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Grammar and usage
—used as an adjective or adverb
江苏省淮安中学 周立满

一、The -ing form — used as Attribute 形式作定语) (-ing形式作定语) 形式作定语

These female pigs are cloned. So we cloned call them ______pigs
These female pigs are cloned. So we call them that/which are cloned pigs________________

stolen The kidnappers were using a ______car. (steal) mentioned the letter was unknown The name ________in to me.(mention) ( trapped The firemen were rescuing the people _____ in the fire. (trap) Scientific experiments which are carried out by students can be dangerous. carried out Scientific experiments ____________by students can be dangerous.

A few verb-eds before nouns can express past meanings instead of passive meanings.

boiling water

boiled water
fallen trees/ leaves escaped animals a retired president a lost envelope

falling leaves an escaping criminal a retiring president

We can also put an adverb or something else before a verb-ed to form a compound verb-ed form.
广泛运用的技术 训练有素的工人 手写的信件 欠发达地区

a widely-used technique well –trained workers hand-written letters underdeveloped regions

受过良好教育的市民 well-educated citizens 倍受尊敬的教授 a well-respected professor

Rewrite the following sentences with verb-ed form. I think cloning that is done by scientists is dangerous. I think cloning done by scientists is dangerous. The problems that are created by cloning will be clear. The problems created by cloning will be clear.

We don’t want beasts that are created by scientists to replace us one day. We don’t want beasts created by scientists to replace us one day. The only thing that is needed is a cell from your old pet. The only thing needed is a cell from your old pet.

二.The verb-ed form can also be used as predicative of a sentence. eg.
My grandfather was delighted to hear I had passed exams unsettled The problem stayed ______________after 3 days’ discussion. (unsettle) 注意: eg. 注意: get verb+ed.de结构 结构 get paid/injured/hurt…….

As we joined the big crowd I got _________ from my friends. (01全国)( ) 全国)( 全国)(A) A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed

工人们都是按月计酬的 Workers get paid by the month. Mary终于从那次受伤中恢复过来了 终于从那次受伤中恢复过来了 Mary finally got recovered from the injury. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you won’t have time to ______ before the party. (04全国I) 04全国 全国I) A get changed B get change C get changing D get to change We need to further discuss the problem __unsolved. A. remained B. to remain C. remaining D. to be remained

三. The verb-ed form can be used as object complement of a sentence. eg. 1). As he knows very little English, he finds it understood difficult to make himself __________. (understand) had my letter delivered 2). I ________________________ yesterday. (寄信) 寄信) 寄信 3). You must make yourself____ when you heard ____ talk in front of the class. (hear) 4). After the robbery, they found the windows broken ________.(break) 5). You mustn’t make the secret between us known ________to the public. (know)

The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see _______the next year. A.carry out B.carrying out . . C.carried out D.to carry out . . Helen had to shout _____ above the sound of the music. (2004高考广西卷) (2004高考广西卷 高考广西卷) A.making herself hear B. to make herself hear C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard

四. The verb-ed form can be used as adverbial of a sentence to express
1). Time When taken to the hospital, the boy began to cry When he was taken to the hospital, the boy began to cry Seen from the space, the earth looks blue. When it is seen from space, the earth looks blue.

introduce introduced to the market, these When first_____________ products enjoyed great success. introducing When first ____________myself to my parentsin-law, I felt a bit nervous. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when___ at the meeting by my boss. (04全国 ) 全国IV) 全国 A questioning B have questioned C questioned D to be questioned Whenever I am in trouble , I will lock myself questioning alone at home , always _______________myself many whys. (question)

2). Reason Shocked by the article, the woman wrote a letter to the newspaper. Because he was shocked by the article, the woman….. recorded Digitally _________ (record) in the studio, the disc can carry much more information than normal ones. Because it was digitally recorded in the studio, the disc….

B 1). ____ the beauty of nature , the girl ____by from London decided to spend another two days on the farm . (04辽宁) 辽宁) 辽宁 A 2). _______a large number of people, the show was indeed a great success. A.Attracting . B.Attracted . C.To be attracted . D.Having attracted .

3). Condition Treated with electricity, the cell tissue will split into several parts. If it is treated with electricity, the cell tissue will split into several parts. If it is taken three times a day , the medicine will work better. Taken three times a day , the medicine will work better. _____ time, he’ll make a fist-class tennis player. A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given

boring This is so________ a lesson that so many bored students are _______of it. (bore) 相似动词总结: 相似动词总结: tire/disappoint/move/exciting/frustrate/touch satisfy/amaze/convince/encourage/exhaust… …..

an interesting crosstalk 有趣的相声

Because of interesting performances given by Fenggong and Niuqun, I have become interested in crosstalk.

小结: 小结: We use verb-ing forms to describe someone/something that causes certain feelings, and they are usually active in meaning; while we use verb-ed forms to say how we feel about someone or something, and they are usually passive in meaning as they describe how someone/something is affected by an action.

This is an encouraging ____________win over the best team in this region. (encourage) disappointing He was so _____________in this exam that his instructor was ____________.(disappoint) disappointed moved They were all ______________(move) by the touching ____________story. (touch) convincing With so many ________evidences , the police convinced are now _________that he has committed the crime. (convince)

Mr. Smith,_____ of the_____ speech, started to read a novel. (03北京春季) 北京春季) 北京春季 A.tired; boring . C.tired; bored . B.tiring; bored . D.tiring; boring .

六.A verb-ed can follow a verb , such as stand , sit and lie when the two actions are happening at the same time or it can be used on its own or followed by an adjective /adverbial.(伴随状语) 伴随状语) 伴随状语 She lay trapped under the building for three days. She lay there and was trapped . 改写: 改写:The pop-star stood there and was surrounded by his fans for half an hour. The pop-star stood surrounded by his fans for half an hour.

She left the restaurant , disappointed. She left the restaurant and was disappointed. 他度假回家, 他度假回家,累的要死 He arrived back home from vacation, dead tired.

After his journey front abroad, Richard Jones returned home, _____ A.exhausting C. being exhausted B. exhausted D. having exhausted

几个特殊的过去分词的运用: 几个特殊的过去分词的运用: lost /given/dressed/seated lost: I can not find my lost wallet. When he came into my room , I was lost in thought. He is not understood by his friends , so he often sits alone ,feeling extremely lost given:鉴于,考虑到 鉴于, 鉴于 考虑到; 相当于 considering 指定的,规定的 指定的 规定的 Given his health, we will have to send for a doctor. Given more time , I will do the job better. We are to finish the task at the given time

________ the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. (2000北京春季) 北京春季) 北京春季 A.Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given _____ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. (05湖南卷) 湖南卷) 湖南卷 A. Dressed C. Dressing B. To dress D. Having dressed

________ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police (05江苏卷 江苏卷) 江苏卷 A. Having lost C. Being lost B. Lost D. Losing

The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain _____as the plane was making a landing. (04上海春季) 上海春季) 上海春季 A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating



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