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高中宾语从句精讲及练习(含答案)[1]


宾语从句
学习宾语从句要抓住三要素:连接词、语序和时态。

1.宾语从句的定义
宾语从句在复合句中起宾语的作用,可以作动词的宾语,也可以做介词的宾语 作动词的宾语 : I heard that he would come here later on. 主语 谓语动词 一个句子作宾语 作介词的宾语 : He said nothing abou

t who broke the window last night. 主语 谓语动词 代词作动词的宾语 介词 一个句子作介词的宾语

2.宾语从句中引导词(连接词)的用法
在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有: 连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if 代词:who, whose, what ,which 副词:when ,where, how, why 等。

① 连词:
He told me (that he would) go to the college the next year 他告诉我他 明年上大学 . I don’t know if there will be a bus any more. 我不知道是否还会有公交 车. Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam. 没有人知道他是否会通过考试 . that 引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合 that 可以省略) 可跟 that 从句做宾语的动词有: say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report 等。 The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets. Attention:宾语从句的否定转移 当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否 定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。I don’t think it is right for him to treat you like that.

主句的谓语动词是 think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,expect,fancy,guess 等 , 并且主句的主 语是第一人称而且为一般现在时 , 从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来 , 其反义疑问 句一般与宾语从句一致 . I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he? 我认为那个人不是 Jim 所杀的 , 是不是 ? I expect our English teacher will be back this weekend, won't she/he? We suppose you have finished the project, haven't you? 如 果 宾 语 从句 中 有 某个含 有 否 定 意义 的 形 容词或 副 词 (不包 含 带 有否定 前 缀 的 词,如: unhappy , unfair , dislike 等 ), 其反义疑问句要用肯定形式 . We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully, does he? 我们发现他从不仔细听老师讲课,是不是? 当主句的主语是第二、三人称时,其反义疑问句一般与主句保持一致。 Your sister supposes she needs no help, doesn't she? You thought they could have completed the project, didn't you? They don't believe she's an engineer, do they? She doesn't expect that we are coming so soon, does she?

练习题
(1).I don’t think he is right,__________? A.isn’t he B.is he C.do I D.don’t I (2). He believes she is right, __________? A.doesn’t he B.does he C.is she D.isn’t she (3).I thought that he disliked playing football,__________? A.didn’t he B.did he C.did I D.didn’t I (4). I find _____ important that we practice English every day. A. it B. this C. that D. what (5). You can’t imagine ____when they received the nice gift. A. how they were excited B. how excited they were C. how excited were they D. they were how excited 在以下情况中 that 不能省略 1、 当句中的动词后接多于两个由 that 引导的宾语从句时, 第一个 that 可省, 但后面的 that 不可省。 I believe ( that ) you have done your best and that things will get better . 2、 当主句的谓语动词与 that 宾语从句之间有插入语时,that 一般不可省。 Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap. 3、 当 that 从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that 不可省。 I can’t tell him that his mother died. 4 、当 it 作形式宾语时

例句: She made it clear that she had nothing to do with him . 许多带复合宾语的句子,that 引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用 it 作形式宾语。 5 、当宾语从句前置时 That our team will win , I believe . 6 、当 that 作 learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold 等动词的宾语时 ; 由 whether,if 引导的宾语从句 当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用 if 或 whether 引导,意为“是否”。如: I don't know if /whether he still lives here after so many years.我不知道 这么多年后他是否还住在这儿。 但在下列情况下只能用 whether,不能用 if: ①在具有选择意义, 又有 or 或 or not 时, 尤其是直接与 or not 连用时, 往往用 whether (if?or not 也可以使用)。如: Let me know whether /if he will come or not.(=Let me know whether or not he will come)让我知道他是否能来。 I don't know whether /if he does any washing or not.(=I don't know whether or not he does any washing.)我不知道他洗不洗衣服。 I wonder whether we stay or whether wego.我不知道我们是去还是留。 ②在介词之后用 whether。如: I'm interested in whether he likes English.我关心的是他是否喜欢英语。 We're thinking about whether we can finish the work on time.我们正在考虑是 否能按时完成这项工作。 ③在不定式前用 whether。如: He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.他尚未决定是否拜访那位老人。 He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.他还未决定是乘公共汽车 去还是坐火车去。 ④whether 置于句首时,不能换用 if。如: Whether this is true or not,I can't say.这是否真的我说不上来。 ⑤引导主语从句和表语从句时宜用 whether。如:

Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。 ⑥若用 if 会引起歧义时,则用 whether。如: Please let me know if you like the book.可理解为: b.If you like the book,please let me know.你如果喜欢这本书,请告诉我 只能用 if 不能用 whether 引导的宾语从句 1、 if 引导条件状语从句,意为“如果” The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny. 2、 if 引导否定概念的宾语从句时 He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday. 3、 引导状语从句 even if(即使)和 as if(好象)时 He talks as if he has known all about it. 连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句 这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这 种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise 等。 ②连接代词:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。 连接代词一般指疑问 , 但 what, whatever 除了指疑问外 , 也可以指陈述 . Do you know who has won Red Alert game? 你知道是谁赢得了红色警报的游戏么? The book will show you what the best CEOs should know. 这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解什么 . Have you determined whichever you should buy,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone? 你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗 ? ③连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。 He didn’t tell me when we should meet again. 他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再 见面 . Could you please tell me how you use the new panel? 你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗 ? None of us knows where these new parts can be bought. 没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到 .

练习题
(1) I don’t know ___________or not. A. whether he is at home B. if he is at home

C. that he is at home D. whether is he at home (2) This depends on _________ the weather is fine. A. which B. whether C. if D. that (3) The teacher asked the new student ________ class he was in. A. which B. where C. if D. that (4) I don’t know ________ Mr. Green will come to see us. He’ll help us with our English. A. why B. when C. how D. where (5) --- Be careful! Don’t break the bottles. Do you hear ______ I said? David? --- Yes, Mum A. what B. that C. why D. if (6) --- Do you know _______ Mr Black’s address is? --- He may live at NO.18 or No. 19 of Bridge Street. I’m not sure of ______. A. where, which B. where, what C. what, which D. what, where (7) There is not much difference between the two. I really don’t know _____. A. what should I choose B. which I should choose C. which should I choose D. what I should choose

三.宾语从句的语序
宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。 I don’t know what they are looking for. Could you tell me when the train will leave?

练习题
(1) Did you find out ______? A. she was looking for whose child B. whose child was she looking for C. whose child she is looking for D. whose child she was looking for (2) Are you interested in _____? A. how did he do it B. he did it how C. how he did it D. he how did it (3) I don’t know _____. Can you tell me? A. how the two players are old B. how old are the two players C. the two players are how old D. how old the two players are (4) --- What did the scientist say? --- He said he wondered if _____ into space by spaceship one day. A. he had to fly B. he could fly C. can he fly D. could he fly (5) Excuse me, sir. Could you tell me ____? A. Where the bank nearest B. where is the nearest bank C. where the nearest bank is D. the nearest bank is where (6)She asked Tom ________ with his car? A. what the matter was B. what the matter is C. what was the matter D. what is the matter

四.宾语从句的时态
时态: 1、 主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。 例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well. 2、 主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。 例句:She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time. 3、 当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般 现在时态。 例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.

练习题
(1) It’s 7:30. I can’t believe you___ cooking dinner yet, Sally. A. haven’t started B. didn’t C. don’t start D. hadn’t started (2) The teacher told us yesterday that December 25 ____ Christmas Day. A. is B. was C. has been D. will be (3) The teacher said that the earth _______round the sun. A. goes B. go C. went D. will go (4) We ’d like to tell you that you ______the exam. A. have passed B. had passed C. pass D. will pass (5) “Could you tell me______?” “Yes. They ____ to the library.” A. where are the twins, have been B. where were the twins, have been C. where the twins are, have gone D, where the twins were, have gone (6) Our father said that he ______ a new computer next week. A. will buy B. have bought C. would buy D. buys (7) I hear that he ______ to Beijing yesterday. A. goes B. will go C. went D. have gone


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