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8、现在完成时 现在完成时的用法: 1)现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影 响 或 结 果。通常 与 表示包括 现 在在 内 的 时间 副 词 just , already, before, yet, never, ever, ever since, recently, lately 等状语连用。 例如: ①I have never heard of tha

t before. ②Have you ever ridden a horse? ③She has already finished the work. ④ Have you milked the cow yet? Yes, I have done that already. ⑤I’ve just lost my science book. 2)现在完成时表示从过去开始,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去的动 作或状态。可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括现在在内) 的一段时间的状语连用。如:for 和 since, 以及 so far, now, today, this week(month, year) 等。Over /during the past few years. up to now ①I haven’t seen her these days.

②She has learnt English for 3 years. ③They have lived here since 1990. ④What has happened to the USA in the last 350 years? 注意 1:表示短暂时间动作的词(终止性动词) ,如 come, go, die, marry, buy 等的完成时不能与 for(计、达多久), since 等表示一段 时间的短语连用。 He has come here for three days.不能表达“他来这里三天了。”之 意 3) 现在完成时还可以用在时间和条件状语从句中,表示将来某时完成 的动作,例如: I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework. If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we’ll go to the park. 注意 2: 一般过去时与现在完成时之比较 1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情, 强调动作;现在完成时表示在过去发生的对现在产生影响的动作,强 调的是对现在的影响,它属于现在时态范畴。

2)一般过去时常与与现在无关的 时间状语连用,而现在完成时通 常与“现在”联在一起的时间状语连用。 I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了。 ) I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。 ) She has returned from Paris. (她已从巴黎回来了。 ) She returned yesterday. (她是昨天回来了。 ) 9、过去完成时的用法 1) 、概念:表示过去的过去。 -----------|-----------------------|--------------------|----> 过去的过去 2) 、过去完成时的用法: (1) 过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或者某一动作之前完成的动作 或状态;句中常用 by, before, until, when 等词引导的时间状语。 By the end of last year we had built five new houses. 过去某时 现在

I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university. (2)过去完成时的动词还可以表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动 作或者状态持续到过去某个时间或者持续下去。 Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours. (3) 在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. (4)在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完 成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. (5)表示意向的动词,如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等,用过去完成时表示"原本…, (实际后来未能…) " We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 10、将来完成时 将来完成时用来表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成的动作或一 直持续的动作。 例如:

By the end of this week, I shall have finished the book. By this time tomorrow they will have repaired the machine.

The children will have gone to sleep by the time we get home. When you come tonight at eight o'clock,I shall have written my paper. By next year our teacher will have taught English for twenty years. We will have completed the work before you come. He says that he will have graduated from a university before you return home. 11、现在完成进行时的用法 1)表示动作从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在。现在这个动作可 能刚刚结束,也可能仍然在进行着。如: I have been waiting for you for two hours. (动作刚刚结束) It has been raining for three hours. (动作可能延续) ---How long have you been learning English? ---I have been learning English for two years. (动作可能延续) ---Why are you so dirty?---I've been playing football. 你身上怎么这样脏? ---- 我刚才踢足球了。(动作刚刚结束下去)

3) 怎样区别现在完成时和现在完成进行时 1. 现在完成进行时可以表示动作的重复, 但现在完成时不表示动作 ○ 的重复。 Someone has been phoning you. Someone has phoned you. 2. 现在完成进行时强调动作,而现在完成时强调结果 ○ (对现在的影响) I’ve been reading the novel. I’ve read the novel. 3. ○ 现在完成进行时带有感情色彩,现在完成时客观陈述 We have been studying English for five years. We have studied English for five years. 3、 八种常用时态的被动语态举例 1). 一般现在时 am/are/is +pp

English is learned in most schools in China. 2).一般过去时 was/were +pp A thief was caught last night. 5、 使用被动语态应注意的事项

1). 及物动词能构成被动语态,不及物动词、系动词不能构成被动 语态。例如: Children sleep soundly. The idea sounds good. 某些不及物动词与介词或副词构成不可分割的短语时,可以有宾语, 可用被动语态。例如: The speaker was listened to carefully. 2). 系动词没有被动语态 The flowers smell sweet. The food tastes nice. That sounds very reasonable. The story proved quite false. 3) 有些动词与副词连用时,用主动形式表示被动含义,否定式用 won't +v. ( 如: move, lock, shut, open, read, write, wash, clean, draw, burn, cook 等) This book sells well. The door won't shut.



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