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非谓语动词、并列句、主从复合句重点归纳


一、非谓语动词

非谓语动词
常见错误:一个句子中常出现2个谓语动 词, 不符合句子的正确语法结构。 解决办法:1、用逗号及连词连接两个简单句 2、应用非谓语动词形式

非谓语动词的分类
1、不定式(表主动、表将来) He decided to marry Mary. 2、-ing形式 1)动名词(表一件事) I l

ike learning English. 2)现在分词(表主动或进行) We stood there, chatting. 3、-ed形式 (表被动或完成) The apple eaten by Tom is mine.

要点之一
当非谓语动词的动作发生在谓语动词的 动作之前,用完成式。及老师们平常所强调 的时间差. 比如:Having finished my English homework, I go out to play with Mary. 否则,就用一般式: Finishing my English homework, I feel relaxed.

要点之二(属语法规定,需记忆)
以下动词只能接不定式: ask sb to do sth; demand sb to do sth; plan to do sth; intend to do sth; mean to do sth; manage to do sth; do/try one’s best to do sth; make an attempt to do sth; learn to do sth; wish to do sth; hope to do sth; desire to do sth; expect to do sth; long to do sth(希望去做); want to do sth; would like to do sth; should like to do sth; would prefer to do sth; agree to do sth; promise to do sth; decide to do sth;

determine to do sth; choose to do sth; make a decision to do sth; make up one’s mind to do sth; offer to do sth; apply to do sth; help to do sth; fail to do sth; prepare to do sth; pretend to do sth; refuse to do sth; happen to do sth; afford to do sth

以下动词只能接动名词:
Allow doing sth; permit doing sth; consider doing sth; suggest doing sth; advise doing sth; keep (on) doing sth; finish doing sth; imagine doing sth; practise doing sth; understand doing sth; appreciate doing sth; enjoy doing sth; miss doing sth; prevent doing sth; forbid doing sth; escape doing sth; include doing sth;

Include doing sth; forgive doing sth; pardon doing sth; excuse doing sth; dislike doing sth; discuss doing sth; report doing sth; admit doing sth; mind doing sth; risk doing sth; can’t stand doing sth; burst out doing; feel like doing sth; insist on doing sth; delay doing sth; put off doing sth; give up doing sth; be busy doing sth; be worth doing sth.

注意区别一下几组短语
Remember to do & remember doing Forget to do & forget doing Regret to do & regret doing Try to do & try doing Go on to do & go on doing Mean to do & mean doing Stop to do & stop doing Can’t help to do & can’t help doing

要点之三
“需要”主动表被动的情况 Need doing Want doing Require doing 也可以用不定式的被动式 如:need to be done The flower needs watering. The flower needs to be watered.

要点之四
省略to 的情况: Make sb do sth Let sb do sth Have sb do sth 比较:Have the boy stand out of the classroom, he is so noisy. Don’t have the boy standing out of the classroom, it’s so cold outside.

另,hear sb do sth, & hear sb to be done see sb do sth, & see sb to be done watch sb do sth & watch sb to be done

要点之五
注意这组词的运用: 1)Lost & Missing My wallet is lost/missing. This is the missing child. Lost in thought , I didn’t realize what had happened. 2)Faced &facing Faced with so many difficulties, I choose to … Facing so many difficulties, I choose to …

二、并列句

并列句
多见于基础写作部分。 学生常见错误在于缺少用连词的习惯,该部 分要认真记忆,《名师》P232页。

要点之一
? 平行结构固定句型 not… but.. The man is not Tom but Jim. either …or;neither… nor (就近原则) Either he or you are right. not only.. but also.. (就近原则) Not only men but also women were chosen.

would rather … than.. (接动词原型) PLA soldiers would rather die kneeling than live standing. rather… than (就远原则) You rather than I are going to go camping. as well as (就远原则) Jim, as well as his parents, is going to Beijing for holiday.

要点之二
固定结构: 祈使句+or / and +简单句/陈述句(表结果)。 比如: Turn left, and you will see the toilet. Shut up, or you will get beaten.

三、主从复合句

主从复合句的重要性
? 是高中语法板块中的重中之重。 ? 是高考的必考项目。 ? 考试中常出现在:语法、写作、口语考试 第三部分等

主从复合句的分类

1、名词性从句:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从 句、同位语从句 2、状语从句:时间状语从句、地点、原因、让 步、条件、方式、比较、目的、结果状语从句 等 3、定语从句:限制性定语从句、非限制性定语 从句 (同学们应相对应的找一个例句加以记忆、理解)

要点之一
? 在表示“是否”时,引导宾语从句可用if 或whether,但在介词后或者与or not 连用时 只能用whether;引导表语从句、同位语从 句或者位于句首的主语从句时候,只能用 whether , 不能用if. ? (技巧:什么时候都用whether,不会错的) ? Ask him whether he can come or not . ? I wonder whether/ if I can get some money form you.

要点之二
? that 引导名词性从句时候,没有任何意义, 是一个纯连词;但that引导定语从句时候是 关系代词,代表先行词,在句子中担当成 分,以后实在的意义。 思考: ? Tom told me that he had eaten the apple that Mary bought from the market this morning.

要点之三
? 定语从句中只能用that,不用which 的几种 情况:
1、当先行词为all, little, few, much, any, anything, everything, nothing, none, the one时,或者先行 词被all, little, few, much, any,no 修饰时。 2、当先行词是序数词或者最高级时,或他们修饰 的时候。 3、当先行词同时包括人和物时候。 如:Luxun and his works that we are familiar with are considered great.

要点之四
非限制性定语从句中which 和as 的用法区别: 1、which用于句中,as 用多于句首,有时句中。 2、which 理解成“这”;as理解成“正如” 3、as引导的定语从句表示周所周知的事情。 As is known to all, China is a big country. 4、as 常用于一些固定搭配中:as is often the case; as we expected; as often happens; as is known to all; as has been said before; as is mentioned above 等,要求大家记忆并运用。


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