infinitive, verb-ing & verb-ed (I)
Please read the story and keep the red sentences in mind.
The Little Match Girl
0. It was snowing and
very cold outside. 1. 3. She didn’t wished wear all her any matches shoes because to be sold she A little girl was walking in the street, 2. She looked very worried because there 4. She was so cold that she sat in a had but nobody her shoes bought lost . a single one. selling matches. were ofher matches remaining cornerlots with legs huddled up. .
5. She a match saw agrandmother. Christmas 0. She litlit another one and and saw her She asked herday, grandmother to take her girl away. 7. The next people saw the tree decorated very beautifully. 6. The lighted candles were burning lying on the road,dead . What a brightly and she seemed very delighted. poor girl !
? Please read again and complete the story.
It was snowing and very cold outside. A little girl was walking in the selling her matches. street,______________.
She didn’t wear any shoes because she________________ had her shoes lost.
She _____________ looked very worried because there were lots of matches____. remaining
all her matches to be sold She wished _________________
but nobody bought a single one.
She was so cold that she sat in a corner___________________ with her legs huddled up.
She lit a match and saw a decorated very Christmas tree _____________ ________.
lighted candles were burning The ____________ seemed very brightly and she ___________
delighted _____ .
She lit another one and saw her grandmother. She asked her grandmother to take her away.
The next day, people saw the girl lying on the road,dead _________________________ . What a poor girl !
? 1.A little girl was walking in the street, selling matches
? 2.she had her shoes lost. ? 3. She looked very worried because there were lots of matches remaining. ? 4. She wished all her matches to be sold but nobody bought a single one. ? 5. She was so cold that she sat in a corner with her legs huddled up（蜷缩）. ? 6 She lit a match and saw a Christmas tree decorated very beautifully. ? 7 The lighted candles were burning brightly and she seemed very delighted. ? 8 The next day, people saw the girl lying on
非 谓 语 动 词
不定式: (to) do 动名词 v-ing 形式 过去分词: v-ed 现在分词
Review the general function of non-finite verbs (Tick√or×)
非谓语动词 主 成分 语 (to) do (不定式) v-ing (动名词) v-ing (现在分词) v-ed (过去分词) 谓 语 宾 语 表 语 定 语 补 语 状 语
× √ × ×
1. It is important ______ Tom to get that job. for 2. It is kind ______ you to help me with my of English.
总结: It is +adj.+for/of sb to do sth的结构中, 若此形容词是说明的是不定式的性质时, 则用 _____; for 若说明的是人(sb.)的特性, 则用_____. of 1. It is nice___ of you to help me with my English. 2. It is necessary ________you to improve your for spoken English.
II. 动名词作主语以下两个习惯表达法 1. It is no use (good) + 动名词 做某事没用(不好) 2. There is no + knowing/telling (动名词) (= It is impossible to do sth.表示不可能) E.g: *It’s no use crying over spilt milk. ____________________________ 。 覆水难收 *在公共场合随地吐痰(spit)不好。 ____________________________. It’s no good spitting in public *未来的事无法知道。 There is no knowing what may happen in __________________________________.
III. 动名词和不定式作主语的区别 1. 散步是锻炼的一种好方法。 Walking is a good form of exercise. 2. 教这些孩子是我今天下午的工作。 To teach these children is my job this afternoon.
①to do作主语时常表示某一次具体的动作, 具有偶然性; ②doing(动名词)表示习惯性的动作, 往往表 抽象概念。 To complete the program needs much ____________ effort. 完成这项计划需要很大的努力。 Riding _______a bike can make a man smart. 骑单车能使一个人敏捷。
注意: 该规则同样适用于作宾语, 表语. 比如: like to do / like doing
A 1. She has no pencil _______. A. to write with B. to write about C. to write D. write in 2. She said she had an important meeting B _____. A. to attend in B. to attend C. attend D. attending
作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词，或者不定式所修饰 的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等， 不定式后面 须有相应的介词。
with 1.Please give me a knife to cut_________.
2. There is nothing to worry ________. about
in 3.He is looking for a room to live _______.
4.When Jack was young, he had no friends
with to Play________.
1. I’m thirsty. Would you please give me to drink something _____________(drink). 2.I’m going to the post office. Do you have to be posted anything _____________?(post) 3. He is always the first _________ to answer questions. ★不定式做定语时: (1). to do 表示事情由句子主语自己做; (2). to be done 表示事情由别人做; ★不定式常作不定代词和序数词的 后置定语
1. 若作定语的动词不定式是vi, 后必须 要有介词; 2. (1). to do 表示事情由句子主语自己做; (2). to be done 表示事情由别人做; 3. 不定式常作不定代词和序数词的 后置定语。
a sleeping car = a car ____ _______ for sleeping a sleeping child = a child who ____ ___ _______ is sleeping [总结]: (1) 动名词作定语表示所修饰的名词的 功能或用途, 可用for改写；
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
游泳池 a swimming pool 拐杖 a walking stick a falling leaf 落叶 a washing machine 洗衣机 a flying bird 飞翔的鸟 a reading room 阅览室 渔网 a fishing net a crying baby 哭泣的孩子 等候室 a waiting room a sleeping car 卧铺车
1.interesting使人感兴趣的interested感兴趣的 2.exciting令人激动的 excited感到激动的 3.delighting令人高兴的 delighted感到高兴的 4.disappointing令人失望的 disappointed感到失望的 5.worrying令人担心的 worried感到担 6.pleasing令人愉快的 pleased感到愉快的 7.puzzling令人费解的 puzzled感到费解的 8.satisfying令人满意的 satisfied感到满意的
重点提示1：现在分词与过去分词,不定式作定语的区别 ①过去分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系或过去分 词表示的动作____________ 。 已完成 正在进行 ②现在分词作定语表示动作_____________ ，与修饰词 是主谓 关系。 将来 的动作。 ③不定式作定语表示_______
being built now (正在被建) the house to be built next year (将要被建) built last year (建好了 )
Practice: The building _______________(build) to be built next year will be a new school. being built The building ___________________ (build) now will be a new school. The building _________________ (build) built last year is a new school now.
“除……外”的介词but和except后，有时可接不 定式；2）当前面有行为动词do时，不定式不带to； 前面没有行为动词do时，要带to。
cry ? She could do nothing but _______.(cry) to accept ? I have no choice but ______ the fact. (accept) ? All that I want to do now is sleep ________(sleep)
(三) 补足语: 主语补足语&宾语补足语
The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ______. A A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to I. 常可以跟to do 做宾补或主补的动词有 1. allow sb. to do sth. ask/advise/encourage/expect/force/would like/love/hate/order/teach/tell/want/warn wish/forbid/get等。 2. 使役/感官动词的被动语态常作主补 have/make/see sb. do sth. (宾补) →sb. be made to do sth. (主补)
II. 只能跟do (不带to的不定式) 作宾补的动词 1. 感官动词 (记忆口诀) 五看 : see, watch, notice, observe ,look at 三使: let, make, have… 两听: hear, listen to 一感觉: feel 2. 使役动词have/make/let(等)sb. do sth. III. 分词作宾补 1. have/make/let/get/see/hear(等) sth.+v-ed//v-ing 2. with sth.(n.) + v-ing/v-ed/… 3. leave sb. + v-ing/v-ed/…
With + n. + 宾补 Have a try: (use the correct form of “solve”)
With a lot of problems _______________, the boss is worried. solved With a lot of problems _______________, the boss is very happy. solving With a lot of experts _______________ the problems for him, the boss is relaxed.
Practice makes perfect
Walking 1. _____________ (walk) is a good form of exercise for both young and old. (全国) 2. Eugene's never willing to alter any of his arguing argue) with him. opinions. It’s no use __________( (上海) seated 3. Please remain _________(seat); the winner of the prize will be announced soon. (辽宁) 4. — Can I smoke here? smoking smoke) — Sorry. We don’t allow ___________( here. (江苏)
accepting 5. It is difficult to imagine his ________ (accept) the decision without any consideration. (陕西) working work) with Jane in 6. I can’t stand _________( to stop the same office. She just refuses ________(stop) talking while she works. (北京) 7. As a result of the serious flood, two-thirds to be repaired of the buildings in the area need _____________ (repair). (陕西) 8. If you think that treating a woman well getting (get) her permission for means always ________ things, think again. (湖南)
admit (admit) 9. Sandy could do nothing but ________ to his teacher that he was wrong. (上海)
10. Don’t leave the water ________ running (run) while you brush your teeth. (天津) 11. It was so cold that they kept the fire burning (burn) all night. (全国) ___________ 12. The managers discussed the plan that they carried (carry) out the next would like to see _________ year. (全国)
to arrive 13. —The last one ___________(arrive) pays the meal. —Agree! (全国) 14. He is very popular among his students as he interested always tries to make them ____________(interest) in his lectures. (江苏) to be made 15. Energy drinks are not allowed ________ (make) in Australia but are brought in from New Zealand. (上海) to learn 16. Paul doesn’t have to be made ________ (learn). He always works hard. (全国)
17. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. filling (fill) —Sorry. With so much work ________ my mind, I almost break down. (福建) 18. John received an invitation to dinner, and finished (finish), he gladly with his work ____________ accepted it. (安徽) to settle 19. With a lot of difficult problems ________ (settle), the newly-elected president is having a hard time. (上海) pick 20. The director had her assistant ______ (pick) up some hot dogs for the meeting. (全国)
1._____is a good of exercise for both the young and the old. A.The walk B.Walking C.To walk D.Walk
13. Believe it or not, he was seen______upstairs just now. A.to go B.to going C.having gone D.go 15. The murderer was brought in ,with his hands _____behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied
14. It was so cold that they kept the fire ________all night. A. to burn B. burn C. burning D. burned
13. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told ? him_____. (NMET95 35) ? A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
A. Useful expressions
1. 增强心肺功能 strengthen the heart and the lungs 2. 放松肌肉relax the muscles 3. 参加 participate in 4. 带有呼吸问题的人 people with breathing problems 5. 幸福感 a sense of happiness 6. 欣赏一部有趣的喜剧 7. 消除/驱赶消极情绪enjoy a funny commedy drive away negative feelings 8. 表演单口相声节目 perform a stand-up routine
B. Important structures
1. (1) It helps those who cannot work out become fit. (Part A) (2) Laughing out loud helps improve your general fitness. (Part A) (3) Do you need to be fit to be a stand-up comedian? (Part A) fit (adj.) 健康的, 合适的, 恰当的; fit (vt.)使……适应; 合身 fitness (n.) 健壮, 健康, 适合 保持健康_______________; keep fit=keep healty 适合做某事be ______________________ fit to do sth./be fit for sth.
[Practice] (1) Try the new keys and see if it _______ the C keyhole. A. suits B. matches C. fits D. compares (2) The People’s Great Hall and the Historical match Museum ___________ (fit, match, suit) the Tian’anmen beautifully. (3) It doesn’t __________ (fit, match, suit) you suit to have your hair cut short. (4) 众口难调。(翻译, 用suit) ___________________________________. No dish suits all tastes
[总结]比较fit, match, suit的区别 fit 指大小，尺寸合适 ___________________; match________________________; 表款式/颜色/花纹匹配;比赛;火柴 suit 多指合乎需要 ________________________________ ,口味,性格,条件,地位等 2. As you laugh, the muscles participating in the laugh become active. (Part A) participation participate (v.) 参加; (n.)______________; (短语)___________________________ participate in=take part in [辨析] 参加活动/比赛 take part in___________________; (强调在其中起积极作用) join in_______________________ 参加小的比赛(不突出积极作用) 参军join ________________________; the army join指参加某组织并成为其中的一员 attend_______________________ 参加会议, 婚礼, 葬礼; 上课/上学 join sb. in doing sth.___________________ 和某人一起做某事
[Practice] (1) Her grandpa ___________ the May 4th A Movement when he was young and then ____ the army. A. took part in; joined B. joined in; participated in C. attended; joined in D. joined; took part in (2) Can I _______ the game with you together? B A. attend B. join in C. take part in D. participate in
(3) I didn’t _______ school today. Can I ____ D visiting grandma? A. join; attend B. take part in; join C. participate in; join you in D. attend; join you in
3. I try to find foolishness in things…(Part B) foolishness (n.); ___________ (adj.); foolish _________________________________(n./v.) fool(n.)傻瓜/傻子; fool(v.)愚弄(某人) 愚蠢地做某事 ________________________ It’s foolish of sb. to do sth. ________________________ It’s a fool of sb. to do sth. ________________________ fool sb. to do sth. make a fool of sb. 愚弄某人
Module 6 Unit1 Grammar and Usage 非谓语动词复习专项练习
1-5: ABAAB; 11-15: DACAA; 6-10: CBCDA 16-20: AADCD
1. She took her son, ran out of the house, ____ A him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor’s office. A. put B. to put C. putting D. having put 2. Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ B the book ___ on the table and disappeared into the distance. A. left; lain open B. leaving; lying open C. leaving; lie opened D. left; lay opened
3. The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of _____ A the power station. A. to build B. building C. build D. built 4. Most of the people_____ A to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting 5. When you’re learning to drive, _______ a B good teacher makes a big difference. A. have B. having C. and have D. and having
6. I felt it a great honour ______ to speak to C you. A. to ask B. asking C. to be asked D. having asked 7. Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to _____ B some schools for poor children. A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up 8. ---Mum, why do you always make me eat an egg every day? ---___ C enough nutrition as you are growing up. A. Get B. Getting C. To get D. to be getting
9. The man you referred to _____ D just now. A. comes B. come C. coming D. came 10. I think this is the very work that we must A her. finish ____ A. to help B. help C. helping D. helped D at the 11. The old house we paid a visit _____ top of the hill. A. standing B. to stand C. to standing D. to stands
12. _______ the road round to the right and A you’ll find his house. A. Follow B. Following C. To follow D. Followed 13. _______ the road round to the right, the C blind man asked a boy to guide him. A. Follow B. Following C. To follow D. Followed 14. _____ A your hand over your mouth when you cough. A. Put B. Putting C. To put D. To be putting
15. He is a man of few words, and seldom speaks until _______ to. A A. spoken B. speaking C. speak D. be spoken 16. After describing the planned improvements, A she went on _______ how much they would cost. A. to explain B. explaining C. to be explaining D. having explained 17. Certainly I posted your letter—I remember ______ it. A A. posting B. to post C. to be posting D. have posted
18. Remember _____ D off the light when _____ to bed. A. turning; going B. to turn; to go C. turning; to go D. to turn; going 19. With a lot of difficult problems ______, C the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. setting C. to settle D. being settled 20. The life he is now used ____ D quite different from ours. A. is B. to be C. to being D. to is
21. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ______ B whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen 22. _____ D to the party, Tony was very unhappy. A. having not been invited B. not having invited C. having not invited D. not having been invited 23. ---Which sweater is yours? ---The one _______ No. 9. D A. that marked B. was marked with C. which marked D. marked with
24. If you wave your book in front of your face, you can feel the air_____ against your face. B A. moved B. moving C. moves D. to move 25. The girl_____ A under that tree is my sister. A. sitting B. sits C. is sitting D. sat 26. The more you practise _____ B English, the better your _____ English will be. A. to speak; speaking B. speaking; spoken C. spoken; spoken D. spoken; speaking
27. Anna is often heard ______songs D in her room. A. sung B. singing C. sing D. to sing 28. I went ______a balloon but I didn’t see B anyone _____ balloons. A. to buy; to sell B. to buy; selling C. buying; selling D. buying; to sell B 29. This soup is cold; it needs _____. A. to heat B. to be heated C. being hot D. heated
30. Although swimming is his favourite sport, yet he doesn’t like _____ today. A A. to swim B. swimming C. swim D. to have swim 31. No one was surprised at _____ the D examination. A. he passing B. his pass C. him pass D. his passing 32. Anna spends one hour a day _____ D spoken English. A. practise B. to practise C. on practising D. in practising
33. Dick made it ______ to all his friends. B A. to know B. known C. know D. knowing 34. _____, she felt quite shy at the party. B A. As she a stranger B. Being a stranger C. According to a stranger D. She like a stranger 35. Every morning he gets up early and practises ______ and then _____ to school. C A. to read English; go B. reading English; going C. reading English; goes D. of reading English; goes
36. It’s no use______ A with him. You might as well ______ with a stone wall. A. arguing; argue B. to argue; arguing C. arguing; arguing D. to argue; argue 37. The old man’s _____ B pity on the snake led to his own death. A. take B. taking C. being taken D. have taken 38. The murderer was brought in, with his hands _______ behind his back. D A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied
39. You’ll regret _____ C those words. You may hurt her feelings. A. say B. to say C. saying D. to have said B in without ______. 40. Excuse me for _____ A. coming; asking B. coming; being asked C. to come; asking D. to come; being asked 41. There is no question of ____ B able to finish it himself. A. Tom was B. Tom’s being C. Tom’s be D. Tom is
42. The new shopping center _____ C now will be put into use at the end of this year. A. built B. be built C. being built D. to be built 43. The boy had his leg _____ while playing A football. A. broken B. break C. breaking D. broke
44. The problem requires ______. A A. studying with great care B. to study carefully C. to study with carelessness D. taking great care of studying it 45. Some people’s greatest pleasure is ______ . A A. fishing B. to fish C. to be fish D. being fishing
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