语法系列复习专题-----动词时态，被动语态 一、一般现在时 1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、科学事实、格言，目 前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。如： I? go there after I finish my work./ If it rains tomorrow,I won? ll t go ther
e. 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里，go,come 等少数动词的一般在时表示正 在发生的动作。例如：There goes the bell.铃响了。There comes the bus. 汽车来了。Here she comes.她来了。 二、现在进行时 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。例如：She is leaving for Beijing. 她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow.从明天起他要做老师。My father is coming to see me this Saturday.这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时， 描绘更加生动。 例如： The Changjiang River is flowing into the east.江水滚滚向东流。The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方 冉冉升起。 4.大多数动词可用于进行时，但也有些动词不用于进行时。常见的有： exist,live,understand,mean,owe,belong to ,know,doubt,suppose,remember,forget, believe,trust,want,wish,refuse,like,hate,dislike,prefer,mind,hope 等。 三、现在完成时 1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果，或说话时已完成的动作。 例如：I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始，待续到现在的动作或状态，往往和“for?”, “since?” 表述的一段时间状语连用。例如：He has learned English for six years./ They have worked here since they left college. 3.现在完成时与一般过去时的区别： 1）用两种时态来表述发生在过去的某一动作，现在完成时强调这一过去动作 对现在产生的影响或结果，而一般过去时只表达过去的动作或状态，和现在关系 不大。例如：She has cleaned the room.It? very clean now.(此句 has cleaned s 就不能改为 cleaned.一是因为 cleaned 与现状无关，二是因为一般过去时不可 突然跳到 It? s?这样的一般现在时。) 2）汉语中的“了”、“过”、“曾”等词常用完成表达，如：I have seen that film.（我看过那部电影了。）但是如果是在特定的过去时间“看了”、 “做过”， 就不可用完成时而必须用一般过去进来表达。 例如： When did you see that film? I saw it yesterday.(你什么时候看了那部电影？我昨天看的。)不能说：When
have you seen that film?I have seen it yesterday. 4.表示“曾经到过某地（人已回来）”用“have/has been to”,表示“到某 地去了（还未回来）”用“have/has gone to”.例如： ——Where is Li Hua? －He has gone to the reading-room. ——She knows a lot about Shanghai.－She has been there. 5.短暂动词（即瞬间动词），join, lose, buy, borrow, leave, go, come, arrive, die, marry, finish, complete, begin, start, break out 等，在完 成时态中，其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。例如不能说：He has finished the work for three hours.要翻译“他已完成工作三小时了。”可采 用 1）“ago 法”：He finished the work three hours ago.2）“延续法”： He has been through(with)the work for three hours.3） “since 法” It is/has ： been three hours since he finished the work. 四、现在完成进行时 1.用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在（或今后还要继续一去）的 动作。例如：He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00./ It has been raining for two days. 2.凡是不能用于现在进行时的动词均不能用于现成完成进行时。 五、一般过去时 表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况， 或过去某一时间内经常发 生或反复发生的动作或行为。 六、过去进行时 1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作 （这一过去时间须用时 间状语表示）。例如：He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday. 2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行。例如：They were still working when I left. 3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生。例如：I was writing while he was watching TV. 4.表示过去将来动作。例如：He said she was arriving the next day. 七、过去完成时 1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。例如：He had shut the door before the dog came up./ Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一个过去时刻才完成， 甚至还要继续下去。例如：At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words.He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3.常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词的过去完成时来 表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。例如：We had expected that you would be able to win the match. 八、一般将来时 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况。有下列一些形式：
1.will/shall do （侧重将来行为，不突出计划安排去做某事） 2.be going to do (主观上打算或客观上可能发生) 3.be doing (按计划将要发生，常和表示最近的将来时间连用) 4.be about to do (按计划即将发生) 九、将来完成时 用来表示在将来某个时刻（前）将完成的动作。常和 by 短语，when,before 引起的时间状语连用。例如：We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term.
1．——Can I join your club,dad? ——You can when you______a bit older. (NMET) A.get B.will get C.are getting D.will have got 析：“You can”是将来意，when 引导的时间状语从句要用一般现在时表将来所以 此题答案为 A. 2．——Oh,it’s you!I______you. ——I’ve just had my hair cut and I’m wearing new glasses. A.didn’t recognize B.hadn’t recognized C.haven’t recognized D.don’t recongnize 析：从“Oh,it’s you!”可知说话时已认出对方。“没有认出”是在此之前为过 去情况，所以应选 A. 3.I don’t think Jim saw me;he______into space. (NMET) A.just stared B.was just staring C.has just stared D.had just stared 析：在空白处应选一个与“saw”相配，能解释 Jim didn’t see me 这一原因的选 项，只有着眼于 A、B。若选 A 不能体观他“当时正在做”某事，故排除 A 而选 B。 这样因为“他正在望宇宙天空”所以“未看到我”。 4.——______my glasses? ——Yes,I saw them on your bed a minute ago. (NMET) A.Do you see B.Had you seen C.Would you see D.Have you seen 析：现在完成时可表过去发生的事情对现在产生的影响或结果，问话人以这样的 时态发问可作现焦急的心情。故答案为 D。 5.You don’t need to describe her.I______her several times. (NMET) A.had met B.have met C.met D.meet 析：答案 B。道理同 4。 6.——Do you know our town at all? ——No,this is the first time I______here. A.was B.have been C.came D.am going
析：根据 this/it is the first/second/?time sb.has done sth.句型，可定 答案为 B。又如：This is the second time he has visited the Great Wall. 7.I don’t really work here.I______until the new secretary arrives. (NMET) A. just help out B. have just helped out C. am just helping out D. will just help out 析：根据 I don? really work here.以及?until the new secretary arrives, t 可知说话人所要做的事是计划安排行为，C、D 两个选项都表将来动作，但 D 非 计划安排，C 则体现按计划去做，所以此题答案为 C。 8.——Is this raincoat yours? ——No, mine______ there behind the door. (NMET) A. is hanging B. has hung C. hangs D. hung 析：此题的“悬挂”是指现状而言，故表过去“挂”的 B、D 项可排除。C 项虽 指“现在挂”，但侧重在常规，习惯。为了突出“你所指的那件雨衣不是我的， 我的正挂在门后”这一意思，选 A 是极为合情理的。
一、被动语态的句型 1.常见句式是：主语（受动者）＋be＋过去分词＋（by＋施动者） 例如：He was scolded by the English teacher. 2.主语＋get＋过去分词＋其它成分 例如： boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because of her faults. The 注意：使用这种结构不能带有“by＋施动者” 3.带有双宾语（直接宾语和间接宾语）的主动句变为动句，其主语可以是直 接宾语，也可以是间接宾语。例如：She lent me a bike.?被动：1）I was lent a bike(by her). 2）A bike was lent to me(by her). 4.情态动词＋be＋过去分词 例如：This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 5.双重被动式：主语＋被动式谓语＋不定式的被动式＋其它成分 例 如 ； These magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room./The murderer was ordered to be shot. 二、主动表示被动的几种情况 1.不及物动词与状语连用，用以表示主语的品质和状态。常见动词是： cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash,drive,keep 等。例如：This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。These books sell well.这些书好卖。The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。Meat won? keep long in such hot weather.肉 t 在这样热的天气里放不长久。The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。 2. 一 些 连 系 动 词 的 主 动 式 ＋ 形 容 词 。 常 见 动
look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn out 等。例如：The apples taste good./The flower smells wonderful./The news proved/turned out true./Cotton feels soft.注：prove 也可用于被动式，如：His answer(was) proved right. 3.不定式在某些形容词之后，且与主语有动宾关系。常见形容词有： hard,defficult,easy,heavy,fit,good,comfortable,convenient,impossible 等 。 例 如 ： The problem is easy to do./The question is difficult to answer./The box is heavy to carry./The project is impossible to complete in a year.比较：The problem is to be done./The question is to be answered. 没有形容词时，虽然不定式与主语是动宾关系，但必须用被动式。 三、容易误用被动语态的几种情况： 1.I teach myself French.不可变为 Myself is taught French.因为反身 代词不可作主语。 2.We help each other/one another.不可变为 Each other/One another is helped by us.因为相互代词不可作主语。 3.He lost heart.不可变为 Heart was lost by him.因为象 lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought 这类动宾结构的固定短语只能用于主动 式，不能用被动式。 4.She took part in the sports meet.不能变为 The sports meet was taken part in by her.因为象 take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain 等表状态动词没有被动语态。
1.I need one more stamp before my collection______. (NMET) A.has completed B.completes C.has been completed D.is completed 析：complete 是及物动词，“邮集”是被人完成的，须从表被动意的 C、D 中选 择。又因 before 等引导的时间状语从句中谓语要用一般现在时表将来，所以此 题答案为 D。 2.——Do you like the material? ——Yes,it______very soft. (NMET) A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt 析：观察题干，空白线后无宾语，可知 feel 是不及物动词，表“（某物）摸起 来?”意思,是连系动词，不能用于被动式，也不用进行时。根据此题对话情景， 是指某种材料的常规特性，要用一般现在时，不能用过去时，故答案为 C。feel 作“感觉”、“认为”、“摸”等意时是及物动词，可带宾语，有时态，语态等 变化。 3．Great changes______ in the city, and a lot of factories______. (NMET)
A. have been taken place?have been set up B. have taken place?have been set up C. have taken place?have set up D. were taken place?were set up 析：take place（发生）是不及物动词，不可用于被动语态，于是可排除 A、D， 又因 set up(建造)是及物动词，在此题中应该用被动式，故排除 C，答案为 B。 4.Most of the artists______to the party were from South Africa. (NMET) A.invited B.to invite C.being invited D.had been invited 析：首先可排除 B。因为它不表示“被邀请”。又因 D 项少引导词 who，也应排 除。A 项＝who were invited,C 项＝who were being invited,由象 invite 这类 短暂动词的现在分词被动式不可作后置定语，故也应排除。因而可定答案为 A。 5.I don? know the restaurant,but it? t s______to be quite a good one.(NMET) A.said B.told C.spoken D.talked 析：根据“某人/某物据说?”英文句式为“sb/sth.is said?”可定答案为 A。 又如：He is said to be a clever boy.据说他是一个聪明的男孩。 6.The police found that the house______and a lot of things______.(NMET) A. has broken into?has been stolen B. has broken into?had been stolen C.has been broken into?stolen D. had been broken into?stolen 析：“房屋被人闯入”，“东西被偷”都是被动语态，故可排除 A、B。因 C 项 中的 has been broken into 不能置于 found 之后，则答案只能是 D。 7.I promise that the matter will______. (NMET) A. be taden care B. be taken care of C. take care D. take care of 析：take care of?是固定短语，若无 of 则不可带宾语，只能跟 that 从句。所 以此题答案为 B。 8.If city noises______from increasing,people____shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now. (NMET) A.are not kept?will have to B.are not kept?have to C.do not keep?will have to D.do not keep?have to 析：观察题干，第一处必须用被动式，答案只能在 A、B 中选一。条件句用一般 现在时，主句应为一般将来时，故答案为 A。 9.The Olympic Games,____in 776 BC,did not include women players until 1912.(NMET) A.first playing B.to be first played C.first played D.to be first playing 析；要表达“被举行”，只能在 B、C 中选。B 意“将要首次举行”。显然不合 in 776 BC 这一过去时间，只有 C，first played(＝which was first played) 才合用。故答案为 C。 10.This sentence needs______. A.a improvement B.improve C.improving D.improved
析：初看此题似手 A、C 皆可，但 improvement 是元音开头词，其前要用 an,故 排除。need 作实义动词，和 require,want 一样，后面可跟 doing 或 to be done 表 “ 需 要 被 ? ” 意 。 如 ： The door needs/wants/requires painting/to be painted.(这扇门需要漆一下。) 11.I should very much like to have gone to the party,but I______invited. A.am not B.haven? been t C.was not D.will not be 析：should/would like to have done sth.意“本想做某事”，例如：I should like to have seen the film,but it wasn? possible.由于这种句式表示“过 t 去想”，所以 but 后的句子也应该是过去时态与之相配合，故此题答案是 C。 12.——______the note______to Mr Smith? ——No,It is still in my pocket. A.Is?being given B.Was?given C.Has?been given D.Hasn? t?been given 析：根据问句与答句，问话人显然是注重结果，故要用现在完成时。似乎 D 作为 反诘句“难道条还没给史密斯先生吗？”也成立，但若是这种口气发问，答话人 就应答“Sorry.It is still in my pocket.”,所以此题答案应为 C。 13.We heard it______that he had gone to New York. A.say B.said C.to say D.be said 析：It was said that?可以改为 We heard it said that?(都表示“据说?” 之意)。前一种说法中 It 是形式主语，后一种说法中 it 是形式宾语。故此题答 案为 B。
1.The maths problem can be______. A.easy worked out B.easy to be worked out C.easily worked out D.easily to work out 2.Every possible means______,but none proves successful. A.has been tried B.tried C.is being tried D.has tried 3.The girl is to______a rich man. A.marry with B.be married C.marry to D.be married to 4.He received a telegram that______“Mother sick”. A.wrote B.says C.reads D.read 5.Who can you imagine______to his wedding party? A.inviting B.being invited C.was invited D.to be invited 6.I______ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.(NMET) A.gave B.was given C.was giving D.had given 7.——Will somebody go and get Dr.White? ——He? already been______.(NMET) s A.asked for B.sent for C.called for D.looked for 8.A conductor______to keep us in time in the singing yesterday.
A.needs B.is needing C.was needed D.has been needed 9.When and where to build the new factory______yet. A.is not decided B.are not decided C.has not decided D.have not decided 10.Ways______to stop pollution by now. A.must find B.will be found C.are found D.have been found 11.I don? want anything______about it. t A.to say B.said C.saying D.having said 12.——______that the sports meet might be put off. ——Yes,it all depends on the weather. A.I? been told ve B.I? told ve C.I? told m D.I told 13.A library with five thousand books______to the nation as a gift.(NMET) A.is offered B.has offered C.are offered D.have offered 14.Betty has never been heard _______ill of others. A.speak B.spoken C.to speak D.was said 15.Tom______to have delivered the speech in their theatre room. A.said B.says C.is said D.was said 16.——What do you think of the book? ——Oh,excellent.It? worth______a second time.(NMET) s A.to read B.to be read C.reading D.being read 17.Little Jim should love______to the theatre this evening.(NMET) A.to be taken B.to take C.being taken D.taking. 18.______more attention,the trees could have grown better.(NMET) A.Given B.to give C.Giving D.Having given 19.——where______the book?I can’t see it anywhere. ——I______it right here but now it’s gone. A.did you put;have put B.have you put;put C.had you put;was putting D.were you putting;have put 20.He would not fail so long as he______hard the next term. A.studied B.would study C.had studied D.studies 21.How long______the English party______? A.has;been lasted B.did;last C.was;lasted D.will;be lasted 22.What______you______this time next Friday? A.will;do B.have;been doing C.are;doing D.will;be doing 23.Hardly______the bell______when the teacher came in. A.did;ring B.would;ring C.has;rung D.had;rung 24.It______and the streets were still wet. A.had been raining B.rained C.had been rained D.would rain 25.The book____on the ground for ten minutes but no noe has picked it up.
A.is lying B.has lain C.lay D.has been lying 26.We______there when it______to rain. A.were getting;would begin B.were about to get;began C.had got;had begun D.would get;began 27.The teacher said we______ten lessons by the end of this term. A.should have studied B.were going to study C.have studied D.should study 28.——she told me she had met you in London last year. ——______you______her since? A.Had;met B.Did;see C.Would;meet D.Have;seen 29.——When______again? ——When he______,I’ll let you know. A.will he come;will come B.will he come;come C.he comes;comes D.will he come;comes 30.Tom______for more than a week. A.has left B.had gone away C.went away D.has been away 31.——What happened to her teeth? ——She______the apple more than she could chew. A.has bitten B.bit C.had been bitting D.bites 32.Shakespeare was said______37 famous plays in his lifetime. A.finishing writing B.to finish writing C.having written D.to have written 33. ——You’ve agreed to go.So why aren’t you getting ready? ——But I______that you______me to start at once. A.don’t realize;want B.don’t realize;wanted C.haven’t realized;want D.didn’t realize;wanted 34. ——I missed the lecture last night. ——Oh,what a pity!I wish______. A.you heared it B.you had heard it C.you never heard it D.you hadn’t heard it 35.I’ll return the book to the library as soon as I______it. A.finished B.am going to finish C.will finish D.have finished 36. ——Your phone number again?I______quite catch it. ——It’s 9586442.(NMET) A.didn’t B.couldn’t C.don’t D.can’t 37. ——I’m sorry to keep you waiting. ——Oh,not at all.I______here only a few minutes. A.have been B.had been C.was D.will be 38.When I was at college.I______three foreign languages,but I______all
except a few words of each. A.spoke;had forgotten B.spoke;have forgotten C.had spoedn;had forgotten D.had spoken;have forgotten 39.The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she______. A.will arrive B.arrives C.is going to arrive D.is arriving (NMET) 40. ——Who is Jerry Cooper? ——______?I saw you shaking hands with him at the meeting.(NMET) A.Don’t you meet him yet B.Hadn’t you met him yet C.Didn’t you meet him yet D.Haven’t you met him yet 41. ——We could have walked to the station.It was so near. ——Yes,a taxi______at all necessary.(NMET) A.wasn’t B.hadn’t been C.wouldn’t be D.won’t be 42.We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time.What do you suppose______to her?(NEMT) A.was happening B.to happen C.has haqqend D.having happened 43.On Saturday afternoon,Mrs Green went to the market,______some bananas and visited her cousin.(NMET) A.bought B.buying C.to buy D.buy 44.As she______the newspaper,Granny______asleep.(NMET) A.read;was falling B.was reading;fell C.was reading;was falling D.read;fell 45.I______the bad cold for a week,still I can’t get rid of it. A.caught B.have caught C.have D.have had 46.I______the time______so quickly. A.didn’t realize;had passed B.don’t realize;passed C.haven’t realized;passed D.hadn’t realized;had passed 47.——My watch______twelve o’clock.It’s so late. ——Let’s hurry up. A.is said B.says C.is told D.tells 48.Helen______her key in the office so she had to wait her husband_____home.(NMET) A.has left;comes B.left;had come C.had left;came D.had left;would come 49.The pen I______I______is on my desk,right under my nose.(NMET) A.think;lost B.thought;had lost C.think;had lost D.thought;have lost 50.——Jane has just arrived. ——I didn’t know she______. A.is coming B.was coming C.had been coming D.will come
1－5 16－20 21－25 36－40 C C B A A A D A D A D B D B A B C A D D 6－10 B B C A D 11－15 B A A C C
26－30 B A D D D 41－45 A C A B D
31－35 B D D B D 46－50 A B C B B
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