参考译文 1）‘Parting’ was a common theme in Tang poetry. By writing a poem to a friend who was leaving, the poet usually showed his sorrow and sadness. Images frequently used in a parting poem inc
luded music, liquor and a willow twig. Music was an important section of the parting ceremony. The music, which was often melodious and sorrowful, was played by traditional instruments such as ‘Pipa’. Drinking liquor was also a necessary part on these occasions. Perhaps it was because liquor could console （安慰） people and help them forget troubles in life and the sadness of parting from a friend. Another custom was giving a willow twig to the leaving friend, since ‘willow’ in Chinese has the same pronunciation of that of ‘stay’. In this way, the poem expressed his wish that his friend stay with him forever. 2） Dream of the Red Chamber is one of the ‘Four Great Classical Novels’ of Chinese literature. It was written in the middle of the 18th century and considered as a masterpiece（杰作）of Chinese literature as well as the peak of Chinese fiction. Many scholars are devoted to the study of this novel and the field of study is known as ‘Redology’. The novel is usually thought to be reflecting the experience of the author Cao Xueqin and the rise and decline of his own family. It is remarkable for not only its plot and characterization（角色塑造）, but also its precise and detailed observation of the life and social structures of that time. For centuries, a huge number of words and expressions from the novel have already been incorporated（融入） into the daily language of Chinese people, which demonstrates the ever-lasting charm of the book.
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