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高中英语阅读英语长难句分析小议


高中英语阅读英语长难句分析方法

一、长难句的分类
1、带有较多成分的简单句。

Having chosen family television programs and women’s magazines,the toothpaste marketer,for instance,must select the exact tel

evision programs and stations as well as the specific women’s magazines to be used.
例如,决定选择家庭电视节目和妇女杂志后,牙膏经销商还必须挑选出要用的确切的电视节目和电视台,以及那些具体的妇 女杂志。 2、含有多个简单句的并列句。如:

In the 1970s he was a surgeon at Yale,had a wonderful wife and five beautiful children,but he was terribly unhappy.在 20 世纪 70 年代,他在耶鲁当外科医生,有位出色的太太和 5 个漂亮的孩子,但他那时过得却很不开心。 Discrimination(歧视) isn’t their only concern;almost everyone testing positive for the Huntington’s gene(基因) develops symptoms(症状) during middle age, and doctors can do nothing to help. 担心受到歧视并不是他们唯一的
忧虑,几乎所有遗传性亨廷顿病基因检测呈阳性的人在中年时症状都会显现出来,而医生对此却无能为力。 3、含有多个从句的复合句。

(1)I can’t live in fear of the possibility that as the earth’s population grows and we use more and more of our nonrenewable(不能再生的) resources,our children may have to lead poorer lives.
我不能总是生活在对这种可能性的忧虑中:由于地球上人口的不断增长,由于我们正在消耗掉越来越多的非再生资源,我们 的孩子可能不得不过着更加贫穷的生活。

(2)However, those of us who are parents of children in this age group know that such offers are relatively rare and that many liberal-arts students(文科生) graduate with the belief that the prospective(预期的) workplace may not have a place for them. 然而,我们这些有这个年龄段孩子的家长们都知道,这样的机会少得可怜;我们也知道,许多文科
毕业生认为未来的就业市场没有他们的一席之地。 4、含有多个插入成分的句子。

His journey to the e-mail hell began innocently(无知地) enough when, as chairman of Computer Associates International,a software company,he first heard how quickly his employees had accepted their new electronic-mail system.他在电子邮件的地狱之旅是糊里糊涂开始的。作为国际计算机联合公司这家软件公司的董事长,他
当时还是第一次听说他的雇员们是多么快地就接受了他们公司的新的电子邮件系统。 5、并列复合句。如:

(1)I have known changes for the better and changes for the worse,but I have never questioned the fact that whether I liked it or not,change was unavoidable.
我经历过好的变化,也经历过坏的变化,但是我从来没有怀疑过这样一个事实,即不管我喜欢与否,变化总是不可避免的。

(2)They also found that the bus conductor had a major role in preventing vandalism(故意破坏行为),and at the times he went up the stairs to the upper deck to collect fares, vandalism did not often occur.他们还发现公交车售 票员在防止发生故意破坏方面发挥了重要的作用。当售票员到双层公交车的上层收费时,破坏行为就不常 发生。 二、长难句分析的注意事项 1、是否有同位语和插入语。2、是否有省略、倒装和分隔等现象。 3、替代词的所指对象。 4、判断并列成分的层次。 5、句首的并列连词 and、or、but、for 通常起承上启下的作用,不要将他们归入后文的句法分析。 6、在从句多的句子中,从句中又包含从句的现象。 7、非限定动词短语在句中作次要成分(定语和状语)时又带着自己较长的从属成分,尤其是状语从句或 宾语从句时的结构分析。 8、在有多个从句的复合句和并列句中,状语(单个词、短语或从句)究竟是全句的修饰语还是某个从句 或词语的修饰语。

用所给动词的正确形式填空 1. If I _____ him yesterday I _____ him about it. (see, ask) 2. What do you think would happen if there _____ no light during the days? (be) 3. But for your help, I couldn’t _____ the place. (find) 4. If her lawyer _____ here last Sunday, he _____ her from going. (be, prevent) 5. If it had not been for the liberation, no changes _____ place in my hometown. (take) 6. If Miss Green _____ late tomorrow, who would take her place? (come) 7. It seems as if it ____ already summer now. (be) 8. I wish I _____ him the day before yesterday. (see) 9. I made the suggestion that they _____ the plan they had made. (stick) 10. It is suggested that a study plan _____ right now. (make) 11. They required that we _____ them get in the crops. (help) 12. It was ordered that no smoking _____ in the library, which made the smokers unhappy. (allow 13.I’d rather Tom _____ tomorrow. (come) 14.It is about time you ____ the medicine, sir. (take) 15.If there _____ no electricity in the future, our life _____ a lot. (be, change) 16.Without the Communist Party there ____ New China. 17. What would have happened if you ______ her child? (not help) 18. It is strange that he _______ so. (think) 19. I wish I _________ my uncle yesterday. (meet 20. Galileo insisted that the earth _______ round the sun. (move) 21. I was very busy yesterday, otherwise I________ to the meeting. (come) 22. Supposing the weather _________ bad, where would they go? (be) 23. If only I _______ to my parents’ advice! (listen) 24. I ________ to stay there for one more week, but I changed my mind. (hope) 25. His silence at the meeting suggested that he _______ to your plan. (agree) 26. Li Ling acted that way as though he _________ a foreigner. (be)

四、长难句分析实例 1、Such tasks are generally important in their outcome,which only adds to the pressure to do good job,and yet their very complexity makes it difficult to know just where or how to begin.这些任务的结果通常都很重要, 这为做好工作增加了压力,然而这些任务的复杂性使人很难知道该从何处开始和怎样开始。 这是一个并列复合句。在第一个并列分句中,有一个非限制性定语从句,但它不修饰 outcome,而是 修饰前面的整个分句。后一并列分句中有一个复合宾语结构,用 it 作形式宾语,实际宾语为带有连接副词 的不定式短语。

2、Today it is not unusual for a student,even if he works part time at college and full time during the summer,to have $5,000 in loans(贷款) after four years—loans that he must start to repay within one year after graduation.一个学生即使在上课期间做兼职工作,在暑假期间做全职工作,四年下来他仍会欠下 5,000 美 元学费贷款,而这笔钱必须在毕业后一年内开始偿还。这样的事现在已经是很平常了。 分析本句应抓住其关键结构: it is not unusual for a student to have $5,000 in loans after four years。 it 是形 式主语,实际主语为由 for 引出逻辑主语的不定式结构 for a student to have $5,000 in loans after four years。 这里应注意 not unusual 是双重否定,实际表示肯定含义。让步状语从句 even if he works part time at college and full time during the summer 被插在不定式结构中。破折号引出带形容词从句的同位语。由于 for 到句末 是一个完整的内容,因此翻译中将他们连在一起,而把 it is not unusual 分译。 3、What emerges(浮现) is a picture of an environment where the emphasis is on managing the technology as it spies on people doing their jobs,rather than promoting quality service to customers and providing a fair workplace.这就勾画出了这样一种工作环境,在这种环境中,只重视科技手段对员工工作的监视作用,而 不考虑提高客户服务质量和提高公平的工作场所。 本句的主谓结构是 What emerges is a picture,主语 What emerges 本身即为一个从句。在说明 picture 的 介词短语中还有一个定语从句修饰 environment,在这个定语从句中又有一个 as 引导的状语从句修饰 managing,介词 on 后有三个动词-ing 形式短语作其宾语,分别为:managing,promoting 和 providing。 4、Justice does demand that murderers be punished. And common sense demands that society be protected from them. But neither justice nor self-preservation demands that we kill men whom we have already imprisoned. 正义确定要求严惩凶手。常识也要求社会受到保护不被(恶人)侵犯。但是无论正义还是自我保护都没有 要求我们处死已被监禁的囚犯。 第二、三两句中的第一个词均为并列连词,他们起承上启下的作用。三个句子中各有一个 that 引导的 宾语从句,最后一句中还有一个由 whom 引导的、修饰 men 的定语从句。

高中英语阅读英语长难句分析方法

一、长难句的分类
1、带有较多成分的简单句。

Having chosen family television programs and women’s magazines,the toothpaste marketer,for instance, must select the exact television programs and stations as well as the specific women’s magazines to be used. 例 如,决定选择家庭电视节目和妇女杂志后,牙膏经销商还必须挑选出要用的确切的电视节目和电视台,以 及那些具体的妇女杂志。 在这个有 30 多个词的简单句中,动词-ing 形式短语用作时间状语,不定式 to be used 修饰的不仅是 women’s magazine, 而且还修饰 television programs and stations. exact television 同时修饰 programs 和 stations 两个词,这在翻译中可以看出来。插入语 for instance 把主语和谓语分隔开了。 2、含有多个简单句的并列句。如: In the 1970s he was a surgeon at Yale,had a wonderful wife and five beautiful children,but he was terribly unhappy.在 20 世纪 70 年代,他在耶鲁当外科医生,有位出色的太太和 5 个漂亮的孩子,但他那时过得却 很不开心。 在第二个并列句中,即在 had 前面省略了 and he. Discrimination(歧视) isn’t their only concern;almost everyone testing positive for the Huntington’s gene(基 因) develops symptoms(症状) during middle age, and doctors can do nothing to help. 担心受到歧视并不是他 们唯一的忧虑,几乎所有遗传性亨廷顿病基因检测呈阳性的人在中年时症状都会显现出来,而医生对此却 无能为力。 三个分句均为简单句,分别用分号和 and 连接。 3、含有多个从句的复合句。如:

I can’t live in fear of the possibility that as the earth’s population grows and we use more and more of our nonrenewable(不能再生的) resources,our children may have to lead poorer lives.我不能总是生活在对这种可 能性的忧虑中:由于地球上人口的不断增长,由于我们正在消耗掉越来越多的非再生资源,我们的孩子可 能不得不过着更加贫穷的生活。 在 possibility 后由 that 引导的同位语从句中还含有一并列结构的时间状语从句:as…resources. However,those of us who are parents of children in this age group know that such offers are relatively rare and that many liberal-arts students(文科生) graduate with the belief that the prospective(预期的) workplace may not have a place for them. 然而,我们这些有这个年龄段孩子的家长们都知道,这样的机会少得可怜;我们 也知道,许多文科毕业生认为未来的就业市场没有他们的一席之地。 本句的主谓语是:those of us know。know 有两个由 that 引导的宾语从句,其中第二个省略了 know。 在主句中还有一个定语从句修饰 those of us,在第二个宾语从句中还有一个同位语从句修饰 belief。 4、含有多个插入成分的句子。如: His journey to the e-mail hell began innocently (无知地)enough when, as chairman of Computer Associates International,a software company,he first heard how quickly his employees had accepted their new electronic-mail system.他在电子邮件的地狱之旅是糊里糊涂开始的。 作为国际计算机联合公司这家软件公司 的董事长,他当时还是第一次听说他的雇员们是多么快地就接受了他们公司的新的电子邮件系统。 as chairman of Computer Associates International 是 he 的同位语,a software company 是 Computer Associates International 的同位语,他们将从属连词 when 引导的时间状语从句的主语分隔开了。 5、并列复合句。如: I have known changes for the better and changes for the worse,but I have never questioned the fact that whether I liked it or not,change was unavoidable.我经历过好的变化,也经历过坏的变化,但是我从来没有 怀疑过这样一个事实,即不管我喜欢与否,变化总是不可避免的。 在 but 后的那个并列的分句中有一个同位语从句,其中还含有一个让步状语从句。 They also found that the bus conductor had a major role in preventing vandalism (故意破坏行为) , and at the times he went up the stairs to the upper deck to collect fares, vandalism did not often occur.他们还发现公交车售 票员在防止发生故意破坏方面发挥了重要的作用。当售票员到双层公交车的上层收费时,破坏行为就不常 发生。 在前一个并列分句中有一个宾语从句,在后一个并列的分句中有一个修饰 times 的定语从句,这个定 语从句前省略了关系词 that 或 when. 二、长难句分析步骤 1、首先确定句子是简单句、复合句或并列句。 2、如果是简单句,首先确定主谓结构;接着确定宾语和宾语补足语(如觨 f话);然后确定定语和 状语等次要成分,即找出主语、谓语和宾语各自的修饰语。按照所确定的各个成分,给出全句大意(可用 翻译法)。译文意思应当通顺,并和上下文意义基本吻合。如意义出入较大,文理不通,则分析可能有误, 这时应考虑重新进行句子结构分析。 3、如果是并列句,首先应找出并列连词并把全句分解为若干个分句;接着按照简单句的分析方法再 细分各分句的内部结构和句意;然后将全句综合考虑。 4、如果是复合句,首先找出从属连词并确定出主句,这时应特别注意连词省略现象和多义连词在句 中的确切含义;接着按照简单句的分析方法再细分各分句的内部结构和句意;然后确定从句的性质,即该 从句在句中修饰什么词语或结构;最后整体考虑全句大意,尤其要注意对修饰语的判断是否准确。 三、长难句分析的注意事项 在分析句子成分时,还应特别注意下列几点: 1、是否有同位语和插入语。 2、是否有省略、倒装和分隔等现象。 3、替代词的所指对象。 4、判断并列成分的层次。

5、句首的并列连词 and、or、but、for 通常起承上启下的作用,不要将他们归入后文的句法分析。 6、在从句多的句子中,从句中又包含从句的现象。 7、非限定动词短语在句中作次要成分(定语和状语)时又带着自己较长的从属成分,尤其是状语从 句或宾语从句时的结构分析。 8、在有多个从句的复合句和并列句中,状语(单个词、短语或从句)究竟是全句的修饰语还是某个 从句或词语的修饰语。 四、长难句分析实例 1、Such tasks are generally important in their outcome,which only adds to the pressure to do good job,and yet their very complexity makes it difficult to know just where or how to begin.这些任务的结果通常都很重要, 这为做好工作增加了压力,然而这些任务的复杂性使人很难知道该从何处开始和怎样开始。 这是一个并列复合句。在第一个并列分句中,有一个非限制性定语从句,但它不修饰 outcome,而是 修饰前面的整个分句。后一并列分句中有一个复合宾语结构,用 it 作形式宾语,实际宾语为带有连接副词 的不定式短语。 2、Today it is not unusual for a student,even if he works part time at college and full time during the summer,to have $5,000 in loans(贷款) after four years—loans that he must start to repay within one year after graduation.一个学生即使在上课期间做兼职工作,在暑假期间做全职工作,四年下来他仍会欠下 5,000 美 元学费贷款,而这笔钱必须在毕业后一年内开始偿还。这样的事现在已经是很平常了。 分析本句应抓住其关键结构: it is not unusual for a student to have $5,000 in loans after four years。 it 是形 式主语,实际主语为由 for 引出逻辑主语的不定式结构 for a student to have $5,000 in loans after four years。 这里应注意 not unusual 是双重否定,实际表示肯定含义。让步状语从句 even if he works part time at college and full time during the summer 被插在不定式结构中。破折号引出带形容词从句的同位语。由于 for 到句末 是一个完整的内容,因此翻译中将他们连在一起,而把 it is not unusual 分译。 3、What emerges(浮现) is a picture of an environment where the emphasis is on managing the technology as it spies on people doing their jobs,rather than promoting quality service to customers and providing a fair workplace.这就勾画出了这样一种工作环境,在这种环境中,只重视科技手段对员工工作的监视作用,而 不考虑提高客户服务质量和提高公平的工作场所。 本句的主谓结构是 What emerges is a picture,主语 What emerges 本身即为一个从句。在说明 picture 的 介词短语中还有一个定语从句修饰 environment,在这个定语从句中又有一个 as 引导的状语从句修饰 managing,介词 on 后有三个动词-ing 形式短语作其宾语,分别为:managing,promoting 和 providing。 4、Justice does demand that murderers be punished. And common sense demands that society be protected from them. But neither justice nor self-preservation demands that we kill men whom we have already imprisoned. 正义确定要求严惩凶手。常识也要求社会受到保护不被(恶人)侵犯。但是无论正义还是自我保护都没有 要求我们处死已被监禁的囚犯。 第二、三两句中的第一个词均为并列连词,他们起承上启下的作用。三个句子中各有一个 that 引导的 宾语从句,最后一句中还有一个由 whom 引导的、修饰 men 的定语从句。


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