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高三英语复习资料(句子成分&基本句型)


高三英语复习资料
——

(08/2013)

英语句子种类、句子成分及简单句基本句型

一、句子种类
1.按句子的用途可分四种 1)陈述句(肯定、否定) He is six years old. / She didn't hear of you before. 2)疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意) Do they like skating? / How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? / Mary can swim, can't she? 3)祈使句 Be careful, boys. / Don't talk in class. 4)感叹句 How clever the boy is! / What an interesting book it is! 2.按句子的结构可分三种 1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语) He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers. 2)并列句复合句:由并列连词(and, but, or 等)或分号(;),把两个或两个以上的简单句在 一起构成 You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous (曲折的). 3)主从复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子 复合句包含:名词性从句(主语/宾语/表语/同位语从句)、定语从句和状语从句 The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.

二、简单句的五种基本句型
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 主语+谓语+表语: He is a student. 主语+谓语: We work. 主语+谓语+宾语: Henry bought a dictionary. 主语+谓语+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) : My father bought me a car. 主语+谓语+复合宾语(宾语+宾补) :Tom made the baby laugh.

三、句子成分
1. 定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分 2. 主要成分及次要成分: 主要:主语(subject) 、谓语(predicate) 次要: 表语 (predicative) 、 宾语 (object) 、 定语 (attribute) 、 状语(adverbial) 和补语 (complement) 同位语 (appositive) Examples: 1. We often speak English in class. (主语) 2. He practices running every morning. (谓语) 3. The weather has turned cold.(表语) 4. They went to see an exhibition yesterday. / We are listening to the music. (宾语) 5. Guilin is a beautiful city.(定语) 6. Light travels most quickly.(状语) 7. They painted their boat white.(宾补) 8. This is my friend, Lily. (同位语)
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练习:
一、判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句 1.We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 2.The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. 3.There is a chair in this room. 4.My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 5.He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. 6.He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. 7.Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. 8.What he said at the meeting is very important. 9.The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 10.Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 二、指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分: 1. Whether we’ll go depend on the weather. 2. People’s standards of living are going up steadily. 3. That was how they were defeated. 4. The nursery takes good care of our children. 5. I’ll return the book to you tomorrow . 6. We think it necessary that everyone should attend the meeting. 7. The woman with a baby in her arms is his mother. 8. There are many film that I’d like to see. 9. Some farmers saw something strange in the sky. 10. Anyway, I won’t stop you from doing it. 三、用简单句翻译下列句子 1. 这是我的妈妈。 2. 她是一个普通的家庭妇女。 3. 刚才她坐在那儿。 4. 她在看电视。 5. 我感到意外。 6. 她在哭泣。 7. 什么事才能使她高兴? 8. 我给她讲了一个滑稽可笑的故事。 9. 她情不自禁地笑了起来。 四、语篇练习 (尽量用 5 个句子表达全部的内容) 假如你和你的好朋友约翰之间曾经出现误会, 请根据以下内容, 写一篇短文陈述产生误会的原 因、经过和结果。 上个月我们进行了一次数学测试。其有一道数学题很难,除了我外没人能做出来。我的好朋友 约翰想抄我的答案,他扔给我一张纸条,但我没理睬。这次测试以后我们吵了一架,从此我们之间 存在很大的隔阂。我们之间一定有误会,后来我向他解释为什么拒绝他的原因,最终我们有成为了 好朋友。
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高三英语复习资料
——

(08/2013)

英语句子种类、句子成分及简单句基本句型

练习答案
一、判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句 简单句:第 1、3、4、9、10 句 并列句:第 5、7 句 复合句:第 2、6、8 句 二、指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分: 1.主语 2.谓语 3.表语 4.宾语 5.宾语 6.宾语 7.定语 8.定语 9.宾补 10.状语 三、用简单句翻译下列句子 1. This is my mother. 3. My mother was sitting there. 5. I felt surprised. 7. What could make her happy? 9. She couldn’t help laughing. 四、语篇练习 We had a math test last month and there happened to be a very difficult problem in the test. But nobody could work out the problem except me. My best friend John wanted to copy my answer and he threw me a piece of paper to ask me to show my answer to him, but I ignored it. So after the test we had a quarrel and then we had a misunderstanding. Finally I explained to him why I refused to give him my answer in the test and we became good friends again. 2. She is an ordinary housewife. 4. She was watching TV. 6. She was weeping. 8. I told her a very funny story.

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