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高三总复习英语时态语态


高考语法复习系列

动词时态和语态

1. I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2. He is writing a letter now. 3. They will watch the sports meeting next week. 4. He met Mary in the p

ark yesterday. 5. He had read five books before I visited him. 6. You have won six gold medals already. 7. They will be watching TV tomorrow morning. 8. I have been doing my homework since this morning, but I haven`t finished it. 9. Tom was holding a party at 8 o`clock last night. 10. I will have studied for four years by the end of next year.

语态 时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时

主动
do/ does did will + do am/ is/ are + doing was/ were + doing will be + doing have / has + done had + done will + have done

一般现在时
? He

looks tired. ? The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west. ? Practice makes perfect. ? They usually come to school earlier. ? When he comes, we’ll go out to meet him. ? Class begins at eight every morning.

一. 一般现在时态:(do/ does/ am / is/ are)
1.一般用法: 1〕表示现在经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语 连用. 时间状语: every…, on Sundays,

sometimes,often,usually,always. He often goes to the cinema.

2〕表示现在的能力、特征、职业,爱好, 状态,感觉等 。 He sings well.(能力)/ I am a student. 3〕表示客观真理、科学事实 、格言以及不受时间限制的客观 存在的事实 。此种用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过 去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

Knowledge is power. (客观真理) The teacher told me that the earth goes around the
sun.

2.特别用法:
1〕主句是将来时态或表示将来意义,时间状语从句和条件 状语从句须用一般现在时表将来

I’ll write to her when I have time. She will come if he comes.
2〕让步状语从句和方式状语从句用一般现在时表将来 。

① No matter where you go, I will go with you . ② Next time I’ll do as he says. 3〕表示按规定、时间表 、计划或安排要发生的动作,用一 般现在时表将来,仅限于go, come, leave, start, open, take off, stay, return, begin等,通常有明确将来时间. The train leaves at 12:00.

六.现在完成时(have/has+done)
1.基本用法: 1〕影响性用法:表示一个动作发生在过去,已经完 成,且对现在造成影响或结果,常与already, ever, never, just, yet, still ①He has already left the city.(结果:他不在这 个城市) ②Someone has broken the window. (结果: 窗户仍破着) 2〕持续性用法:表示一个动作从过去持续到现在, 且可能继续持续下去或可能到此结束 We have studied English for 5 years.

2.用现在完成时的典型场合: 1〕“since+过去时间”或“since接时间状语从句 (从句中用一般过去时)”主句中用现在完成时 句子中有for +一段时间,用现在完成时 ①I haven’t seen her since last week. ②They have worked together since they graduated from university. ?We have known each other for 4 years.

2〕句中有so far, up to now/ until now,ever since(从那时起) in/ over / during the past /last +数量词+years/ months/weeks/ days 在最近几年/月/周/天…… 如:in the past 4 years by+现在时间
We have got 20000 yuan so far. The price has increased in the last 3 years. They have covered 400 miles by now.
.

4〕It/This/That is the first (second/third…)time +that 从句(have done)” It/This/That is the only…+that 从句(have done) It/This/That is the +最高级… +that 从句(have done) ①This is the first time that I have come to Zhejiang. 这是我第一次来到浙江 ②That is the only party that I have ever really enjoyed in my life. 这是我唯一喜欢的聚会。 ③It is the most interesting book that I have ever 这是我读过的最有趣的书。 read.
(注:以上句型把is改为was,则从句时态相应改为过去完成 时态)

七.现在完成进行时(have/has been doing)
1.一般用法:表示现在以前一段时间里一直在进行 的动作, 这一动作可能仍在进行,也可能已停止
It has been raining since two days ago. I have been studying hard since I came here.

八.过去完成时(had + done)
1.表示过去的过去 时间状语before, until , when, after, once… by( the end of ) / by the time +过 去时间, 时间是“过去的过去”。 (1) We had cleaned the classroom before they came in. (2) After they had quarreled with each other, they broke up. (3) She had got 6 gold medals by the end of last year.

二.一般过去时态(did/ was/ were):
1.基本用法: 1〕表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态:时间状语有:

yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982. He bought the computer five years ago.
2) 表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作。

We often played together when we were children. 3) 表示过去习惯性的动作,可用would, used to. He used to go to work by bus.

三.一般将来时(will/shall+do):
1.will(1)表示没有经过事先考虑,而是在说话的 时候才决定做某事 --You forget to close the door. --Oh, I’ll close it at once. (2) 表示将来可能会出现的动作或状态。 I will be free tonight.
我今晚可能有空。

(3)表示自然而然的情况。 I will / shall be twenty next year.

1. I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2. He is writing a letter now. 3. They will watch the sports meeting next week. 4. He met Mary in the park yesterday. 5. He had read five books before I visited him. 6. You have won six gold medals already. 7. They will be watching TV tomorrow morning. 8. I have been doing my homework since this morning, but I haven`t finished it. 9. Tom was holding a party at 8 o`clock last night. 10. I will have studied for four years by the end of next year.

语态 时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时

主动
do/ does did will + do am/ is/ are + doing was/ were + doing will be + doing have / has + done had + done will + have done

1. I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2. He is writing a letter now. 3. They will watch the sports meeting next week. 4. He met Mary in the park yesterday. 5. He had read five books before I visited him. 6. You have won six gold medals already. 7. They will be watching TV tomorrow morning. 8. I have been doing my homework since this morning, but I haven`t finished it. 9. Tom was holding a party at 8 o`clock last night. 10. I will have studied for four years by the end of next year.

语态 时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时

主动
do/ does did will + do am/ is/ are + doing was/ were + doing will be + doing have / has + done had + done will + have done

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

takes (on Monday mornings) advertised will check forget stayed was coming am filling was phoning was coming have attended have been cutting had started had been have been made is found will be improved is being rebuilt am paid opens to deal with

2.特别用法:
1〕主句是将来时态或表示将来意义,时间状语从句和条件 状语从句须用一般现在时表将来

I’ll write to her when I have time. She will come if he comes.
2〕让步状语从句和方式状语从句用一般现在时表将来 。

① No matter where you go, I will go with you . ② Next time I’ll do as he says. 3〕表示按规定、时间表 、计划或安排要发生的动作,用一 般现在时表将来,仅限于go, come, leave, start, open, take off, stay, return, begin等,通常有明确将来时间. The train leaves at 12:00.

4〕It/This/That is the first (second/third…)time +that 从句(have done)” It/This/That is the only…+that 从句(have done) It/This/That is the +最高级… +that 从句(have done) ①This is the first time that I have come to Zhejiang. 这是我第一次来到浙江 ②That is the only party that I have ever really enjoyed in my life. 这是我唯一喜欢的聚会。 ③It is the most interesting book that I have ever 这是我读过的最有趣的书。 read.
(注:以上句型把is改为was,则从句时态相应改为过去完成 时态)

七.现在完成进行时(have/has been doing)
1.一般用法:表示现在以前一段时间里一直在进行 的动作, 这一动作可能仍在进行,也可能已停止
It has been raining since two days ago. I have been studying hard since I came here.

2. 现在进行时也可以表示安排、计划好要发生的动作, 常用的动词有come, go, leave, start begin, arrive, return. He is leaving for Beijing next week. 他下周去北京

(2014安徽)

36. My family persuaded me that a holiday might be just what the doctor ordered, so off I went. ceremony 仪式 典礼 家人说服我假期正合医生的建议,我就出发了 operation 操作;手术 experiment n. 实验,试验 drop off 减少;让…下车 38. I managed to catch a taxi to my accommodation settle in 设法赶上一辆出租车到我的住宿定 be intended for 打算为…所用 deserve vt. 应受,应得 40.colleague n. 同事 passenger n. 旅客;乘客 suitcase 手提箱 42. but all the tables were occupied . 但所有的桌子都被占 vt. 分类;分等 classify 用餐接近尾声 45. as the meal drew to a close n. 演讲 speech 采访;面试 interview 方便 47.convenient

worthwhile adj. 值得做的 unfortunate adj. 不幸的 48. I'm retired and it would be my pleasure to drive you wherever you wish 我退休了带你去你想去的地方是我的荣幸 vt. 激发;鼓舞 inspire entertain vt. 娱乐 but she brushed aside my protests 但她漠视我的抗议 在约定的时间 51. at the appointed time 52. before leaving me to explore alone. 然后留下我独自探索 n. 文摘;摘要vt. 消化 digest perform 执行 calculate vi. 计算 53. she returned to take me back to my accommodation. 她回来带我回到我的住所 54. I offered her money but she refused to take any 55. through her kindness 通过她的善良 我给她钱,但她拒 dignity n. 尊严;高贵 curiosity 好奇心

四.现在进行时( am/ is/ are+doing ):
1. 表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。 We are having a meeting now. My nother is cooking in the kitchen. 2. 表示现阶段正在进行的动作或表示长期的或重复的动 作,说话时动作未必正在进行。 He is teaching Maths in a school. He is translating a book. 3. 现在进行时表示将来, 表示按计划或安排要发生 的动作(同一般将来时第5点) I’m leaving tomorrow.

4.现在进行时与always/forever/constantly / continuously等连用,表示满意、称赞、惊讶、厌 恶等感情色彩. ①She is always helping others. ②They are always bothering me with tiny things 5. 表示渐变过程 He is becoming more and more handsome. Our school is getting better and better. 6. am/ is/ are doing …when… 正在做…突然… I am walking along the road when a dog comes to me.

五、过去进行时(was/ were + doing)

1. 表示过去某一时间或某一段时间内正在进行的 动作。 I was doing my homework this time last night. 2. come, go, leave等动词的过去进行时表示过去 将来。 He said that the train was leaving the station. 3.与always/forever/constantly /continuously等连 用,表示满意、称赞、惊讶、厌恶等感情色彩. 4.was/ were doing when… I was doing my homgwork when the power was off.

3.一些特殊句型中的过去完成时: 1〕It/This/That was the first (second/third…) time+that 从句(had done) It/This/That was the only…+that从句 (had done) It/This/That was the +最高级… + that从句

It was the first time that I had met him. That was the only person she had loved.

3〕no sooner …than ; hardly /scarcely … when 一……就……

①He had no sooner gone to the garden than his son went to play with his classmates. 他 一去花园,他的儿子就和同班同学 玩。 No sooner had he gone to the garden than his son went to play with his classmates

②She had hardly heard the news when she cried 她一听到这个消息,她就哭了。 Hardly had she heard the news when she cried. 他一参加考试,就感到很紧张。 He had hardly/scarcely taken the exam when he felt nervous. He had no sooner taken the exam than he felt nervous.

七.将来完成时(will/shall+have + done)
1.表示到将来某一时间为止会完成的动作. When we get there, she will have finished work. 2.by( the end of )+将来时间 ①We will have learnt 3,000 words by the end of next term. ②By the time he comes back, we will have repaired the machine. 3.与用一般现在时态表示将来一样,时间状语从句 和条件状语从句须用现在完成时表将来 I’ll go with you when I have finished my work.等 我完成工作以后我就同你去。

现在完成时与一般过去式的区别:
1)一般过去时着重说明动作发生的时间、地点、方
式等,与现在不发生联系,且句中一般有表示过去 的时间状语而现在完成时只说明现在的情况,对现 在有影响。

①I’ve lived here for ten years.
(现在仍住在这儿 )

② I lived here for ten years.
(现在不确定是否住在这儿 )

③He has bought a house.
(现在已拥有这房子)

④ He bought a house.
(现在拥不拥有这房子不知道,只是知道买了房子,现在可能拥 有也可能卖掉了)

3.现在完成时与一般过去时态的区别: 2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在 完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状 语。 ? 一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now等, 皆为具体的时间状语。 ? 现在完成时的时间状语:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always等,皆不确定的时间状语。 I read a book last night. I have read a book for 2 hours.

1. She is called Mary. 她叫玛丽 去年这条河被污染 2. The river was polluted last year. 3. The river will be polluted if we build a factory near it. 如果我们在附近建立一个工厂,河将污染。

4. The house is being built now. 房子现在正在被建 5. The house was being built in June last year. 去年六月房子正在被建
7. The work has been finished so far. 到目前为止的工作已经完成了。

8. The work had been finished before we left. 我们离开前工作已经完成。 9. The work will have been finished by the end of next 下周结束工作将被完成 week.

语态

am/ is/ are+ done

时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时

被动

am/is/ are+done was/ were+done will be+done am/ is/ are being+done was/ were being+done have / has been+ done had been + done will + have been done

一般现在时被动语态。am/ is/ are + done
1. The new word is taught at school. 2. Tom is loved by his parents. 3. These place are visited by many visitors every year. 4. I am often cheated by fake advertisement.

他被认为是最伟大的科学家。
He is referred to as/ considered as the greatest scientist.

一般过去时被动 语态 was/ were + done
1. I was bit by him just now. 2. The singer was admired by many people when he was famous. 3. All of these book were written by Mark Twain.

这个通知是昨天被一个学生张贴的。
The notice was put up by a student yesterday.

一般将来时被动语态 will be done
1. The car will be repaired tomorrow. 2. The picture will be drawn in two hours. 3. We will be admitted to famous universities next year.

这个事情明天将会被记者报道。
This event will be covered by reporters tomorrow.

4. 现在进行时被动语态 am/ is/ are being +done 1. The classroom is being cleaned now. 2. The song is being sung by the super star. 3. The plants are being planted now.

我们的建议现在正在被讨论。
Our suggestion is being discussed now。

5. 过去进行时被动语态 was/ were being + done.
1. The clothes were being washed by mother at 9 last night. 2. This shirt was being tried on by a girl this time yesterday.

昨天下午六点,他正在受惩罚。
He was being punished at 6 pm. yesterday.

6. 现在完成时被动语态 have/ has been done
1. The news has been given away. 2. The missing boy has been found so far. 3. They have been invited to the party.

这些经历已经被我们遗忘了。
These experiences have already been forgot by us.

7. 过去完成时被动语态 had been done
1. I had been told the news before I came here. 2. We had been taken to the USA before we ertered the university.

昨天,在我们参加比赛之前,我们已经被采 访过了。
We had been interviewed before we took part in the competition yesterday.

8. 将来完成时的被动语态 will have been done
1. The work will have been finished by 7 o`clock. 2. The ID will have been checked before people get into the hotel room.

在明年结束前,这部小说会被卖完。
This novel will have been sold out by the end of next year.

have been planted 1. A lot of trees ______________ (plant) since 1990. had been polluted(pollute) before 2. The river ______________ the president got there. will be abandoned 3. Large farms________________(abandon) next year. 4. Large quantities of glasses were produced __________________ (produce) by the company last month. is being translated 5. The book __________________(translate) now.

1. 动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 give + me(间宾) + a book(直宾) (= give a book to me) ask, bring, buy(for), give, hand, lend, pass, pay, return, sell, send, show, tell, write He gives me a book. I am given a book by him. A book is given to me by him.

2.动词+宾语+宾语补足语

let,see,watch,make,hear,help,find feel,want,keep,call,,tell,ask,think We call him (宾语) Jack(宾补) He is called Jack.
有些动词在主动语态中后接省略to的不定式作宾语补 足语,在改为被动语态时,不定式to不能省略。

The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) They watch her play basketball. She is watched to play basketball.

4. 主动形式表示被动意义 (1).表示主语特征、状态的动词wash, clean, cook, cut, read, wear, draw, write, sell等。 The book sells well. 这本书销路好。 The clothes wash easily. 这衣服很好洗。 (2).在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻 辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with.

4. 主动形式表示被动意义 (3).在need, require, want, be worth (形容 词), deserve后 ,用-ing表示被动,例如: The door needs repairing. = The door needs to be repaired. 门该修了。

(4).be to blame(受谴责),be to rent/l et(出租) 也用主动形式表被动。例如: I was to blame for the accident. 我该为事故而受指责。 The house is to let/ tent.

(5).用来做定语和被修饰的名词有动宾关系,又 和另一名词或代词有主谓关系的动词不定式。 I have something to tell you. She has so much work to do.


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