导名词性从句,这时不能用 no matter+疑问 词替换。 I’ll show you whatever you want to see. 你想看什么我就给你看什么。 四、语法 1.就近原则:either/neither...nor, not only...but also, there be, not..but, ...or... →Neither you or I am to blame. 就前原则:rather than, together with, with, apart from, combined with, but, like, as well as, including, in addition to, besides, along with, followed with.→Jane,likes mang girls,loves dancing. 2.部分否定:Every comic book is not free.=Not every comic book is free.不是每一种漫 画书都免费. 全部否定:None of the comic book is free.=All the comic books are not free.每一种漫 画书都不免费. 3.so 和 such 的用法 so (adv.)表示“如此”、“这样”的意思。用作副词,修饰形容词和副词。主要结构有: 3

① so +adj.+a/an +可数名词单数+that 从句→She is so lovely a girl that everyone loves her. ② so+adj./adv.+that 从句→This story is so interesting that I want to read it again ③ so+many/few/much/little+ 复数可数名词 +that 从句 →There are so many commercial breaks on TV that I don’t like it such(adj.)表示“如此”“这样”的意思。用作形容词,修饰名词。主要结构有: ?.such+a/an+adj.+单数可数名词+that 从句→She is such a lovely girl that everyone loves her. ?.such+adj.+不可数名词+that 从句→He showed such concern that people took him to be a relative. ?.such+adj.+复数可数名词+that 从句→They are such beautiful toys that I am thinking of buying them ★ 注意: ① 当 so 位于句首时,主句需用倒装: So badly was she injured that she couldn’t move her body. ② so…that 与 such…that 之间的转换(即为 so 与 such 之间的转换) : 这男孩太小以至于还不能上学。 →The boy is so young that he can't go to school. →He is such a young boy that he can't go to school. 4.There,here 引起倒装(位于句首) ?Tom opened the door,and there stood a girl who he had seen twice. ?Here stand many stone sculptures of famous historical figures./Here comes the bus. 5.the only one 与 the one of →He is the only one of the students that has been chosen to take part in the English Speaking Competition. →He is one of the students that/who have been chosen to take part in the English Speaking Competition. 5.主谓一致 1.通常被看作单数的主语部分 1)不定式、动名词和主语从句。 ① To see is to believe. ② Seeing is believing. ③ What he said was different from what h e did. 2)表示“时间”“距离”“金钱数量”的名词。 ① Twenty years is quite a long time. ② 10 kilometers does not seem to be a long distance to Mira. ③ 300 dollars is too much for this old coin. 3)数学式子。 Two plus five is seven. 4)书报杂志、国家、单位的名字。 ① The Times is published daily. ② The United States is a big country. 5)前面用 a kind of, a sort of 或 this kind of, this sort of 等词组的名词。 This kind of tree(s) often grows well in warm weather. 6 代词 either, neither 作主语。 ① Either of the plans is good. ② Neither of them was carrying a weapon.


2.通常被看作复数的主语部分 1)一些只有复数的名词如 clothes, trousers, police 等。 These trousers are dirty. 但要注意比较:A new pair of trousers is what you need。 2)代词 both 作主语。 Both of them have received high education. 3.需要进行分析才能确定的主语部分 1)代词 all, some,作主语。 所代的名词是可数名词,就看作复数;是不可数名词,就看作单数。 ① All is ready. (= Everything is ready.) ② All are present. (= All the people/students... are p resent.) 2)a lot of, lots of, plenty of, some, any, 20% of, half of...等词组作主语。 所修饰的名词是可数名词,就看作复数;是不可数名词,就看作单数。 70% of the surface of the earth is covered with water. 90% of the graduates from the high school go to university. 3)关系代词 who, which, that 作主语。 由先行词决定单、复数。 6. 条件句中虚拟语气的形式 时间 将来 现在 过去 从句谓语形式 动词过去式(be 用 were) should + 动词原形 were to + 动词原形 动词过去式(be 用 were) had +动词过去分词 主句谓语形式 would / should / might / could + 动词原形 would / should / might / could + 动词原形 would / should / might / could have + 动词过去分词

条件句中的虚拟语气的举例→ (1) 将来时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he should go to Peking University, he would make full use of his time.如果他要上北京大 学的话,他就会充分利用他的时间了. If he were to come here, he would tell us about it. 如果他要来的话,他会通知我们一声。 (2) 现在时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he were free, he would help us. 要是他有空的话,它会帮助我们的。 If he studied at this school, he would know you well. 如果他在这所学校学习的话,它会对 你很熟悉。 (3) 过去时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If I had seen the film, I would have told you about it. 我如果看过这场电影,我会把电影内 容告诉你了。 3. 运用条件句中的虚拟语气时,须注意的几个问题 (1) 当从句的主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词若是系动词 be 时,可用 was 代替 were。 但在倒装虚拟结构及 if I were you, as it were 中,只能用 were。如: Were I ten years younger, I would study abroad. 要是我还年轻十岁的话, 我会去国外学习。 If I were you, I would try my best to grasp the chance. 要是我是你的话,我要尽力抓住这 次机会。 (2) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句的动作若不是同时发生时,须区别对待。 ① 从句的动作与过去事实相反,而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事实不符。如: If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. 如果我在学校学习刻苦的话, 5

我现在也会使工程师了 If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如果他们通知过我们的话,我们现 在就不会来这里了。 ② 从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。如: If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果他今天有空的话,我们会已 经派他去北京了。 If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。 ③ 从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反,而主句的动作与现在正在发生的情况相反。如: If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better. 如果天不下 太多的雨的话,庄家会长得更好。 (3) 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时,if 可省略,而将 were, should, had 等词置于句首。 Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话, 我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 (4) 有时,句子没有直接给出假设情况的条件,而须通过上下文或其他方式来判断。如: I would have come to see you, but I was too busy. 我本该来看你了,然而我太忙了。 Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导, 我不会取得如此大的进步。 (5) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感情。 ① 省略从句 He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 You could have passed this exam. 你应该会通过这次考试了。 ② 省略主句 If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。 If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。




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