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法航447上的事实真相


What Really Happened Aboard Air France 447
Two years after the Airbus 330 plunged into the Atlantic Ocean, Air France 447's flight-data recorders finally turned up. The revelations from the pilot transcript paint a surprising picture of chaos in the cockpit, and confusion between the pilots that led to the crash.

法航 447 上的事实真相
法航 447 的飞行数据记录器终于被发现了, 这距那架空客 330 飞机坠入大西洋已有两年之久。从飞行员纪录中披露出来 的内容构勒出一副场景令人惊讶,驾驶舱里一片混乱,而飞行 员们的困惑导致了坠机的悲剧。
For

more than two years, the disappearance

of Air France Flight 447 over the mid-Atlantic in the early hours of June 1, 2009, remained one of aviation"s great mysteries. How could a technologically state-of-the art airliner simply vanish? 两年多以来, 2009 年 6 月 1 日凌晨时分法航 447 航班在大西洋中部的失踪,已然成为最大的航空迷团

之一。一架代表了当今最新科技的民航客机怎么可能 如此简单地无影无踪? With the wreckage and flight-data recorders lost beneath 2 miles of ocean, experts were forced to speculate using the only data available: a cryptic set of communications beamed automatically from the aircraft to the airline"s maintenance center in France. As PM found in our cover story about the crash, published two years ago this month, the data implied that the plane had fallen afoul of a technical problem—the icing up of air-speed sensors—which in conjunction with severe weather led to a complex "error chain" that ended in a crash and the loss of 228 lives. 由于飞机残骸和飞行数据记录器遗失在 2 英里深 的洋底,专家们被迫利用仅有的数据进行推测:一系 列的从飞机上自动下传到航空公司在法国的维修中心 的编码通讯信息。大众机械在两年前的本月出版的杂 志中有关于此次坠机的要闻报道,其中提到数据显示 飞机受到一个技术问题的困扰—空速感应器上积冰— 这与恶劣的天气有关并导致了一个复杂的“错误链” ,

最终使得飞机坠毁,228 人命丧黄泉。 The matter might have rested there, were it not for the remarkable recovery of AF447"s black boxes this past April. Upon the analysis of their contents, the French accident investigation authority, the BEA, released a report in July that to a large extent verified the initial suppositions. An even fuller picture emerged with the publication of a book in French entitled Erreurs de Pilotage (volume 5), by pilot and aviation writer Jean-Pierre Otelli, which includes the full transcript of the pilots" conversation. 这一事件本可能就此打住,但在本年四月,众所 瞩目的 AF447 的黑匣子修复完成。根据对其中内容 的分析,法国事故调查机构 BEA,在七月发布了一份 报告,其在很大程度上证实了最初的猜想。一位名叫 简·皮埃尔·欧特利的飞行员和航空作家出版了一本 法语书《Erreurs de Pilotage》 ,其中包括了全部的 飞行员谈话记录,由此一个更为完整的画面呈现在你 眼前。 We now understand that, indeed, AF447

passed into clouds associated with a large system of thunderstorms, its speed sensors became iced over, and the autopilot disengaged. In the ensuing confusion, the pilots lost control of the airplane because they reacted incorrectly to the loss of instrumentation and then seemed unable to comprehend the nature of the problems they had caused. Neither weather nor malfunction doomed AF447, nor a complex chain of error, but a simple but persistent mistake on the part of one of the pilots. 我们现在明白了,事实上,AF447 飞进了一个巨 大的包含一系列雷暴的云系中,它的空速传感器被积 冰覆盖,因而自动驾驶仪断开。在随后的混乱中,飞 行员们失去了对飞机的控制,因为他们对于失去的仪 表信息反应失当,此后似乎无法理解他们所遭遇的问 题的性质。导致 AF447 厄运的既不是天气或机械故 障,也不是复杂的错误链,而是一个发生在其中一位 飞行员身上的简单却持续的错误。 Human judgments, of course, are never made in a vacuum. Pilots are part of a complex

system that can either increase or reduce the probability that they will make a mistake. After this accident, the million-dollar question is whether training, instrumentation, and cockpit procedures can be modified all around the world so that no one will ever make this mistake again—or whether the inclusion of the human element will always entail the possibility of a catastrophic outcome. After all, the men who crashed AF447 were three highly trained pilots flying for one of the most prestigious fleets in the world. If they could fly a perfectly good plane into the ocean, then what airline could plausibly say, "Our pilots would never do that"? 人的判断,当然从来都不是在真空中做出的。飞 行员作为一个复杂系统的一部分,可能增加也可能降 低他们犯错的可能性。在此事故之后,一个极具价值 的问题是,世界范围内的训练,仪表和驾驶舱程序是 否能够被修改,使得没有人再重蹈覆辙—抑或人的因 素必然导致了灾难性事故的可能。毕竟,使得 AF447 坠毁的是三位接受了高度训练的飞行员,所属的又是

世界上最具声望的飞行队。如果他们都使得一架如此 完美的飞机坠入重洋,那么又有哪个航空公司的人敢 大言不惭: “我们的飞行员决不会那么干”? Here is a synopsis of what occurred during the course of the doomed airliner"s final few minutes. ____ 这里提供的事件概要就发生在这趟厄运航班的最 后几分钟里。 At 1h 36m, the flight enters the outer extremities of a tropical storm system. Unlike other planes" crews flying through the region, AF447"s flight crew has not changed the route to avoid the worst of the storms. The outside temperature is much warmer than forecast, preventing the still fuel-heavy aircraft from flying higher to avoid the effects of the weather. Instead, it ploughs into a layer of clouds. 在 1 点 36 分,飞机进入了一个热带风暴系统的 外围边域。不象其他的飞行机组选择绕飞这一区域, AF447 的飞行机组没有改变航路来避开最糟糕的风

暴区。外界气温比预报的要高一些,使得仍然满载燃 油的飞机无法爬升得更高来避开天气的影响。继而, 它一头扎进了无边的云层之中。 At 1h51m, the cockpit becomes illuminated by a strange electrical phenomenon. The co-pilot in the right-hand seat, an inexperienced 32-year-old named Pierre-Cédric Bonin, asks, "What"s that?" The captain, Marc Dubois, a veteran with more than 11,000 hours of flight time, tells him it is St. Elmo"s fire, a phenomenon often found with thunderstorms at these latitudes. 在 1 点 51 分,一个异常的放电现象照亮了驾驶 舱。 ‘那是什么?’ ‘ ’右座副驾驶员问,他名叫皮埃 尔· 塞得里克· 伯宁, 岁, 32 资历较浅。 机长马克· 杜 波依斯,一个有着 11000 小时飞行经历的老把式, 告诉他那是圣艾尔摩之火,一种在这一纬度的雷暴云 中常见的物理现象。 At approximately 2 am, the other co-pilot, David Robert, returns to the cockpit after a rest break. At 37, Robert is both older and more experienced than Bonin, with more than

double his colleague"s total flight hours. The head pilot gets up and gives him the left-hand seat. Despite the gap in seniority and experience, the captain leaves Bonin in charge of the controls. 在接近 2 点的时候,另一位副驾驶员,大卫·罗 伯特, 在休息了一会儿后回到驾驶舱。 罗伯特 37 岁, 比伯宁年长且经验更为丰富,飞行时间两倍于他的同 事。机长于是起身让出左座。尽管在资历和经验上存 在明显差距,机长还是让伯宁来主操纵。 At 2:02 am, the captain leaves the flight deck to take a nap. Within 15 minutes, everyone aboard the plane will be dead.] 在 2 点 02 分,机长离开驾驶舱打算小睡片刻。 其后不过 15 分钟,机上所有的人全部蒙难。 02:03:44 (Bonin) La convergence inter

tropicale… voilà, là on est dedans, entre "Salpu" et "Tasil." Et puis, voilà, on est en plein dedans… The inter-tropical convergence... look, we"re in it, between "Salpu" and "Tasil." And then, look, we"re right in it...

02:03:44(伯宁)热带辐合…看,我们就在里面, 在“SALPU”和“TASIL”之间。而且,看,我们恰 好在其中… The intertropical convergence, or ITC, is an area of consistently severe weather near the equator. As is often the case, it has spawned a string of very large thunderstorms, some of which stretch into the stratosphere. Unlike some of the other planes"s crews flying in the region this evening, the crew of AF447 has not studied the pattern of storms and requested a divergence around the area of most intense activity. (Salpu and Tasil are two air-traffic-position reporting points.) 热带辐合,缩写 ITC, 是一个赤道附近包涵连续性 恶劣天气的区域。有如往常一样,它已经产生了一连 串的异常高大的雷暴云,其中有些甚至伸展进了平流 层。 和今晚的其他一些在此区域飞行的航班机组不同, A447 的机组没有仔细研究过风暴图,因而未能申请 绕 飞 来 避 开 最 强 烈 的 天 气 活 动 区 域 。 SAPUL 和 ( TASIL 是两个空中交通位置报告点。 ) 02:05:55 (Robert) Oui, on va les appeler

derrière... pour leur dire quand même parce que... Yes, let"s call them in the back, to let them know... 02:05:55(罗伯特)是的,让我们给后舱打个铃, 告诉她们一声… Robert pushes the call button. 罗伯特按了呼叫按钮。 02:05:59 (flight attendant, heard on the intercom) Oui? Marilyn. Yes? Marilyn. 02:05:09(接听内话的乘务员)有什么事吗?我是 玛丽莲。 02:06:04 (Bonin) Oui, Marilyn, c"est Pierre devant... Dis-moi, dans deux minutes, on devrait attaquer une zone où ?a devrait bouger un peu plus que maintenant. Il faudrait vous méfier là. Yes, Marilyn, it"s Pierre up front... Listen, in 2 minutes, we"re going to be getting into an area where things are going to be moving around a little bit more than now. You"ll want

to take care. 02:06:04(伯宁)是的,玛丽莲,我是前头的皮埃 尔…听着,2 分钟后,我们会飞进一块天气区,周围 的物件可能会活动地比现在更厉害一些。你得留点儿 神… 02:06:13 (flight attendant) D"accord, on s"assoit alors? Okay, we should sit down then? 02:06:13(乘务员)好的,那么我们得坐下喽? 02:06:15 (Bonin) Bon, je pense que ce serait pas mal… tu préviens les copains! Well, I think that"s not a bad idea. Give your friends a heads-up. 02:06:13(伯宁)嗯,我觉得这个主意不坏。给你 的伙伴们提个醒。 02:06:18 (flight attendant) Ouais, OK,

j"appelle les autres derrière. Merci beaucoup. Yeah, okay, I"ll tell the others in the back. Thanks a lot. 02:06:19(乘务员)是,好的。我会告诉后面其他 的人。非常感谢。 02:06:19 (Bonin) Mais je te rappelle dès

qu"on est sorti de là. I"ll call you back as soon as we"re out of it. 02:06:19(伯宁)一旦飞出这块区域我就给你回电 话。 02:06:20 (flight attendant) OK. Okay. 02:06:20(乘务员)好的 The two copilots discuss the unusually

elevated external temperature, which has prevented them from climbing to their desired altitude, and express happiness that they are flying an Airbus 330, which has better performance at altitude than an Airbus 340. 两个副驾驶员先是讨论了一会机外异常升高的气 温,这已经妨碍了他们爬升到所期望的高度层,然后 又表达了对于他们正在驾驶的空客 330 的喜爱, 它在 高度爬升方面的性能比空客 340 好得多。 02:06:50 (Bonin) Va pour les anti-ice. C"est toujours ?a de pris. Let"s go for the anti-icing system. It"s better than nothing. 02:06:50(伯宁)让我们接通防冰系统吧,总比什

么也没有要强啊。 Because they are flying through clouds, the pilots turn on the anti-icing system to try to keep ice off the flight surfaces; ice reduces the plane"s aerodynamic efficiency, weighs it down, and in extreme cases, can cause it to crash. 因为他们在云中飞行,飞行员们接通了防冰系统 来试图清除飞行操纵面上的积冰;积冰会降低飞机的 空气动力效能,使其负重,并且在极端情况下,可能 导致坠机。 02:07:00 (Bonin) On est apparemment à la limite de la couche, ?a devrait aller. We seem to be at the end of the cloud layer, it might be okay. 02:07:00(伯宁)我们似乎处在云层的尽头了,天 气可能要好了。 In the meantime Robert has been examining the radar system and has found that it has not been set up in the correct mode. Changing the settings, he scrutinizes the radar map and realizes that they are headed directly toward

an area of intense activity. 与此同时罗伯特一直在检查雷达系统并且发现它 没有被设置在正确的模式。改变了设置后,他仔细检 察了雷达显示,发现他们正对着一个天气活动密集区 飞去。 02:08:03 (Robert) Tu peux éventuellement le tirer un peu à gauche. You can possibly pull it a little to the left. 02:08:03(罗伯特)你可能得往左转一点儿。 02:08:05 (Bonin) Excuse-moi? Sorry, what? 02:08:05(伯宁)对不起,什么? 02:08:07 (Robert) Tu peux éventuellement prendre un peu à gauche. On est d"accord qu"on est en manuel, hein? You can possibly pull it a little to the left. We"re agreed that we"re in manual, yeah? 02:08:07(罗伯特)你可能得往左转一点儿。我们 得说现在是人工选择模式对吧? Bonin wordlessly banks the plane to the left. Suddenly, a strange aroma, like an electrical transformer, floods the cockpit, and the

temperature suddenly increases. At first, the younger pilot thinks that something is wrong with the air-conditioning system, but Robert assures him that the effect is from the severe weather in the vicinity. Bonin seems ill at ease. Then the sound of slipstream suddenly becomes louder. This, presumably, is due to the accumulation of ice crystals on the exterior of the fuselage. Bonin announces that he is going to reduce the speed of the aircraft, and asks Robert if he should turn on a feature that will prevent the jet engines from flaming out in the event of severe icing. 伯宁没再说什么,让飞机向左转弯。突然,一种奇怪 的气味,似乎是变压器的,弥漫了整个驾驶舱,温度 也突然上升。一开始,年轻的飞行员认为是空调系统 有问题,但是罗伯特向他保证那是附近的恶劣天气造 成的。伯宁似乎有点心神不宁。然后摩擦气流声突然 变大。 这个据推测是由于积冰在机身外表面积聚所致。 伯宁宣称他要降低飞机空速,然后问罗伯特他是否应 该打开一个功能来防止喷气发动机在这种严重积冰情 况下熄火。

Just then an alarm sounds for 2.2 seconds, indicating that the autopilot is disconnecting. The cause is the fact that the plane"s pitot tubes, externally mounted sensors that determine air speed, have iced over, so the human pilots will now have to fly the plane by hand. 就在这时警告铃声响了 2.2 秒,指示自动驾驶仪 脱开了。原因实际上是飞机的皮托管,一种用来探测 空速的机外安装的传感器,被积冰堵塞了。所以飞行 员们现在必须手动驾驶飞机。 Note, however, that the plane has suffered no mechanical malfunction. Aside from the loss of airspeed indication, everything is working fine. Otelli reports that many airline pilots (and, indeed, he himself) subsequently flew a simulation of the flight from this point and were able to do so without any trouble. But neither Bonin nor Roberts has ever received training in how to deal with an unreliable airspeed indicator at cruise altitude, or in flying the airplane by hand under such

conditions. 但是值得注意的是, 此时飞机没有遭遇机械故障。 除了失去空速指示以外,其他一切工作良好。欧特利 的报告称许多航线飞行员(也包括他自己)在事发后 都进行过这种情况的模拟飞行而且做起来没有任何问 题。但是不管伯宁还是罗伯特都没有接受过如何处置 在巡航高度的不可靠空速指示的训练,或者在这种情 况下手动驾驶过飞机。 02:10:06 (Bonin) J"ai les commandes. I have the controls. 02:10:06(伯宁)我来操纵。 02:10:07 (Robert) D"accord. Okay. 02:10:06(罗伯特)好的。 Perhaps spooked by everything that has unfolded over the past few minutes—the turbulence, the strange electrical phenomena, his colleague"s failure to route around the potentially dangerous storm—Bonin reacts irrationally. He pulls back on the side stick to put the airplane into a steep climb, despite having recently discussed the fact that the

plane could not safely ascend due to the unusually high external temperature. 短短几分钟内接二连三的事件也许已绷紧了他的 神经-颠簸,奇怪的放电现象,他的同事没能从潜藏 着的危险的雷暴中绕飞出来-伯宁非理性地做出反应。 他把侧杆后拉到底让飞机进入陡升,完全不顾之前刚 刚讨论过的飞机由于外界温度过高而不能安全爬升的 事实。 Bonin"s behavior is difficult for professional aviators to understand. "If he"s going straight and level and he"s got no airspeed, I don"t know why he"d pull back," says Chris Nutter, an airline pilot and flight instructor. "The logical thing to do would be to cross-check"—that is, compare the pilot"s airspeed indicator with the co-pilot"s and with other instrument readings, such as groundspeed, altitude, engine settings, and rate of climb. In such a situation, "we go through an iterative assessment and evaluation process," Nutter explains, before engaging in any manipulation of the controls.

"Apparently that didn"t happen." 伯宁的表现对于职业飞行员来说很难理解。 如果 “ 说他在平直飞行中而又失去空速显示,我搞不懂为什 么他要向后带杆, ”克里斯·纳特尔说,他是一位航线 飞行员兼飞行教员。 “这时合理的处置应当是交插检 查, -也就是说, ” 用把杆飞行员一侧的空速指示同不 把杆飞行员的以及其他的仪表显示, 例如地速, 高度, 发动机参数和升降速率等。 在这种情况下, “我们会有 一个反复比较和评估的过程, 纳特尔解释说, ” 那是在 操纵装置上采取任何操纵动作之前。 很明显这些没能 “ 发生。 ” Almost as soon as Bonin pulls up into a climb, the plane"s computer reacts. A warning chime alerts the cockpit to the fact that they are leaving their programmed altitude. Then the stall warning sounds. This is a synthesized human voice that repeatedly calls out, "Stall!" in English, followed by a loud and intentionally annoying sound called a "cricket." A stall is a potentially dangerous situation that can result from flying too slowly. At a critical speed, a wing suddenly becomes much less effective at

generating lift, and a plane can plunge precipitously. All pilots are trained to push the controls forward when they"re at risk of a stall so the plane will dive and gain speed. 几乎在伯宁拉杆爬升的同时,飞机的计算机作出 了反应。一个警告谐音在驾驶舱响起,提示他们已经 离开了设定的高度。然后失速警告响了起来。这是一 种人工合成的声音以英语反复呼叫, “失速!, ” 其后还 伴随着一种响高而且有意扰人的“咔嚓”声。失速是 一种濒临危险的状态,在飞行速度过慢时可能导致。 在这个临界的速度下,机翼在产生升力方面突然显著 失效,飞机陡然间下坠。当遭遇失速风险时,所有的 飞行员都接受过训练要推杆以使飞机低头俯冲来获得 空速。 The Airbus"s stall alarm is designed to be impossible to ignore. Yet for the duration of the flight, none of the pilots will mention it, or acknowledge the possibility that the plane has indeed stalled—even though the word "Stall!" will blare through the cockpit 75 times. Throughout, Bonin will keep pulling back on the stick, the exact opposite of what he must

do to recover from the stall. 空客飞机的失速警告被设计得不可能被忽视。然 而在整个飞行过程中,没有一个飞行员提及它,或者 认识到飞机确已失速的可能性-即使刺耳的“失速! ” 声在驾驶舱里呼叫了 75 次之多。自始至终,伯宁一 直保持着后拉侧杆,这和他要从失速中改出而应当采 取的动作恰恰相反。 02:10:07 (Robert) Qu"est-ce que c"est que ?a? What"s this? 02:10:07(罗伯特)怎么了? 02:10:15 (Bonin) On n"a pas une bonne… On n"a pas une bonne annonce de vitesse. There"s no good... there"s no good speed indication. 02:10:15(伯宁)没有正确的…没有正确的速度指 示。 02:10:16 (Robert) On a perdu les, les, les vitesses alors? We"ve lost the, the, the speeds, then? 02:10:16(罗伯特)我们失去了那个,那个,那个 速度了,嗯? The plane is soon climbing at a blistering rate

of 7000 feet per minute. While it is gaining altitude, it is losing speed, until it is crawling along at only 93 knots, a speed more typical of a small Cessna than an airliner. Robert notices Bonin"s error and tries to correct him. 飞机正在以 7000 英尺每分钟的强劲速率快速爬 升。在它获得高度的同时,也失去了速度,到后来它 只以 93 节的龟速爬行,这是小赛斯纳飞机的典型速 度而非一架民航客机。罗伯特注意到伯宁的错误然后 试图纠正他。 02:10:27 (Robert) Faites attention à ta vitesse. Faites attention à ta vitesse. Pay attention to your speed. Pay attention to your speed. 02:10:27 (罗伯特) 注意你的速度。 注意你的速度。 He is probably referring to the plane"s vertical speed. They are still climbing. 他可能指的是飞机的垂直速度。他们仍然在爬升。 02:10:28 (Bonin) OK, OK, je redescends. Okay, okay, I"m descending. 02:10:28(伯宁)好的,好的,我这就下降。 02:10:30 (Robert) Tu stabilises...

Stabilize… 02:10:30(罗伯特)稳住… 02:10:31 (Bonin) Ouais. Yeah. 02:10:31(伯宁)是。 02:10:31 (Robert) Tu redescends... On est en train de monter selon lui… Selon lui, tu montes, donc tu redescends. Descend... It says we"re going up... It says we"re going up, so descend. 02:10:31(罗伯特)下降…它指示我们在上升…它 指示我们在上升,所以得下降。 02:10:35 (Bonin) D"accord. Okay. 02:10:35(伯宁)好的。 Thanks to the effects of the anti-icing system, one of the pitot tubes begins to work again. The cockpit displays once again show valid speed information. 由于防冰系统的作用,一个皮脱管开始重新工作。驾 驶舱的显示器再次指示了有效的速度信息。 02:10:36 (Robert) Redescends!

Descend! 02:10:36(罗伯特)下降! 02:10:37 (Bonin) C"est parti, on redescend. Here we go, we"re descending. 02:10:37(伯宁)这就好,我们正在下降。 02:10:38 (Robert) Doucement! Gently! 02:10:38(罗伯特)柔和点!

Bonin eases the back pressure on the stick, and the plane gains speed as its climb becomes more shallow. It accelerates to 223 knots. The stall warning falls silent. For a moment, the co-pilots are in control of the airplane. 伯宁稳杆放松了一些侧杆上的后拉力,而后因为 爬升梯度变缓飞机增速。它一直加速到 223 节。失速 警告声消失了。在这一瞬间,副驾驶员们控制住了飞 机。 02:10:41(Bonin) On est en… ouais, on est en "climb." We"re... yeah, we"re in a climb.

02:10:41(伯宁)我们在…是的,我们在爬升。 Yet, still, Bonin does not lower the nose. Recognizing the urgency of the situation, Robert pushes a button to summon the captain. 的确,伯宁仍然没有放低机头。意识到情况紧急,罗 伯特按下呼唤铃呼叫机长。 02:10:49 (Robert) Putain, il est où... euh? Damn it, where is he? 02:10:49(罗伯特)该死的,他在哪里? The plane has climbed to 2512 feet above its initial altitude, and though it is still ascending at a dangerously high rate, it is flying within its acceptable envelope. But for reasons unknown, Bonin once again increases his back pressure on the stick, raising the nose of the plane and bleeding off speed. Again, the stall alarm begins to sound. 飞机已经比当初的高度爬高了 2512 英尺,而且 尽管它仍在以一个危险的大速率上升,它还是在其可 接受的包线内飞行。但是不知是什么原因,伯宁再一 次增加侧杆上的后拉力,拉起机头而飞机掉速度。失

速警告再次响起。 Still, the pilots continue to ignore it, and the reason may be that they believe it is impossible for them to stall the airplane. It"s not an entirely unreasonable idea: The Airbus is a fly-by-wire plane; the control inputs are not fed directly to the control surfaces, but to a computer, which then in turn commands actuators that move the ailerons, rudder, elevator, and flaps. The vast majority of the time, the computer operates within what"s known as normal law, which means that the computer will not enact any control movements that would cause the plane to leave its flight envelope. "You can"t stall the airplane in normal law," says Godfrey Camilleri, a flight instructor who teaches Airbus 330 systems to US Airways pilots. 同样的,飞行员们继续对此视而不见,而原因可 能在于他们确信对他们来说使飞机失速是不可能的事。 这并非一个完全荒唐的看法:空客是一种电传飞机; 操纵输入不是直接传递给操纵面, 而是先通过计算机,

再由它发送指令给作动筒来作动副翼,方向舵,升降 舵和襟翼。绝大多数的时间,计算机是以正常法则的 方式工作,这意味着计算机不会做出可能使飞机超出 其飞行包线的动作。 “正常法则下你不可能使飞机失 速, ”戈弗雷·卡米莱利说,他是一位飞行教员,负责 给合众国航空的飞行员们教授空客 330 的飞机系统。 But once the computer lost its airspeed data, it disconnected the autopilot and switched from normal law to "alternate law," a regime with far fewer restrictions on what a pilot can do. "Once you"re in alternate law, you can stall the airplane," Camilleri says. 然而一旦计算机失去了空速数据,它就得断开自 动驾驶仪并从正常法则转换到备用法则,这种模式下 飞行员操纵动作的限制保护要少得多。 一旦你处在备 “ 用法则下,你就有可能使飞机失速, ”卡米莱利说。 It"s quite possible that Bonin had never flown an airplane in alternate law, or understood its lack of restrictions. According to Camilleri, not one of US Airway"s 17 Airbus 330s has ever been in alternate law. Therefore, Bonin may have assumed that the stall warning was

spurious because he didn"t realize that the plane could remove its own restrictions against stalling and, indeed, had done so. 很有可能伯宁从未驾驶过处在备用法则下飞机, 或者真正懂得其保护功能的缺失。按照卡米莱利的说 法,合众国航空公司的 17 架空客 330 飞机没有一架 曾经遇到过备用法则的情况。因而,伯宁大概以为失 速警告只是个假信号,他没有意识到飞机会失去对于 失速的保护,而事实上的确如此。 02:10:55 (Robert) Putain! Damn it! 02:10:55(罗伯特)该死! Another of the pitot tubes begins to function once more. The cockpit"s avionics are now all functioning normally. The flight crew has all the information that they need to fly safely, and all the systems are fully functional. The problems that occur from this point forward are entirely due to human error. 又一只皮脱管再次恢复工作。驾驶舱的电子仪表 现在全部工作正常。飞行机组现在拥有他们安全飞行 所需要的全部信息,而且所有的系统工作完全正常。

从这一刻开始所发生的问题全部出于人为错误。 02:11:03 (Bonin) Je suis en TOGA, hein? I"m in TOGA, huh? 02:11:03(伯宁)我用了 TOGA 推力,啊?

Bonin"s

statement

here

offers

a

crucial

window onto his reasoning. TOGA is an acronym for Take Off, Go Around. When a plane is taking off or aborting a landing—"going around"—it must gain both speed and altitude as efficiently as possible. At this critical phase of flight, pilots are trained to increase engine speed to the TOGA level and raise the nose to a certain pitch angle. 伯宁的这段话提供了一个重要的窗口来瞥见他的 想法。TOGA 是起飞复飞的英文缩写。当一架飞机在 起飞或者中断落地—复飞—它必须尽可能高效地同时 获得速度和高度。在飞行的这一临界阶段,飞行员接 受的训练是增加发动机推力到 TOGA 水平而且拉升 机头到一个特定的俯仰角。 Clearly, here Bonin is trying to achieve the same effect: He wants to increase speed and

to climb away from danger. But he is not at sea level; he is in the far thinner air of 37,500 feet. The engines generate less thrust here, and the wings generate less lift. Raising the nose to a certain angle of pitch does not result in the same angle of climb, but far less. Indeed, it can—and will—result in a descent. 很明显,此时伯宁在试图得到相同的效果:他想 增加速度并且爬高来远离危险。但是他不是在海平面 高度;他所处的是空气稀薄的 37,500 英尺高空。在 这个高度上发动机产生的推力要少得多,而机翼产生 的升力也少得多。拉升机头到特定仰角的做法没有得 到相同的爬升角,而是要小得多。事实上,它可能- 而且即将-进入下降。 While Bonin"s behavior is irrational, it is not inexplicable. Intense psychological stress tends to shut down the part of the brain responsible for innovative, creative thought. Instead, we tend to revert to the familiar and the well-rehearsed. Though pilots are required to practice hand-flying their aircraft during all phases of flight as part of recurrent training, in

their daily routine they do most of their hand-flying at low altitude—while taking off, landing, and maneuvering. It"s not surprising, then, that amid the frightening disorientation of the thunderstorm, Bonin reverted to flying the plane as if it had been close to the ground, even though this response was totally ill-suited to the situation. 伯宁的表现是非理性的,但不是无法解释的。过 大的心理压力会试图切断大脑中负责接受新事物和创 造性思维的那部分功能。取而代之的是,我们倾向于 返回到熟悉的和曾经反复演练过的场景中。尽管作为 复训的一部分,飞行员们被要求练习在所有的飞行阶 段手动驾驶飞机,但在他们的日常飞行中他们的大部 分的手动飞行却是在低高度的-在起飞,落地和机动 飞行中。这也就无怪身处令人惊恐的不辩东西的雷暴 云中,伯宁恍恍然地回到近地高度时的操纵方式来驾 驶飞机, 但是这种反应在这种情境下是完全不合适的。 02:11:06 (Robert) Putain, il vient ou il vient pas? Damn it, is he coming or not? 02:11:06(罗伯特)该死的,他来了没有?

The plane now reaches its maximum altitude. With engines at full power, the nose pitched upward at an angle of 18 degrees, it moves horizontally for an instant and then begins to sink back toward the ocean. 飞机现在爬到了它的最大高度。 发动机开足马力, 机头上仰到 18 度,它平飞了一会儿然后开始向大洋 跌落。 02:11:21 (Robert) On a pourtant les moteurs! Qu"est-ce qui se passe bordel? Je ne comprends pas ce que se passe. We still have the engines! What the hell is happening? happening. 02:11:21(罗伯特)我们仍然有发动机!这到底发 生了什么?我不明白发生了什么。 Unlike the control yokes of a Boeing jetliner, the side sticks on an is, Airbus they are move "asynchronous"—that I don"t understand what"s

independently. "If the person in the right seat is pulling back on the joystick, the person in the left seat doesn"t feel it," says Dr. David

Esser, a professor of aeronautical science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. "Their stick doesn"t move just because the other one does, unlike the old-fashioned mechanical systems like you find in small planes, where if you turn one, the [other] one turns the same way." Robert has no idea that, despite their conversation about descending, Bonin has continued to pull back on the side stick. 和波音客机上的驾驶盘不同, 空客上的侧杆是 “非 同步的”-也就是说,它们独立操作。 “即使右座的人 正在后拉操纵杆, 左座的人也是感觉不到的,大卫· ” 埃 瑟博士说,他是安柏瑞德航空航天大学的航空科学教 授。 “他们的侧杆不会由于另一侧的动作而移动, 不同 于你在小飞机上见到过的传统机械系统,你转动其中 一个, 另一边也在以相同的方式偏转。 罗伯特不知道, ” 尽管他们的谈话是关于下降的,伯宁却仍然继续后拉 着侧杆。 The men are utterly failing to engage in an important process known as crew resource management, or CRM. They are failing, essentially, to cooperate. It is not clear to

either one of them who is responsible for what, and who is doing what. This is a natural result of having two co-pilots flying the plane. "When you have a captain and a first officer in the cockpit, it"s clear who"s in charge," Nutter explains. "The captain has command authority. He"s legally responsible for the safety of the flight. When you put two first officers up front, it changes things. You don"t have the sort of traditional discipline imposed on the flight deck when you have a captain." 这些人在参与一个重要进程方面彻底失败,所谓 机组资源管理, 或者叫 CRM。 他们基本上没有合作可 言。对于他们之中谁来负责什么,以及谁来做什么是 不明确的。当由两名副驾驶员来驾驶飞机时这是一种 自然的结果。 当你有一位机长和一位副驾驶员在驾驶 “ 舱时,谁来负责是很明确的, ”纳特尔解释道。 “机长 拥有决定权。他对飞行安全负法律责任。当你把两个 副驾驶员放在前面,情境发生了变化。你不再拥有那 种有机长在时的施加于驾驶舱里的传统秩序了。 ” The vertical speed toward the ocean

accelerates. If Bonin were to let go of the

controls, the nose would fall and the plane would regain forward speed. But because he is holding the stick all the way back, the nose remains high and the plane has barely enough forward speed for the controls to be effective. As turbulence continues to buffet the plane, it is nearly impossible to keep the wings level. 往大洋坠落的垂直速率不断增加。如果伯宁松开 控制杆的话,机头将会下俯而飞机将会重新获得向前 的速度。但是因为他一直把侧杆后拽到底,机头高高 仰起,所以飞机完全没有足够的向前的速度来使操纵 面有效工作。由于颠簸持续不断地冲击飞机,保持机 翼水平几乎是不可能的事。 02:11:32 (Bonin) Putain, j"ai plus le contr?le de l"avion, là! J"ai plus le contr?le de l"avion! Damn it, I don"t have control of the plane, I don"t have control of the plane at all! 02:11:32(伯宁)该死的,我控制不了飞机了,我 完全控制不了飞机了! 02:11:37 (Robert) Commandes à gauche! Left seat taking control! 02:11:37(罗伯特)左座来操纵!

At last, the more senior of the pilots (and the one who seems to have a somewhat better grasp of the situation) now takes control of the airplane. Unfortunately, he, too, seems unaware of the fact that the plane is now stalled, and pulls back on the stick as well. Although the plane"s nose is pitched up, it is descending at a 40-degree angle. The stall warning continues to sound. At any rate, Bonin soon after takes back the controls. 终于,资历更深的飞行员(也是对此情境意识的 把握更好一些的那位)现在接管了飞机的操纵。不幸 的是, 他似乎也没有意识到飞机现在已经失速的事实, 并且也是在后拉侧杆。 尽管飞机机头上仰, 它却以 40 度的角度向下俯冲。失速警告继续响着。其结果是, 伯宁很快又接管了操纵。 A minute and a half after the crisis began, the captain returns to the cockpit. The stall warning continues to blare. 灾难开始后的一分半钟,机长返回了驾驶舱。失 速警告声持续发出刺耳的声音。 02:11:43 (Captain) Eh… Qu"est-ce que vous

foutez? What the hell are you doing? 02:11:43(机长)你们到底在干什么? 02:11:45 (Bonin) On perd le contr?le de l"avion, là! We"ve lost control of the plane! 02:11:45(伯宁)我们无法控制飞机了! 02:11:47 (Robert) On a totalement perdu le contr?le de l"avion... On comprend rien... On a tout tenté... We"ve totally lost control of the plane. We don"t understand at all... We"ve tried everything. 02:11:47 (罗伯特) 我们完全失去了对飞机的控制。 我们一点儿也搞不懂…我们什么都试过了。 By now the plane has returned to its initial altitude but is falling fast. With its nose pitched 15 degrees up, and a forward speed of 100 knots, it is descending at a rate of 10,000 feet per minute, at an angle of 41.5 degrees. It will maintain this attitude with little variation all the way to the sea. Though the pitot tubes are

now fully functional, the forward airspeed is so low—below 60 knots—that the angle-of-attack inputs are no longer accepted as valid, and the stall-warning horn temporarily stops. This may give the pilots the impression that their situation is improving, when in fact it signals just the reverse. 到目前为止飞机已经回到了它最初时的高度但是 下坠得很快。带着 15 度的机头仰角和 100 节的前进 速度,它正在以 10,000 英尺每分钟的速率下降,下 降角达到 41.5 度。它就保持着与此差不多的姿态一 路坠入海中。尽管皮脱管现在是完全工作的,但是向 前的空速太低了-不到 60 节-以至于测量出的迎角 被认为是无效的,因而失速警告声暂时停止了。这可 能给飞行员们一种他们的处境正在改善的印象,但事 实上其中意味恰恰相反。 Another of the revelations of Otelli"s transcript is that the captain of the flight makes no attempt to physically take control of the airplane. Had Dubois done so, he almost certainly would have understood, as a pilot with many hours flying light airplanes, the

insanity of pulling back on the controls while stalled. But instead, he takes a seat behind the other two pilots. 奥特利的纪录中还披露了这个航班的机长没有尝 试亲自接管操纵飞机。假如说杜波依斯这样做的话, , 十有八九他一下子就能明白是怎么回事,对于一位有 着极丰富轻型飞机飞行经验的飞行员来说,在飞机失 速时后拉操纵杆是何其愚蠢。但是没有,他在另外两 位飞行员的后面的位子上坐了下来。 This, experts say, is not so hard to understand. "They were probably experiencing some pretty wild gyrations," Esser says. "In a condition like that, he might not necessarily want to make the situation worse by having one of the crew members actually disengage and stand up. He was probably in a better position to observe and give his commands from the seat behind." 对于这点, 专家们认为不难理解。 “他们可能正在 经历某种相当强烈的旋转, 埃瑟说。 在那种情况下, ” “ 他可能不想因为让其中一名机组成员下座起身而使情 况更糟。他可能处在一个更适于观察的位置并从后座 发出指令。 ”

But from his seat, Dubois is unable to infer from the instrument displays in front of him why the plane is behaving as it is. The critical missing piece of information: the fact that someone has been holding the controls all the way back for virtually the entire time. No one has told Dubois, and he hasn"t thought to ask. 但是从他的位子,杜波依斯无法从他面前的仪表 显示中推断出飞机何以表现如此。那个关键的被错过 的信息是:在几乎全部时间里有人把操纵杆一直后拉 到底的事实。没有人告诉杜波依斯,而他也没有想过 要问。 02:12:14 (Robert) Qu"est-ce que tu en penses? Qu"est-ce que tu en penses? Qu"est-ce qu"il faut faire? What do you think? What do you think? What should we do? 02:12:14(罗伯特)你怎么认为?你怎么想?我们 应该怎么做? 02:12:15 (Captain) Alors, là, je ne sais pas! Well, I don"t know! 02:12:15(机长)噢,我不知道!

As the stall warning continues to blare, the three pilots discuss the situation with no hint of understanding the nature of their problem. No one mentions the word "stall." As the plane is buffeted by turbulence, the captain urges Bonin to level the wings—advice that does nothing to address their main problem. The men briefly discuss, incredibly, whether they are in fact climbing or descending, before agreeing that they are indeed descending. As the plane approaches 10,000 feet, Robert tries to take back the controls, and pushes forward on the stick, but the plane is in "dual input" mode, and so the system averages his inputs with those of Bonin, who continues to pull back. The nose remains high. 失速的警告声响个不停,三位飞行员讨论了一下 这种情况但对问题的本质毫无头绪。没有人提到“失 速”这个词。由于飞机受到颠簸的冲击,机长催促伯 宁改平机翼—这个建议对于解决他们的主要问题来说 毫无用处。令人难以置信的是,几个人简短地讨论了 飞机到底是在爬升还是在下降,然后才得出结论他们

的确是在下降。当飞机接近 10,000 英尺的时候,罗 伯特试着接管操纵并且前推侧杆,但是飞机处于“双 操纵”模式,因而系统中和了他与伯宁的操作,后者 则持续带杆。机头仍旧高高仰着。 02:13:40 (Robert) Remonte... remonte...

remonte... remonte... Climb... climb... climb... climb... 02:13:40(罗伯特)爬升…爬升…爬升…爬升… 02:13:40 (Bonin) Mais je suis à fond à cabrer depuis tout à l"heure! But I"ve had the stick back the whole time! 02:13:40(伯宁)但是我一直拉着杆呀! At last, Bonin tells the others the crucial fact whose import he has so grievously failed to understand himself. 终于,伯宁告诉了其他人这个至关重要的事实, 其中意义他自己却一片迷惘。 02:13:42 (Captain) Non, non, non... Ne remonte pas... non, non. No, no, no... Don"t climb... no, no. 02:13:42(机长)不,不,不…不要爬升…不,不。 02:13:43 (Robert) Alors descends... Alors,

donne-moi commandes!

les

commandes...

à

moi

les

Descend, then... Give me the controls... Give me the controls! 02:13:43(罗伯特)下降,然后…我来操纵…我来 操纵! Bonin yields the controls, and Robert finally puts the nose down. The plane begins to regain speed. But it is still descending at a precipitous angle. As they near 2000 feet, the aircraft"s sensors detect the fast-approaching surface and trigger a new alarm. There is no time left to build up speed by pushing the plane"s nose forward into a dive. At any rate, without warning his colleagues, Bonin once again takes back the controls and pulls his side stick all the way back. 伯宁放开操纵杆,而罗伯特终于推低了机头。飞 机开始获得速度。但是它仍在以极陡的角度下坠。在 他们接近 2000 英尺的时候,飞机的传感器探测到过 大的近地接近率从而引发了一个新的警告。已经没有 时间通过前推机头俯冲来建立速度了。结果,伯宁在

没有向他的同事示警的情况下,又一次地接管操纵并 把他那一侧的侧杆后拉到底。 02:14:23 (Robert) Putain, on va taper... C"est pas vrai! Damn it, we"re going to crash... This can"t be happening! 02:14:23(罗伯特)该死的,我们就要坠毁了…这 不可能发生的! 02:14:25 (Bonin) Mais qu"est-ce que se passe? But what"s happening? 02:14:25(伯宁)但是发生了什么事? 02:14:27 (Captain) 10 degrès d"assiette... Ten degrees of pitch... 02:14:27(机长)仰角 10 度… Exactly 1.4 seconds later, the cockpit voice recorder stops. 恰恰 1.4 秒后,驾驶舱语音记录器停止工作。 ___ Today the Air France 447 transcripts yield information that may ensure that no airline pilot will ever again make the same mistakes.

From now on, every airline pilot will no doubt think immediately of AF447 the instant a stall-warning alarm sounds at cruise altitude. Airlines around the world will change their training programs to enforce habits that might have saved the doomed airliner: paying closer attention to the weather and to what the planes around you are doing; explicitly clarifying who"s in charge when two co-pilots are alone in the cockpit; understanding the parameters of alternate law; and practicing hand-flying the airplane during all phases of flight. 今天法航 447 的纪录中得出的信息可以确保没 有航线飞行员会再犯同样的错误。从现在开始,在巡 航高度的任何一位航线飞行员哪怕听到一声失速警告 就马上会联想起法航 447。世界范围内的航空公司都 将修改他们的训练程序来加强那种本可能挽救这架厄 运客机的习惯:更加注意天气和你周围其他飞机的情 况;在只有两名副驾驶员在驾驶舱里时确切无误地阐 明谁来主操纵;理解备用法则的各个参数;在飞行的 各个阶段训练飞机的手动飞行。

But the crash raises the disturbing possibility that aviation may well long be plagued by a subtler menace, one that ironically springs from the never-ending quest to make flying safer. Over the decades, airliners have been built with increasingly functions. These automated have the flight-control

potential to remove a great deal of uncertainty and danger from aviation. But they also remove attention important of the information flight crew. from While the the

airplane"s avionics track crucial parameters such as location, speed, and heading, the human beings can pay attention to something else. But when trouble suddenly springs up and the computer decides that it can no longer cope—on a dark night, perhaps, in turbulence, far from land—the on. humans They"ll might find What themselves with a very incomplete notion of what"s going wonder: instruments are reliable, and which can"t be trusted? What"s the most pressing threat?

What"s going on? Unfortunately, the vast majority of pilots will have little experience in finding the answers. 但是坠机揭示了一个令人不安的可能性,即航空 安全一直伴随着种种微妙的威胁,它在人们永无止境 地追求更加安全地飞行时爆发出来,使人啼笑皆非。 近几十年来,民航客机采用了不断改进的自动飞行控 制功能。飞行中他们可能把大部分的不确定性和危险 化于无形。但是同时他们也转移了飞行机组对于重要 信息的注意力。当飞机的电子系统追踪一些关键性参 数如位置,速度,和航向时,人们则可以把注意力放 在其他事情上。但是当问题突然爆发时,计算机已应 付不来—在一个漆黑的夜晚,可能在颠簸中,远离了 陆地—人们可能这才发现自己对于发生的事情所知聊 聊。他们可能会怀疑:哪个仪表是可靠的,而哪一个 不能相信?最紧迫的威胁是什么?发生了什么?不幸 的是,绝大多数飞行员没有太多经验来找到答案。


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