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【备战2015高考】全国2015届高中英语试题8、9月汇编:C单元+阅读理解(C8+科普知识类)


C8 科普知识类
【英语卷(解析) ·2015 届云南省玉溪一中高三上学期第一次月考(201409) 】C

People from East Asia tend to have more difficulty than those from Europe in distinguishing facial expressions---and a ne

w report published online in Current Biology explains why. Rachael Jack, University of Glasgow researcher, said that rather than scanning evenly across a face as Westerners do, Easterners fix their attention on the eyes. ―We show that Easterners and Westerners look at different face features to read facial expressions,‖ Jack said. ―Westerners look at the eyes and the mouth in equal measure, while Easterners favor the eyes and ignore the mouth.‖ According to Jack and her colleagues, the discovery shows that human communication of emotion is more complex than previously believed. As a result, facial expressions that had been considered universally recognizable cannot be used reliably to convey emotion in cross-cultural situations. The researchers studied cultural differences in the recognition of facial expressions by recording the facial movements of 13 Western people and 13 Eastern people while they observed pictures of expressive faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, or angry. They compared how accurately participants read those facial expressions using their particular eye movement strategies. It turned out that Easterners focused much greater attention on the eyes and made significantly more errors than Westerners did. ―The cultural difference in eye movements that they show is probably a reflection of cultural difference in facial expressions,‖ Jack said. ―Our data suggest that while Westerners use the whole face to convey emotion, Easterners use the eyes more and mouth less.‖ In short, the data show that facial expressions are not universal signals of human emotion. From here on, examining how cultural factors have diversified these basic social skills will help our understanding of human emotion. Otherwise, when it comes to communicating emotions across cultures, Easterners and Westerners will find themselves lost in translation. 29. The discovery shows that Westerners______. A. pay equal attention to the eyes and the mouth B. consider facial expressions universally reliable C. observe the eyes and the mouth in different ways D. have more difficulty in recognizing facial expression 30. What were the people asked to do in the study? A. To make a face at each other B. To get their faces impressive C. To classify some face pictures D. To observe the researchers’ faces 31. What does the underlined word ―they‖ in paragraph 6 refer to? A. The participants in the study B. The researchers of the study

C. The errors made in the study D. The data collected from the study 32. In comparison with the Westerners, Easterners are likely to_____. A. do translation more successfully B. study the mouth frequently C. examine the eyes more attentively D. read facial expressions more correctly
【答案】 【知识点】C8 科普知识类 【文章综述】本文主要讲述的是东西方人之间是如何表述自己的感情的,经过科研研究,西 方方更关注脸部表情,东方人更关注眼睛。 【答案解析】 29. A。 解析: 细节题, 根据第三段的 Westerners look at the eyes and the mouth in equal measure, 判断选 A。 30 C。 解析: 推理题, 根据第四段的 The researchers studied cultural differences in the recognition of facial expressions by recording the facial movements of 13 Western people and 13 Eastern people while they observed pictures of expressive faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, or angry 可知在研究中让参加研究的人将那些脸部表情分类,故 选 C。 31. A。 解析: 推理题。 根据短文前文提到的此处 they 应是代指前面的参加实验研究的 easters 和 westers,故选 A。 32. C。解析:推断题。根据文章倒数第二段的 Our data suggest that while Westerners use the whole face to convey emotion, Easterners use the eyes more and mouth less 可知东方人更关注眼 睛。故选 C。 【英语卷(解析) ·2015 届湖南省师大附中高三第一次月考(201409) 】C Conventional wisdom says that hardship can make us old before our time. In fact, a new study suggests that violence not only leaves long?term scars on children’s bodies, but also changes their DNA, causing changes that are equal to seven to ten years of premature aging. Scientists measured this by studying the ends of children’s chromosomes(染色体), called telomeres, says Idan Shalev, lead author of a study published in Molecular Psychiatry. Telomeres are special DNA sequences which prevent the DNA in chromosomes from separating. They get shorter each time a cell divides, until a cell cannot divide any more and dies. Several factors have been found to shorten telomeres, including smoking, radiation and psychological stresses such as being treated badly when young and taking care of a chronically ill person. In this study, researchers examined whether exposure to violence could make children’s telomeres shorten faster than normal. They interviewed the mothers of 236 children at ages 5, 7 and 10, asking whether the youngsters had been exposed to domestic violence between the mother and her partner; physical maltreatment by an adult; or bullying. Researchers measured the children’s telomeres—in cells obtained by swabbing the insides of their cheeks—at ages 5 and 10. Telomeres shortened faster in kids exposed to two or more types of violence, says Shalev. Unless that pattern changes, the study suggests, these kids could be expected to develop diseases of aging, such as heart attacks or memory loss, seven to 10 years earlier than their peers. Shalev says there is hope for these kids. His study found that, in rare cases, telomeres can lengthen. Better nutrition, exercise and stress reduction are three things that may be able to lengthen telomeres, he says. The study confirms a small?but?growing number of studies suggesting that early childhood

adversity imprints itself in our chromosomes, says Charles Nelson, a professor of pediatrics and neuroscience at Harvard Medical School. 66. The new study found that ________. A. hardship has a long?term effect on a child’s mind B. violence leaves scars on a child’s mind C. violence can speed up a child’s aging D. hardship can change a child’s aging (B)67. According to the text, telomeres ________. A. are at the ends of people’s chromosomes B. can help prevent DNA from separating C. can make a cell die quickly D. become shorter before they die 68. All of the following things can shorten telomeres EXCEPT ________. A. maltreatment B. cell division C. smoking D. doing exercise 69. Which of the following is TRUE, according to the text? A. Violence can cause quick cell division in children’s body. B. Researchers measured the children’s telomeres from their legs in the study. C. Being treated badly will make a child’s telomeres shorten faster. D. Children who have shorter telomeres may have a heart attack earlier. 70. What is the best title for the text? A. Violence Aging Children’s DNA B. Children’s Changing DNA Patterns C. Violence and Telomeres D. The Function of Telomeres 【答案】 【知识点】C8 科普知识类 【文章综述】本文主要叙述了一些发展中国家女孩受教育的现状以及给社会带来的不利影 响,呼吁人们重视最女孩的教育。 【答案解析】 66.C. 解析:细节理解题。根据文章第一段中的―In fact, a new study suggests that violence not only leaves long-term scars on children’s bodies, but also changes their DNA, causing changes that are equal to seven to ten years of premature aging.‖,可知,C 是正确答案。 67. 细节理解题。根据文章第三段中的 ―Telomeres are special DNA sequences which prevent the DNA in chromosomes from separating.‖可知,端粒是 DNA 的序列,可以阻止染色 体中的 DNA 分裂。根据第二段中―...by studying the ends of children’s chromosomes(染色体), called telomeres, ‖可知 A 项错误;根据第三段中―They get shorter each time a cell divides, until a cell cannot divide any more and dies.‖可知 C、D 项错误。 68.D. 解析: 细节理解题。 根据文章第四段中的―Several factors have been found to shorten telomeres, including smoking, radiation and psychological stresses such as being treated badly when young and taking care of a chronically ill person.‖以及倒数第二段“Better nutrition, exercise and stress reduction are three things that may be able to lengthen telomeres, he says.‖可 以推知,做运动不能使端粒变短反而是变长。 69.D。 推理判断题。 根据文章第五段最后一句 “in cells obtained by swabbing the insides of their cheeks—at ages 5 and 10‖可以推知 B 是错误项;由第六段―Telomeres shortened faster in

kids exposed to two or more types of violence‖可知 C 项错误;A 项文中未提及。由第六段―the study suggests, these kids could be expected to develop diseases of aging, such as heart attacks or memory loss, seven to 10 years earlier than their peers‖可知 D 项正确。 70.A。主旨大意题。 根据全文的内容可知,文章描述了主要说明了暴力会加速 DNA 中端粒的变短而让孩子们提前衰老,而 A 项能很好地概括文章的主旨。 【英语卷(解析)·2015届河南省顶级名校高三入学定位考试(201408) 】A

Since the 1970s, scientists have been searching for ways to link the brain with computers. Brain-computer interface(BCI) technology could help people with disabilities send commands to machines. Recently, two researchers, Jose Milan and Michele Tavella from the Federal Polytechnic School in Lausanne, Switzerland, demonstrated a small robotic wheelchair directed by a person’s thoughts. In the laboratory, Tavella operated the wheelchair just by thinking about moving his left or right band. He could even talk as he watched the vehicle and guided it with his thoughts. ―Our brain has billions of nerve cells. These send signals through the spinal cord (脊髓) to the muscles to give us the ability to move. But spinal cord injuries or other conditions can prevent these weak electrical signals from reaching the muscles,‖ Tavella says. ―Our system allows disabled people to communicate with external world and also to control devices.‖ The researchers designed a special cap for the user. This head cover picks up the signals from the scalp(头皮) and sends them to a computer. The computer interprets the signals and commands the motorized wheelchair. The wheelchair also has two cameras that identify objects in its path. They help the computer react to commands from the brain. Prof. Milan, the team leader, says scientists keep improving the computer software that interprets brain signals and turns them into simple commands. ―The practical possibilities that BCI technology offers to disabled people can be grouped in two categories: communication, and controlling devices. One example is this wheelchair.‖ He says his team has set two goals. One is testing with real patients, so as to prove that this is a technology they can benefit from. And the other is to guarantee that they can use the technology over long periods of time. 1. BCI is a technology that can ________. A. help to update computer systems B. link the human brain with computers C. help the disabled to recover D. control a person's thoughts 2. How" did Tavella operate the wheelchair in the laboratory? A. By controlling his muscles. B. By talking to the machine. C. By moving his hand. D. By using his mind. 3. Which of the following shows the path of the signals described in Paragraph 5? A. scalp→computer→cap→wheelchair

B. computer→cap→scalp→wheelchair C. scalp→cap→computer→wheelchair D. cap→computer→scalp→wheelchair 4. The team will test with real patients to ________. A. make profits from them B. prove the technology useful to them C. make them live longer D. learn about their physical condition 5. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? A. Switzerland, the BCI Research Center B. New Findings About How the Human Brain Works C. BCI Could Mean More Freedom for the Disabled D. Robotic Vehicles Could Help to Cure Brain Injuries
【答案】 【知识点】C8 科普知识类 【文章综述】 本文主要讲述了电脑与人的大脑和脊椎等之间如何建立联系, 以更好地为人类 服务。 【答案解析】 1. B。解析:细节题,根据第一段 Brain-computer interface(BCI) technology could help people with disabilities send commands to machines 可知 brain-computer 帮助残疾人将大脑的信息传 递给电脑,也就是在大脑和电脑之间建立联系。故选 B。 2. D。解析:细节题,根据第三段 In the laboratory, Tavella operated the wheelchair just by thinking about moving his left or right band 可知 Tavella 在实验室是用大脑操作轮椅,故选 D。 3. C。解析:排序题。根据第五段 This head cover picks up the signals from the scalp(头皮) and sends them to a computer. The computer interprets the signals and commands the motorized wheelchair 可知 C 的排序正确。 4. B。解析:细节题。根据最后一段 One is testing with real patients, so as to prove that this is a technology they can benefit from.可知用真正的病人验证就是为了证明它们是否对病人有用, 故选 B 5. C。解析:概括题。通读全文,并根据文章关键段第一段判断文章的题目选 C。 【英语卷(解析)·2015 届河北省唐山市高三 9 月模拟考试(201409)WORD 版】B The Cuban iguana is a species of lizard (蜥蜴) of the iguana family. It is the largest of the West Indian rock iguanas, one of the most endangered groups of lizards. This species with red eyes and a thick tail is one of the largest lizards in the Caribbean. The Cuban iguana is primarily herbivorous; 95% of its diet consists of the leaves, flowers and fruits from as many as 30 plant species, including the seaside rock bush and various grasses. However, Cuban iguanas occasionally consume animal matter, and individuals have been observed eating the dead flesh of birds, fish and crabs, The researchers wrote that quite a few people on Isla Magueyes could have caused this incident. The Cuban iguana is distributed throughout the rocky southern coastal areas of mainland Cuba and its surrounding islands with a wild population booming on Isla Magueyes, Puerto

Rico. It is also found on the Cayman Islands of Little Cayman and Cayman Brac, where a separate subspecies occurs. Females guard their nest sites and often nest in sites half destroyed by Cuban crocodiles. To avoid the attack from them, the Cuban iguana often makes its home within or near prickly-pear cacti (仙人掌) . In general the species is in decline, more quickly on the mainland than on the outlying islands. One of the reasons for their decline is habitat destruction caused by the over consuming of farm animals, housing development, and the building of tourist resorts on the beaches where the animals prefer to build their nests. Although the wild population is in decline, the numbers of iguanas have been sharply increased as a result of captive-breeding (圈养) and other conservation programs. 25.The underlined word "herbivorous" (Paragraph 2) probably means A. dangerous B. gentle C. plant-eating . D. flesh-eating

26.Why does the Cuban iguana build its nest near prickly-pear cacti? A. To keep itself cool. C. To stay away from people. B. To get the food easily. D. To avoid crocodiles' attack.

27.How many reasons are mentioned for the habitat destruction? A. Two. B. Three. C, Four. D. Five.

28.What's the author's purpose of writing the text? A. To give us a brief introduction to the Cuban iguana. B. To show he is concerned about the Cuban iguana. C. To explain reasons for the Cuban iguana's decline. D. To draw people's attention to the endangered Cuban iguana. 【答案】 【知识点】C8 科普知识类 【文章综述】本文是篇科普类文章介绍是古巴岩鬣蜥的形状,饮食,分布及栖息地被破坏的 现状。 【答案解析】 25.C 词意猜测。 根据第二段提到 95% of its diet consists of the leaves, flowers and fruits from as many as 30 plant species, including the seaside rock bush and various grasses. 百分之九十五他的 饮食包括叶,花,水果多达 30 个物种,故食草型动物,故选 C 项。 26.D 细节理解题。根据第三段提到 To avoid the attack from them, the Cuban iguana often

makes its home within or near prickly-pear cacti 可知为了避免来自他人的攻击,故选 D 项。 27.B 细节理解题。根据最后一段提到 One of the reasons for their decline is habitat destruction caused by the over consuming of farm animals, housing development, and the building of tourist resorts on the beaches where the animals prefer to build their nests 可知被破坏原因是农场动物 的消费造成的栖息地的破坏,房地产开发和建设旅游度假村,故选 B 项。 28.A 推断题。第一段是对它的所属家庭的介绍,第二段介绍它的饮食,第三段讲它的分布, 第四段讲面临灭绝的原因,故选 A 项。 【英语卷(解析)·2015 届河北省衡水中学高三小一调考试(201408)扫描版】C It’s illegal for the police to attach a GPS unit to your car without your permission, as the U.S. Supreme Court settled in 2012. But if the police are in hot pursuit of a bank robber or other escaping criminals that threaten public safety, a GPS tracker is acceptable. But exactly how can the police GPS track a car that is moving fast? The answer to that question comes from StarChase, a new police technology being used by a small-but growing number of law enforcement agencies. It allows the police to fire 4.5-inch glue-covered GPS bullet-like projectiles (发射体) from an air gun fixed in their police cars. If the GPS tracker makes contact with the escaping robber’s car, it’ll stick no matter how fast the vehicle is going. That way, the police will have a constant read on the car’s location and heading. Aside from simply apprehending (逮捕) criminals, it’s believed this new technology could help save lives. If the police successfully fire a GPS unit at a speeding criminal, they can pull back from a high-risk chase. Chases can be incredibly dangerous to all involved, including innocent bystanders and other drivers. Once the GPS bullet connects, there’s no need for the chase any longer. Now, predictably, a GPS-loaded gun isn’t cheap. Police departments need to pay about $5,000 per vehicle for the technology, and individual GPS bullets cost as much as $250 each. That may sound expensive, but remember: The alternative is often thousands of dollars in property damage, and great human cost in injury and lost life. According to Star Chase, their GPS bullet system has an apprehension rate of 80% without any report of injury or property damage. If you’d like to learn

more about the StarChase system, Popular Mechanics has just published a good article about it. There’s also plenty more information available at the company’s website. 28. When the GPS bullet sticks to the escaping robber’s car, the police can______ . A. know the car’s condition B. ensure the robber’s safety C. play a fair game with the robber D. know the car’s position and direction 29.The GPS bullets could help save lives mainly because A. the bullets won’t hurt people B. they can make the robber’s car stop C. the police can stop the dangerous chasing D. they have more advantages than normal bullets 30.From the text we can learn that GPS bullets A. are useful for the police B. are widely used in America C. can control the rising crime rate D. can replace the police in the future 31. In which part of a newspaper can we read the text A.Life B.Nature C.Fashion D.Technology

【答案】 【知识点】C8 科普知识类 【文章综述】本文讲述一种新型的 GPS 定位追踪子弹头,可用来追捕罪犯,来确定他的公 位置与方向,也可用来避免高风险的追捕 【答案解析】 28. D 细节理解题。根据第二提到 If the GPS tracker makes contact with the escaping robber’s car, it’ll stick no matter how fast the vehicle is going. That way, the police will have a constant read on the car’s location and heading.可知用来知道抢劫犯的位置与方向,故选 D 项。 29. C 细节理解题。根据第二段提到 If the police successfully fire a GPS unit at a speeding criminal, they can pull back from a high-risk chase. Chases can be incredibly dangerous to all involved, including innocent bystanders and other drivers.可知如果警察把这种装置安在犯罪的 车上,他们可以撤出高风险的追逐,避免危及自身以及周围无辜的群众,故选 C 项。 30. A 推断题。根据最后一段提到 According to Star Chase, their GPS bullet system has an apprehension rate of 80% without any report of injury or property damage.根据定位卫星, 这个定 位装置有个百分之八十的成功率,推断用于警方,故选 A 项。 31. D 推断题。本文讲述一种新型的 GPS 定位追踪子弹头,可用来追捕罪犯,来确定他的 公位置与方向,也可用来避免高风险的追捕,所以这篇文章出现在科技版面,故选 D 项。 【英语卷(解析) ·2015 届广西桂林十八中高三上学期第一次月考(201409) 】D The movies just wouldn’t be the same without the warm buttery taste of popcorn. Amazingly, this delicious treat started its life as a corn kernel (玉米粒) , not just from any corn. Popcorn is a type of sweet corn that was originally grown in Mexico and spread to China, India and elsewhere. It is the only kind of corn that will pop. Today, most of the world’s popcorn is grown in the United States. Every popcorn kernel contains a tiny drop of water,surrounded by soft starch (淀粉). When the popcorn is heated, the water turns into steam. This puts pressure on the surrounding hard kernel, forcing it to explode. The soft starch increases about 40 times in size as the corn kernel turns itself inside out. In the 1500s popcorn was an important food source for the Aztec Indians of central and southern Mexico. But it wasn’t only food. It was also used in ceremonies or on red dresses and in necklaces. By the time the Europeans arrived in America,popcorn had spread through most of the American Indians. Some early American settlers ate popcorn with cream and sugar for breakfast. But it wasn’t until the late 1800s that popcorn became popular. The demand for popcorn increased and farmers began farming popcorn. The first mobile popping machine was invented in 1885, and popcorn was sold by street sellers much like hot dogs that are sold today. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the popcorn business still thrived as people could

still afford it. Then in the 1950s television arrived and popcorn consumption decreased. People stayed home and stopped going to the theatre. But the link between movies and popcorn had already existed. Soon people began making popcorn at home on the stove and, later,microwave popcorn was introduced. Today the movies have regained popularity and popcorn has once again become the favorite. 32. Popcorn was first planted in________. A. China B. America C. India D. Mexico 33. Why does the corn kernel pop when heated? A. Because it is covered with soft starch. B. Because the pressure inside is too big. C. Because the starch becomes bigger in size. D. Because there is water inside the kernel. 34. We can know from the passage that________. A. popcorn began to be farmed in the late 1800s B. popcorn was only a kind of food in the 1500s C. hot dogs used to be sold by street sellers D. people stop eating popcorn while watching movies now 35. The underlined word ―thrived‖ in the fifth paragraph probably means ―________‖. A. started to disappear B. was seriously affected C. suffered a lot D. developed very well 【答案】 【知识点】C8 科普知识类 【文章综述】文章讲述了爆米花的起源、爆米花为什么会爆开以及它如何与电影如影随形, 成为一种流行的娱乐食品。 【答案解析】 32.D。 解析: 细节理解题 根据第一段第二句 Popcorn is a type of sweet corn that was originally grown in Mexico 33.B。解析:细节理解题 根据第二段 When the popcorn is heated, the water turns into steam. This puts pressure on the surrounding hard kernel, forcing it to explode. 当玉米被加热,水便转 化为蒸汽。这就对环绕于外的坚硬部分产生压力,使它爆裂。 34.A。解析:细节理解题 根据倒数第二段 But it wasn’t until the late 1800s that popcorn became popular. The demand for popcorn increased and farmers began farming popcorn. 但直 到 1800 年代末,爆米花变得流行起来。爆米花的需求增加,农民开始种植玉米。 35.D 。解析:词义猜测题根据后半句 Then in the 1950s television arrived and popcorn consumption decreased. 到了 50 年代,电视开始普及,人们对爆米花的消费减少了。可知, 在 20 世纪 30 年代的大萧条时期,爆米花产业仍然兴旺发达。Thrived 兴盛的,繁荣的 【英语卷(解析) ·2014 届西藏自治区高三最后一次模拟统一考试(201405) 】C8D Science can't explain the power of pets, but many studies have shown that the company of pets can help lower blood pressure (血压) and raise chances of recovering from a heart attack, reduce loneliness and spread all-round good cheer. Any owner will tell you how much joy a pet brings. For some, an animal provides more comfort than a husband/wife. A 2002 study by Karen Allen of the State University of New York measured stress (紧张) levels and blood pressure in people - half of them pet owners –while they performed 5 minutes of mental arithmetic (算术) or held a hand in ice water. Subjects completed the tasks alone, with a husband/wife, a close friend or with a pet. People with pets did it best. Those tested with their animal friends had smaller change in blood pressure and returned most quickly to baseline heart rates. With pets in the room, people also made fewer math mistakes than when doing in front of other companions. It seems people feel more relaxed (放松)around pets, says Allen, who thinks it may be because pets don't judge.

A study reported last fall suggests that having a pet dog not only raises your spirits but may also have an effect on your eating habits. Researchers at Northwestern Memorial Hospital spent a year studying 36 fat people and their equally fat dogs on diet-and-exercise programs; a separate group of 56 people without pets were put on a diet program. On average, people lost about I1 pounds, or 5% of their body weight. Their dogs did even better, losing an average of 12 pounds, more than 15% of their body weight. Dog owners didn't lose any more weight than those without dogs but, say researchers, got more exercise overall-mostly with their dogs - and found it worth doing. 32.What does the text mainly discuss? A.What pets bring to their owners. B.How pets help people calm down. C.People's opinions of keeping pets. D.Pet's value in medical research. 33.We learn from the text that a person with heart disease has a better chance of getting well if A.he has a pet companion B.he has less stress of work C.he often does mental arithmetic D.he is taken care of by his family 34. According to Allen, why did the people do better with pets around when facing stressful tasks? A.They have lower blood pressure. B.They become more patient. C.They are less nervous. D.They are in higher spirits. 35.The research mentioned in the last paragraph reports that A.people with dogs did more exercise B.dogs lost the same weight as people did C.dogs liked exercise much more than people did D.people without dogs found the program unhelpful 【答案】 32.A。解析:主旨题。通读全文,可知文章主要告诉我们宠物给人们带来的好处。故选 A。 33.A。解析:细节题。根据第一段中的 raise chances of recovering from a heart attack 可知有 心脏病的人最好养一只宠物。故选 A。 34.C。解析:推断题。根据文章的第二段 Those tested with their animal friends had smaller change in blood pressure and returned most quickly to baseline heart rates. With pets in the room, people also made fewer math mistakes than when doing in front of other companions. It seems people feel more relaxed (放松)around pets 可知有宠物陪伴的人在面对压力时更轻松,所以选 C。 35.A。 解析: 细节题。 根据文章最后一段的最后一句话 Dog owners didn't lose any more weight than those without dogs but, say researchers, got more exercise overall-mostly with their dogs and found it worth doing 可知养狗的人得到的锻炼更多。所以选 A。

【英语卷(解析) ·2014 届江苏省南京市金陵中学高三第四次模拟考试(201405) 】C8 D Most people know precious gemstones (宝石) by their appearances. An emerald flashes deep green, a ruby seems to hold a red fire inside, and a diamond shines like a star. It’s more difficult to tell where the gem was mined, since a diamond from Australia or Arkansas may appear the same

to one from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, recently, a team of scientists has found a way to identify a gemstone’s origin. Beneath the surface of a gemstone, on the tiny level of atoms and molecules (分子) , lie clues (线索) to its origin. At this year’s meeting of the Geological Society of America in Minneapolis, Catherine McManus reported on a technique that uses lasers (激光) to clarify these clues and identify a stone’s homeland. McManus directs scientific research at Materialytics, in Killeen, Texas. The company is developing the technique. ―With enough data, we could identify which country, which mining place, even the individual mine a gemstone comes from,‖ McManus told Science News. Some gemstones, including many diamonds, come from war-torn countries. Sales of those ―blood minerals‖ may encourage violent civil wars where innocent people are injured or killed. In an effort to reduce the trade in blood minerals, the U.S. government passed law in July 2010 that requires companies that sell gemstones to determine the origins of their stones. To figure out where gemstones come from, McManus and her team focus a powerful laser on a small sample of the gemstone. The technique is called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Just as heat can turn ice into water or water into steam, energy from the laser changes the state of matter of the stone. The laser changes a miniscule part of the gemstone into plasma, a gas state of matter in which tiny particles(微粒)called electrons separate from atoms. The plasma, which is superhot, produces a light pattern. (The science of analyzing this kind of light pattern is called spectroscopy.) Different elements produce different patterns, but McManus and her team say that gemstones from the same area produce similar patterns. Materialytics has already collected patterns from thousands of gemstones, including more than 200 from diamonds. They can compare the light pattern from an unknown gemstone to patterns they do know and look for a match. The light pattern acts like a signature, telling the researchers the origin of the gemstone. In a small test, the laser technique correctly identified the origins of 95 out of every 100 diamonds. For gemstones like emeralds and rubies, the technique proved successful for 98 out of every 100 stones. The scientists need to collect and analyze more samples, including those from war-torn countries, before the tool is ready for commercial use. Scientists like Barbara Dutrow, a mineralogist from Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, find the technique exciting. ―This is a basic new tool that could provide a better fingerprint of a material from a particular locality,‖ she told Science News. 66. We learn from Paragraph 1 that __________. A. an emerald and a ruby are names of diamonds. B. it’s not difficult to tell where the gem was mined. C. appearances help to identify the origin of gemstones. D. diamonds from different places may appear the same. 67. Why did the U.S. government pass law that requires companies selling gemstones to determine the origins of their stones? A. To look for more gemstones. B. To encourage violent civil wars.

C. To reduce the trade in blood minerals. D. To develop the economy. 68. Which of the following facts most probably helps McManus and her team in identifying the origin of stones? A. Heat can turn ice into water or water into steam. B. Gemstones from the same area produce similar light patterns. C. Laser can change a miniscule part of the gemstone into plasma. D. Materialytics has already collected patterns from thousands of gemstones. 69. From the last two paragraphs, what can be inferred about the laser technique? A. It is ready for commercial use. B. People can use the new tool to find more gemstones. C. It can significantly reduce the gemstones trade in blood minerals. D. It will bring about a revolutionary change in identifying the origin of minerals. 70. The author wrote this passage mainly to __________. A. tell us how to identify the origin of diamonds. B. introduce a laser technique in identifying a stone’s origin C. prove identifying the origin of gemstones are difficult

D. attract our attention to reducing trade in blood minerals

【英语卷(解析)·2015 届广东省广州市海珠区高三摸底考试(201408) 】B They tell us when to get up or when we’re running late for work and whether we are in danger of missing our favourite TV programme. But while our daily routines rely on clocks that tell us the time, science is discovering that our well-being is influenced by a very different kind of timepiece. Circadian rhythms---the human body’s own internal clock---have a powerful influence on our health and behaviour. They are programmed from birth and control functions ranging from temperature and blood pressure to sleep patterns.

In recent years researchers have also discovered that this built-in mechanism can influence everything from the way we react to medicines to how well we learn music. The latest example, from experts at Harvard University in the US, shows that the human body clock can even dictate whether or not we are likely to tell the truth. Researchers found it was easier for people to fib(撒小谎) in the afternoon because, as they were tired, the self control that would normally prevent them from lying started to break down. Tiredness made it harder to resist the temptation to tell lies---especially if it meant they got a financial reward at the end. “The body clock has a great effect on us all,” says Professor Jim Horne from the Sleep Research Centre at Loughborough University. “Most people tend to feel good around late morning and then decline in the early afternoon. But the time most of us will feel our sharpest is between 6pm and 8pm. That’s because sleepiness tends to build up throughout the day. By early evening our body clock kicks in to wake us up. One reason may be to ensure we get home safely. When our ancestors were coming home after hunting all day their internal clocks kicked in to get them home in one piece.” So what effects do circadian rhythms have and what’s the best time of day to take advantage of them? 31. The underlined word “They ” in the first paragraph refers to A. our clocks C. our daily routines B. scientists and experts D. circadian rhythms . .

32. The research referred to in Paragraph 3 found that people tend to A. tell lies when they are tired C. lose temper as they become tired B. tell lies if they are rewarded

D. break down because they are tired

33. According to the passage, when are people most quick-thinking? A. In the morning. C. In the late afternoon. B. Around midday. D. In the early evening.

34. What information will the writer probably present following the last paragraph? A. Some practical suggestions to prevent people from lying. B. Examples of how the human body clocks control the body. C. Examples of the most suitable time to do different activities.

D. An explanation of how the human body clock controls the body. 35. What is the best title for the passage? A. Rebuild your body clock C. Sleep more, lie less 【答案】 【解析】C8 科普知识类 解析:文章概述:生物钟对人体及平时日常活动学习的影响。 31 选 D,they 是代词,代词一般指代前一句中的主语 即 circadian rhythms 32,选 A,文章第三段可得出答案 33,选 D,倒数第二段第三句可知 34,选 C,最后一段围绕“几点干什么最合适”并举相关例句 35,选 B,排除法,A 项 文章没提及 重建 ,C D 项没提及 B. Timing is everything D. Your time is limited


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