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高一英语高一英语上册语法复习


The Attributive Clause

定语从句
1.定义:在复合句中用来用来修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。 2.先行词:被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词叫先行词(antecedent) 。 3.关系代词、关系副词:引导定语从句的词 关系代词:Who, whom, whose, which, that 等 关系副词:When, where, w

hy 等 关系代词和关系副词的作用: 1、引导作用 2、替代作用 3、在定语从句中担当某个成分的作用 Eg: 1.Those who want to go please sign your names here. 2.This is the house where he was born. 3. Bill, who was here yesterday, asked me a lot of questions.

关系代词的用法

关系代词的用法

指 代 That Which Who Whom whose 人;物 物
人 人 人、物

所作成分 主语;宾语

是否可省略 作宾语可省

主语;宾语 作宾语可省 主语;宾语 宾语 定语 作宾语可省 可省 不可省

关系副词的用法

关系副词的用法
指代 When Where why
时间 地点 原因

所作成分
状语 状语 状语

是否可省略

否 否 否

判断下列引导词在句中的用法指代、所作成分、是否可省略. Eg: 1.He is such a man who never tells a lie. 2. He is the model worker whom/who we should learn from. 3. A dictionary is a book which often helps us to know the meanings of the words. 4. This is the film which I like best. 5. The boy whose father is a professor is one of my best friends. 6. The house whose roof was blown away by the storm will be rebuilt soon. 7. It was 11 o?clock when the accident happened last night. 8. This is the village where I was brought up.

关系代词 which 和 that 的区别:
A.关系代词必须用 that 的情形: This is the best film that I have ever seen. The first man arrived at the class was our headteacher. This is the only ticket that I got yesterday. This is the very book that I?m looking for. Is there anything that I can do for you? All that you have to do is to press the button. There is no time that we can waste. The car and its driver that knocked down the old lady have been taken to the police station. Summarize: 只能用 that 引导定语从句的几种情况 1)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时。 2)先行词被 the only,the very,the same,the last 修饰时。 3)先行词是不定代词 all,few,little,much,something,nothing,anything 等. 4)先行词被 all,any,every,each,few,little,no,some 等修饰。 5)先行词既有人又有物时。 B.指物时,作介词的宾语,关系代词只能用 which This is the question about which we?ve had so much discussion. Practice: 1.They asked him to tell them everything _____ he saw at the front. A. what B. that C. which D. where 2.In the dark street, there wasn?t a single person _______ she could turn for help. (1992) A.that B. who C. from whom D. to whom 3. I don’t like __________ you speak to her. (1993 上海) A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D.the way of which (BDA) Correct the following sentences: 1.This is the best film which I have seen. 2.That?s all which want to say.

(This is the best film that I have seen. That?s all that I want to say.) 3.Is there anything which you want in this shop? 4.He talked about some writers and books which/who were unknown to us all. 5.The room in that she lives is a large one. (Is there anything that you want in this shop? He talked about some writers and books that were unknown to us all. The room in which she lives is a large one. )

关系副词 when, where, why 的用法
1.Do you still remember the day when we went to visit the museum together? Do you still remember the day on which we went to visit the museum together? 2.This is the factory where my father once worked. This is the factory in which my father once worked. 3.This is the reason why he was late. This is the reason for which he was late. Summarize: 在定语从句中关系副词都等于一个适当的介词加上 which,在从句中作状语 When=in/at/on/…+which; Where=in/at/on/…+which; Why=for /…+which Practice: 1.---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. (1999) --- Is that the reason_______ you had a few days off? A.why B. when C. what D. where 2.I?m going to visit the school _________ my mother taught physics ten years ago. A.where B. that C. which D. what 3.Do you still remember the day ___________ I first came to Beijing? A. which B. that C. when D. where (AAC)

关系副词 when, where 和关系代词 that, which 的区分
同样是修饰一个地点,有时使用 where,有时使用 that/which; 同样是修饰一个时间,有时使用 when, 有时使用 that/which 主要看: 从句意思是否完整;完整的话需用关系副词,若意思不完整则需加关系代词充 当某个成分。 请比较以下句子: This is the park that we visited last year.(从句意思不完整需要加宾语) This is the park where we held a birthday party.(从句完整,只需加上特定的关系副词) That?s the date that she won?t forget for ever.

That?s the date when we went to the college. I like the time that we had together. I like the time when we lived together.

限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
定义: 限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的修饰成分, 否则主句的意思不完整或不成立。 非限制性定语从句只对所修饰的词作进一步的说明,去掉之后主句的意思照样完整。 Compare the following sentences: A man who does not try to learn from others can?t achieve much. There?re many plays (that) I?d like to see. This note was left by Xiao Wu, who was just here. Yesterday Mr Brown paid a visit to Hangzhou, which is famous for its West Lake. They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them. Summarize: 1. 限制性定语从句常和先行词紧密相连;非限制 性定语从句与先行词之间常用逗号分开。 2.非限制性定语从句不能用 that 来引导。 3.非限制性定语从句有时可以用来修饰整个句子。 *关系代词和人称代词/指示代词的选择 ①He has three sons, none of _____ is a doctor. ② He has three sons, but none of ____ is a doctor. ③ He has three sons, _______ are doctors. ④ He has three sons; ____ are doctors. A. whom B. them C. they D. who (ADBC) Practice: 1.________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. (2001) A.It B. As C. That D. What 2.He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. (1998) A. which I think is B.which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think which is 3.I shall never forget those years ______ I lived in the country with the farmers, __________ has a great effect on my life. (1994 上海) A. that; which B.when; which C.which; that D.when; who (BAB) Correct mistakes for the following sentences. 1. Under the big tree are 34 students, many of them come from class two. 2. My mother has a good book, which cover looks terrible. 3. Who are the young girls who are having dinner in the restaurant? 4. She is one of the girls who is very interested in maths. 5. Tom is the only one of the boys who like playing football.

6. Who is the girl that you talked to her just now? 7. This is the very pen that you gave it to me before. 8. There is an old woman, that is holding a stick. (whom、whose、that、are、likes、去掉 her、去掉 it、who)

主动表示被动:
某些感官动词和系动词加形容词可以表示被动意义,如 look, smell, taste, feel, prove, wear, sound 等 The flower smells sweet. The dish tastes delicious. The cloth feels very soft. The stones have worn smooth. 更多资源 xiti123.taobao.com 2. 某些及物动词后加副词(有些可不加副词)表示事物固有的属性或特征,也可以表示被 动意义,如 wash, write, sell, read, open, cut, lock, peel, pack, play, shut, spot, split, strike, record, act, clean, draw, iron, keep, photograph 等 This type of recorder sells well. That kind of shirt washes very well. Ripe apples peel easily. The plays won?t act. Nylon dries quickly. 6) The novel reads well. 7) The door opens with difficulty. 8) The wood won?t burn. 9) Water heats rapidly. 10) This kind of shirt cleans easily. 11) Her coat caught in the door/ on the nail. 比较: 1. The box doesn?t lock. 这个箱子锁不上。 (箱子本身的性质) 2. The box was not locked. 这个箱子没有上锁。 (箱子当时的状态) 3. The theory proved to be correct. 那个理论证明是正确的。 (含有自身证明的特征) 4. The theory was proved to be correct. 那个理论被证明是正确的。 (被人证明) 3. want, need, require,和 be worth 等词的后面可以用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。 The book is worth reading. The coat requires mending.

The children needs looking after. The table wants cleaning. 某些作表语(expensive, cheap, difficult, fit, hard, light, heavy, easy, 的形容词后, 用不定式形 式表示被动意义。 ⑴The box is too heavy to lift. ⑵She is easy to approach. ⑶The fish is not fit to eat. ⑷He is hard to please. ⑸The passage is difficult to read. ⑹The jewel is too expensive to buy. There are a lot of work to do/ to be done. There are a lot of work for us to do.

被动语态 The Passive Voice
1、了解被动语态 被动语态构成:be+P.P 2、形式: 1) 一般现在时:am/is/are+P.P 1.英语中有两种语态,主动语态和被动语态 2) 一般过去时:was/were+P.P 3) 情态动词+be+P.P 4) 一般将来时:will +be +p.p 5) 现在完成时:have/has+been+P.P 6) 现在进行时态:is/am/are+being+P.P 1.Bananas are grown in Hainan.(海南种植香焦。 ) 2.Many more trees will be planted in our school next year.(我们学校明年将种更多的树。 ) 3.Were the trees planted by him.这些树是他种的吗? 4.Young trees must be looked after. (必须照看好小树) 5. The building is being built. (那栋楼房正在建设中。 ) 6.The homework has been finished yet. (家作已经做完了。 )

语态转换
1.He teaches English in our school. English is taught in our school by him. 宾提前变主,主变介 by 宾,被动 be 加 done,时态看主动 2.We planted many trees last years. Many trees were planted by us last year.

过去时的被动语态: was/were+P.P 3.We should plant many more trees. Many more trees should be planted by us. 含情态动词的被动语态: 情态动词+be +PP 4.She will teach Class 6. Class 6 will be taught by her. 将来时的被动语态:Will/shall+be +PP 5. Many countries have sent up satellites into space. Satellites have been sent up into space by many countries . 完成时的被动语:Have/has+been +PP 6.She is teaching Class 6. Class 6 is being taught by her. 现在进行时的被动语态: is+being+pp 7.She gave me a book. I was given a book by her. A book was given to me by her. 如 遇 双 宾 语 , 最 好 变 间 宾 , 如 若 变 直 宾 , 间 宾 前 to/for ( pass,lend,buy,write,bring, show,tell?) 8.He made me do the work. I was made to do the work by him. 这 些 动 词 真 奇 怪 , 主 动 句 中 to 离 开 , 被 动 句 中 to 回 来 。 ( feel,listen to,hear,let have,make,look at,see,watch?) 9.They take good care of the baby. The baby is taken good care of by them. 注意:含动词词组的被动语态,须将其看作一个 整体,不可把它们分隔开来。 1Stamps______by people for sending letters. A.use B.using C.used D.are used. 2.Must old people_____to politely? A.speak B.spoken C.be spoke D.be spoken 3. Bike mustn?t_____everywhere. A.be up B.be put C.put C.putting 4.The woman fell off the bike and ____on the road. A.lay B.was lain C.lied D.has lain (DDBA) 5.The old man and the children_____in our country. A.must take good care .B.must be take good care of C.must take good care of Dmust be taken good care of

6.All trees must_____well when it is dry. A.be water B.watering C.water D.be watered 7.__I think the shop_____________. __No,it?s open. It_____________at six. close, close B closed, closed C.closed;closes D. is closed ,closes (DDD) 将下列句子变为被动语态,每空一词。 1. We can finish the work in two days. The work _____ _____ _____ in two days. 2. They produce silk in Suzhou. Silk __ _________ in Suzhou. 3. The children will sing an English song. An English song ____ ____ _______ by the children. 4. You needn't do it now. It _________ _____ _____ by you now. 5. Lucy sent me a New Year Card last week. A New Year Card ____ ____ ____ me by Lucy last week. 6.He made me do that for him. I ____ ____ ____ ______that for him. 7. I have given this book to the library. This book _____ ______ ______ to the library. can be finished is produced will be sung needn?t be done was sent to was made to do has been given A traffic accident ________(happen) just now. happened 2. 连系动词(Link.v.) 如:be, look, seem, feel, sound, smell, taste, get, turn, become? Peking Opera ________ (sound) beautiful. sounds 3. 当此动词表示事物的自然属性的时候: The pen _________ (write) very fast. writes This kind of sweater _______ (sell) well. sells 1. 不及物动词(vi.) 如:happen, take place, appear, disappear, ?

不用被动语态的动词: 1. Large numbers of plastic bags _________ (use) in the supermarkets every day. 2. _____ our country ____(send) up another man-made satellite last year? 3. Must the old people ___________ (speak) to politely? 4. Her grandma was still alive when he _________ (take) to the hospital. 5. English __________(speak) in many counties. are used、Did、send、be spoken、was taken、is spoken 6. Three quarters of the world?s books ____________ (write) in English. 7. This kind of sweater __________ (sell) well. 8. _________ Lesson 50 ___________ (teach) next week? are written、sells、Will、be taught Fill in the blanks using right forms: 1. All the students __________(ask) to bring a kite with them last Sunday. 2. Are many ways _______(try) to stop people from cutting down so many trees? 3. —What are on show in the museum? —Some photos _________(take) by American children. 4. This coat _________(wash) well. 5. Must the old people ____________(speak) to politely? 6. I’m often _________(警告)not to copy others’ homework. 7. He couldn’t explain why dinosaurs ___________ (消失). 8. I’ll have my bike __________________(修理) tomorrow. 9. Have you found your necklace ________(偷) last week? 10. The PRC was _________(成立) on October 1, 1949. (were asked 、tried、taken、washes、be spoken、warned、disappeared、mended/repaired、 Stolen、founded)

一字不改地引用或复述别人的话,被引用或复述的部分就叫直接引语;直接引语必须 都放在引号中,其位置常在句尾或句首。 用自己的话转述别人的话;被转述的部分就叫间接引语;间接引语不必用括号,一 般用宾语从句或复合宾语表达法。 原封不动引用别人的原话,原话在引号中。 “Take off your boots,” he said. “I don?t know where your bike is,”said the Arab. “I?m sorry,” the professor said tothe class, “but none of you watchedcarefully enough.” 用自己的话转述别人所说的内容。通常以宾语从句的形式出现。当直接引语变为间接引 语时,有关的人称、语序、时态、代词、时间状语、地点状语、和少数动词都要作相应 的改变。

时 态 的 变 化

直接引语 一般现在时 现在进行时 现在完成时 一般过去时 一般将来时

间接引语
一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时或不变 过去将来时

代词 时间 状语 地点 状语 少数 动词









this these here now come bring can may must

that those there then go take could might had to









时 间 状 语

three years ago last year last week this year next week next year today yesterday tomorrow

three years before the year before the week before that year the next week the following year that day the day before The next day the following day

陈述句: 引语前用 that 引导,有时也可以不用。 He said, “I opened the window this morning.” He said that he opened the window that morning. My sister said, “We have cleaned the floor.” My sister said that they had cleaned the floor. The manager said to me, “You must go there next week.” The manager told me that I had to go there the next week. The girl said, “I can do my homework myself.” The girl said that she could do her homework herself. 如直接引语是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变。 The teacher said in class, “The moon moves around the earth.” The teacher said in class that the moon moves around the earth. 陈述句 直接引语变间接引语的结构: A said that The girl said that she could do her homework herself. A told B that The manager told me that I had to go there the next week. 一般疑问句: 变为间接引语后,要用陈述语序(主语先写)用 if 或 whether 引导。时态等作相应变化。 He asked , “Can you hear me?”

He asked if/whether I could hear him. The teacher asked, “Have you read this book, Bob?” The teacher asked Bob if/whether he had read that book. She said to me, “Will you go there with me?” She asked me if/whether I would go there with her. She asked, “Did you see the film yesterday, Peter?” She asked Peter if/whether he had seen the film the day before. “Are you leaving today or tomorrow?” Joan asked Kate. Joan asked Kate if/whether she was leaving that day or the next day. 一般疑问句 直接引语变间接引语的结构: A asked if/whether A asked B if whether He asked if/whether I could hear him. The teacher asked Bob if/whether he had read that book. 特殊疑问句: 变为间接引语后,仍用原来的疑问词引导,用陈述语序。时态等作相应变化。 ??When did they build this bridge?” she asked. She asked when they built that bridge. The teacher asked her, “Why did you come late?” The teacher asked her why she came late. Robert asked Alice, “Where is my dictionary?” Robert asked Alice where his dictionary was. Mrs. Bill asked him, “Which book do you like best?” Mrs. Bill asked him which book he liked best. 特殊疑问句 直接引语变间接引语的结构: A asked +原句疑问词 She asked when they built that bridge. A asked B +原句疑问词 Mrs. Bill asked him which book he liked best. 祈使句: 改为间接引语后,就成了以不定式短语形式出现的宾语补足语(动词常是 ask/ tell/order/advise/warn /remind 等) 。 He said to the girl, “Do it at once.” He told the girl to do it at once. Mrs. Hill said, “ please sing at our party, Mary.” Mrs. Hill asked Mary to sing at their party. She said to me, “Don?t smoke in the classroom.” She told me not to smoke in the classroom. He said, “Let?s go fishing tomorrow.”

He suggested going fishing the next day. 祈使句直接引语变间接引语的结构 (~sb to do sth): A told B (not) to do… A asked B (not) to do… He told the girl to do it at once. Mrs. Hill asked Mary to sing at their party. 二)祈使句改间接引语后是~ sb (not) to do sth 结构 注意以下几点 1.said/said to 要变成 asked/told/order 等可跟不定式作宾补的动词。 2.呼语变宾语,please 要去掉. 感叹句 直接引语 (变化前) He said , “How happy I am!” 间接引语(变化后) He said that he was very happy. He said how happy he was. "What a clever boy you are!" she exclaimed. → She told him what a clever boy he was. → She told him that he was a clever boy. 由直接引语转变为间接引语,有时会引时态的变化,注意以下几个方面 1.主句动词为一般现在时、 现在完成时或一般将来时, 在转述直接引语过程中可以不作任 何时态改变: 直接引语 She often says , “All men and women are equal under the law.” 间接引语 She often says that all men and women are equal under the law. 由直接引语转变为间接引语,下列情况时态不变 1. 不变的真理: The teacher said to the students, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher told the students that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃. 2. 经常的习惯( 强调动作或状态现在仍然如此时,) He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes two packs every day. 3. 历史事件 (直接引语中有绝对具体的过去时间做状语时) The teacher said, “World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.” → The teacher said that World War Ⅱ ended in 1945. 4. 部分情态动词,如 must, ought to, used to, had better 等: She said to me: “You must hurry up.”



She said that I must hurry up.

例题: 1、He often says “ I shall tell you about them.” He often tells me that _____ will tell _____ about ______. A I…you…them B. he…me…them C. he…you…us D. I…me…you 2. You must say to her, “ I depend on you and him .” You must tell her that _____ depend on ____ and _____. A. I…you…him B. she…you…me C. you…her…him D. you…me…him 3. I shall tell him, “ I have written to you and her twice.” I shall tell him that ____ havewritten to ____and _____twice. A I…him…her B. you…him…her C. I …you…me D. you…me…her 4. Jack said to me,” You look worried today.” Jack told me that _____ worried_____. A.he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day 5.They said to us, “ Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave_____ house. A.that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that 6.“Do you know English ?” he asked. He asked if _______English. A I knew B. you know C. he knew D. I know 7. Jane said, “ What did he hear about a week ago ?” Jane asked ____ about _____. A.that he heard…a week ago B. if he heard…the week ago C. what he had heard… a week ago D. what he had heard…the week before 8. She asked,” Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A.will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he will…next time D. he would…the next time 9. Jack said to her ,”Where do you spend your holidays ?” Jack asked her where ____holidays. A.she spend her B. you spend your C. she spent her D. you spent your 10.The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east ?”

The teacher asked her ___ the sun ____ in the east. A.if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise (BCADDADDCB)

1. 现在进行时态表将来 go, come, leave, get, arrive, meet, see off, take off, return, start, fly, stay, etc. e.g. I?m leaving at seven tonight 2 .When the plane, the train, the bus, meeting plan, film and programme are used as the subject, these verbs should be used in simple Present Tense. e.g. The plane to London leaves at 9:30 tomorrow morning. The film begins at 6:00. 3.The present tense is used for the future in a clause introduced by “when”, “if”, “before”, “till/until”, “every time”, “by the time”, “as soon as”, “the moment”. e.g. We shall not go out for a hike if it rains tomorrow.

一般将来时的被动语态用法例析 一般将来时的被动语态是被动语态学习中的难点,也是重点。本文通过对若干典型例题的 分析,对其进行了归纳和总结,希望对同学们有所帮助。 1. 基本结构一: shall/will + be + done 【经典例题 1】 I promise that this matter _____ next week. A. will be taken care B. will take care of C. will take good care D. will be taken care of 【思路点拨】 选 D。从题干不难看出,一是从句中的 this matter 和 take care of 是被动关 系;二是 take care of 是固定搭配,不能拆开;三是相对于 promise 来说,take care of 是将要发 生的动作。故从句谓语应用一般将来时的被动语态。 【经典例题 2】 These dictionaries _____ the library again (by you ). A. will be taken out of B. won?t be taken out of C. will take out of D. won?t take out of 【思路点拨】选 B。由题干结构及句意可知,此题考查的是一般将来时的被动语态的 否定式。 另外,我们还应注意:其疑问式为 Shall/Will + 主语 + be + done...? 或 特殊疑问词 + shall/will + 主语 + be + done...?

2. 基本结构二: be(am / is /are)going to + be + done 【经典例题 1】 The class ____ on everything they have learnt this year. A. is going to be examining B. are going to examine C. is going to be examined D. are going to be examined 【思路点拨】选 D。题中 the class 指全班同学,谓语动词应用复数形式, 并且主语和 谓语动词之间是被动关系, 所以谓语应用一般将来时的被动语态。 【经典例题 2】 An exhibition of painting _____ at the art museum when he comes back from abroad. A. is going to hold B. is going to be held C. are going to hold D. are going to be held 【思路点拨】 选 B。根据题意, 此处应用一般将来时的被动语态, 而且主谓应保持 一致。 现在进行时的被动语态 “四注意” 一. 注意不可遗漏 being 现在进行时的被动语态表示说话时正在进行的一个被动的动作,强调主语是动作的承 受者,其构成为“am / is / are + being+动词的过去分词” 。如果我们把 being 漏掉,就成为一 般现在时的被动语态或系表结构。如: * Look! The children are being taken care of by their aunt. 瞧!那些孩子正由他们的姑妈照 看着。 * Children are taken good care of at school. 孩子们在学校被照看得很好。(指通常情况) * The report is being written by one of the best students. 报告正在由一名最好的学生写着 呢。 * The report is well written. 这个报告写得很好。(系表结构) 二 . 注意现在进行时的被动语态也可以表示将来 现在进行时的被动语态有时可表示按计划或安排将要进行的一个被动的动作(此种用 法仅限于少数及物动词)。如: A party is being held tonight. 今晚将要举行一场晚会。 三 .注意没有现在进行时的被动语态的动词 一些表示“状态、心理活动、拥有、存在”等的动词,一般不用现在进行时的被动语 态,而常用一般现在时的被动语态。如: Xiao Wang, come here. You are wanted on the phone. 小王,过来,有你的电话。 Football is becoming more and more popular. In other words, it is loved by more and more

people.足球现在越来越流行了, 换句话说,它被越来越多的人喜爱。 . 四.注意“be +under/ in 等介词+名词”结构可表示现在进行时的被动语态的含义。如: The problem is under discussion (is being discussed) at the meeting. 这个问题正在会上讨论。 The telephone is in use (=is being used) now. 这部电话正在使用中。 现在完成时的被动语态一二三 一、现在完成时的被动语态的用法 1.表示一个被动的动作发生在说话之前,强调对现在造成的影响和结果。如: The door has been locked. 门被锁上了。 2.表示一个被动的动作或状态开始于过去 ,持续到现在,并可能持续下去,常与 for 或 since 引导的时间状语连用,或用于 How long...?句型中。如: The important problem has been discussed for nearly two weeks. 那个重要的问题已经被讨论近两个星期了。 How long has the machine been used? 这机器使用有多久了? 二、现在完成时的被动语态应注意的几个问题 1.请注意现在完成时的被动语态的两个助动词,即 have/has 和 been,两者缺一不可。 2. 请注意与一般过去时的被动语态的区别。一般过去时的被动语态所表示的动作或 状态与现在的情况没有联系,而现在完成时的被动语态则强调与现在情况的联系。如: The bridge was built last year. 这桥是去年建成的。 The bridge has been built. 这桥已经建好了。 3. 请注意一些特殊动词,如 borrow, finish, begin, buy, start, return, marry, open, join 等构成 的现在完成时的被动语态不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。若要表达相应的意思,则需改 换动词或时态。如: [误] How long has this book been bought? [正] How long ago was this book bought? 但这类动词的否定式可表示动作的持续过程,具有连续性,因而可与 since 或 for 引导的 时间状语连用。如: No books have been bought since last week. 自上周以来,没有人来买过书。


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