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2012届高考英语语法复习课件7


Part2 考点7

Part2 语法专题
考点7 虚拟语气

对虚拟语气的考查在湖南高考中主要出现在单 项填空部分。 1.主要考查的知识点: (1)在状语从句和名词性从句中虚拟语气的用法 (2)含蓄虚拟语气 复习重点: (1)掌握虚拟语气的基本概念及用法。 (2)在条件句中省略if的虚拟语气。 (3)意义上不是虚拟语气,但必须

使用虚拟语气的 情况。

2. 如何应对虚拟语气的考查

解题时,首先要确定题干句子表示的句意为真实的
还是虚拟的,来决定是否该用虚拟语气。带有状语

从句的复合句应重点看从句,根据从句句意所表达
的信息来判断是否该用虚拟。虚拟语气确定后要明

确是对现在、过去还是对将来的虚拟,从而确定虚
拟语气的形式。

(2009· 福建)But for the help of my English teacher, I ______ the first prize in the English Writing Competition. A.would not win B. would not have won C. would win D. would have won 思路点拨:分析题干,根据But for the help of my English teacher(要不是我的英语老师),可知该句为 虚拟语气。整句语意为:要不是英语老师的帮助, 我就赢不了英语写作比赛一等奖。“赢得一等奖” 是已经过去的事情了,所以此处表达的是对过去的 虚拟,谓语该用would not have done的形式。故判 断空格处应该选B。

熟 读 深思 1. 状语从句中的虚拟语气 (1) If I __had__(have) time, I would go there.

(2) If you had come earlier, you
__couldn't/wouldn't_have_missed__(miss) the bus.

(3) If it __should_rain/were_to_rain__(rain)
tomorrow, the sports meet would be put off.

(4) We got up early in order that we could catch the
first bus.

熟 读 深思 (5) We got up early for fear that we should miss the first bus. (6) We got up early lest that we should miss the first bus. (7) She speaks English as though she were a native of New York. (8) It seems as if he doesn't know her.

归 纳 总结 虚拟语气的结构及用法:非真实的条件,常 由if 引导,主句和从句常用虚拟语气。 1. 条件与现在事实相反, 从句谓语用一般过去时(be 多 用 were) ; 主 句 谓 语 用 would / should / could/might+动词原形,如:(1)。 2. 条件与过去事实相反, 从句谓语用过去完成时 had done;主句谓语用would / should /could /might +have done,如:(2)。 3. 条件与将来事实相反,从句谓语用should do / were to do;主句谓语用would / should / could / might+动词原形,如:(3)。

归 纳 总结 规则1:目的状语从句

1. so that/ in order that +从句: 从句用can /could /
may / might + 动词原形,如:(4)。

2. for fear that/in case that + 从句:从句用should+
动词原形,意为“以防,万一”,如:(5)。

3. lest +从句:从句用

should+ 动词原形



“以防万一”,如:(6)。

归 纳 总结

规则2:方式状语从句
as if/ as though + 从句:从句的虚拟语气与wish

后的宾语从句虚拟语气类似,如:(7)。
【注意】

as if / as though连接的从句表示可能的事实时,不
需用虚拟语气,如:(8) 。

熟 读 深思 2. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气 (1)It is suggested that I (should) exercise every day. The doctor's suggestion is that I (should) exercise every day. (2) His face suggested that he was very sad. (3) How he wishes that he were a bird. (4) We wish that we had visited the Great Wall last year.

熟 读 深思 (5) We wish we would live on the moon one day.

(6) I would rather you were not here with me now.
(7) I would rather you hadn't done that.

(8) It is important that we (should)have a good
knowledge of computer science.

(9) It is a pity that you (should) be absent from the
meeting. (10) We are surprised that he (should) be a doctor.

归 纳 总结 规则1:名词性从句中,表示“建议,命令,要求”

等意义时,名词性从句用(should)+ 动词原形。
(1) 建议:动词advise, suggest, propose, recommend

(名词advice, suggestion, proposal, recommendation)
(2) 命令:名词order, command

(3) 要求:动词request, require, demand, ask, insist (名
词request, requirement, demand),如:(1)。

归 纳 总结 【注意】 (1)suggest 意为“表明,暗示”时,宾语从句不用 虚拟语气,如:(2)。 (2)insist 意为“坚持认为,坚持说”时,宾语从句 不用虚拟语气。 规则2:I wish (that) + 宾语从句(虚拟语气) (1)表示愿望与“现在事实相反”,从句用一般过 去时,如:(3)。 (2)表示愿望与“过去事实相反”,从句用过去完 成时,如:(4)。 (3) 表 示 愿 望 实 现 的 可 能 性 很 小 , 从 句 常 用 could/might/would +动词原形,如:(5)。

归 纳 总结 规则3:would rather/prefer + that从句(从句用虚拟 语气) (1)表示愿望与“现在事实相反”,从句用一般过去 时,如:(6)。 (2)表示愿望与“过去事实相反”,从句用过去完成 时,如:(7)。 规则4:名词性从句表示说话人“强烈”的感情色 彩时,从句用should +动词原形/should + have done,should 可译为“应该;居然,竟然”。 should 可以省略。

归 纳 总结 常见的句型如下: (1)It is important/necessary/ strange/ surprising/ funny/ natural + that-从句,如:(8)。 (2) It is a pity / a shame/ an honour/ no wonder that从句,如:(9)。 (3) 主语 + be + sorry/ disappointed/ surprised + that从句,如:(10)。

熟 读 深思 3. 定语从句中的虚拟语气

(1) It's time that we should go home.
(2) It's time that we went home. (3) It is the second time that I have visited Beijing. (4) It was the second time that I had visited Beijing.

归 纳 总结 It's (about/high/very) time that从句 (从句用 虚 拟 语 气 , 谓 语 用 一 般 过 去 式 或 should do, should 不能省略),意为“某人该做某事了”, 如:(1)、(2)。

注意下面固定句型的时态搭配:
①It/This is the first/second/…time that+主语+has / have done… ②It/This was the first/second/…time that +主语+ had done.如:(3)、(4)。

熟 读 深思 4. 简单句中的虚拟语气

(1) Long live the People's Republic of China!
(2) May you succeed!

(3) Everybody leave the room!
(4) Let one of you go and tell her to come.

归 纳 总结

虚拟语气用于简单句时,一般表示祝愿、命
令等。谓语要用动词原形。

规则1:表示祝愿,如:(1)、(2)。
规则2:表示命令,如:(3)、(4)。

熟 读 深思 5. 含蓄虚拟语气 (1)If only you __hadn't_told__(not tell) him the news. (2)Human beings would die without water. ?Human beings __would_die__ if there were no water. (3)I __couldn't_have_succeeded__ but for your help. ?I couldn't have succeeded if you hadn't helped me.

熟 读 深思

(4)I had no money then. Otherwise I would have bought
that book.

If I __had_had__ money then, I would have
bought that book.

(5)Had they had time(=If they had had time),they
would have certainly come to help us. (6)If I had studied in a university, I would get the job in the company.

归 纳 总结 常用含蓄虚拟语气的情况: 规则1:if only 意为“要是…… 就好了”(与wish 后面的虚拟语气类似),如:(1)。 规则2:without / but for 如果没有……,……就 会……。如:(2)、(3)。 规则3:otherwise / or 否则,不然的话,就会……。 如:(4)。 【注意】 (1)当虚拟语气的条件状语从句中有had,should, were时,在正式或书面语言中可将if省略,而把 had,should,were 提前到句首,变为半倒装, 如:(5)。

归 纳 总结 (2) 混合虚拟语气 虚拟语气中,常出现从句与主句表示不同 时期的事情,此时,从句与主句则分别用不同 时态的虚拟语气。如:(6)。 (3) 几种特别用法 was/were supposed to have done 理应做…… was/were to have done 本计划做…… had thought/believed…, but…本以为…… had planned/intended…, but… 本计划……,本打算…… had wished/hoped…, but… 本希望……


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