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英语非谓语动词详细讲解课件



动名词 gerund

谓语动词

分词 participle

不定式
infinitive

非谓语动词
1.性质:它具有动词的特点,但在 句子中起着名词、形容词、副词的作 用,充当主语、表语、定语、宾语、 宾语补足语、状语的作用,即:除谓 语以外一切成分。

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2.形式
? 不定式相当于名词、形容词、副词。充当 主语、宾语、定语、表语、宾语补足语、 状语。 ? 动名词相当于名词充当主语、表语、定语、 宾语。 ? 分词相当于形容词、副词。作表语、定语、 宾语补足语、状语形成分

主语 不定式 ? 过去 分词

定语

宾语

表语

状语

宾语补 足语

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×

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v-ing 形式

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? 3.语态:必须搞清逻辑主 语与非谓语动词的关系,从 而来确定非谓语动词态的语 态。

A 动词-ing形式的一般式

1 动词-ing形式的一般式可用来泛指一个动作, 没有特别的时间意义。 Swimming is her favorite sport. 游泳是她最喜欢的体育运动。 Learning is important to modern life. 学习对现代生活很重要。 2 动词-ing形式的一般式可用来表示与谓语动词 同时发生的动作。 They went out of the classroom, talking and laughing. 他们有说有笑地走出教室。

3 动词-ing形式的一般式有时也可表示在谓语 动词的动作之前或之后发生的动作。 I remembered sending him an e-mail last week. 我记得上星期给他发过一份电子邮件。 He suggested taking my daughter to the zoo the next Sunday. 他建议下个星期天带我女儿去动物园。

B 动词-ing形式的完成式 动词-ing形式的完成式表示一个已完成的动作,这个动作 发生或完成在谓语动词表示的动作之前。 Having lived in this city for three years, she knows it very well. 点 津 坊 在现代英语中,作宾语的动词-ing形式的完成式可用一般 式来代替。 I really regretted missing such an exciting lecture. 错过了这么振奋人心的演讲,我真的很遗憾。

(=I rally regretted having missed such an exciting lecture.)

We remembered seeing the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 (=We remembered having seen the film.)

C 动词-ing形式的被动形式
动词-ing形式的被动形式表示它的逻辑主语是动词-ing 形式表示的动作的承受者。 The question being discussed is very important. 正在讨论的问题很重要。

I can‘t stand being kept waiting. 我不堪久等。
Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the school library. 在被带去看了实验室之后,我们又被带去参观校图书 馆。

D 动词-ing形式的否定形式

动词-ing形式的否定形式由not加动词 -ing形式构成。 His not coming made everyone present very disappointed. 他没来使在场的每个人都很失望。

A 动词-ing形式作主语

1 动词-ing形式可直接置于句首作主语。 Seeing is believing.= To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。

2 为了保持句子平衡,通常用先行词it作形式主语, 而把真正的主语放在句末。 It is no use crying over spilt milk. 作无益的后悔是没有用的。 It's a waste of time arguing about it. 争论这事是浪费时间。

必 背 动词-ing形式作主语的几个常用句型。 It‘s no good talking to him. 和他谈话是没 有用的。 It is useless telephoning him. He is not willing to come. 给他打电话没用。他不愿意来。 It‘s worth making an effort. 努力一下是值得 的。 There is no saying when it will stop raining. 无法断定这场雨什么时候会停。 There is no joking about such matters. 这种 事开不得玩笑。

B 动词-ing形式作表语

1 表示主语的内容 Her job is keeping the lecture hall as clean as possible. 她的工作是尽量使报告厅 保持干净。 2 表示主语具有的特征 The problem is quite puzzling. 题很令困惑。

这个问

1. Her work is ______( look )after the children. 2. My aim is ______( go ) to Tsinghua University. 3. One of my bad habit is ______(bite ) nails(指 甲).

C 动词-ing形式作宾语

动词-ing形式既可作及物动词的宾语,也可作介 词的宾语。 1 能用动词-ing形式作宾语的及物动词可分两类, 一类是只能用动词-ing形式作宾语,另一类是既可 用动词-ing形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语。 ①只能用-ing形式作宾语的动词(这类动词只能用ing形式作宾语,不能用不定式作宾语。)

Fancy meeting you here! 想不到在这儿见到你了! I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。

1.He was in low spirits and even consider _____(go ) away. ? 2.Practise _____( put ) your hand to the ground. ? 3.I can?t help ______( have ) the trip to Britain. ? 4.Don?t tell me you always escape _____( fine) because you have a fast sports car. ? 5.Leave off ______(bite) your nails! ? 6.He didn?t feel like ______( work ), so he suggested _____( spend ) the day in the garden. ? 7.You certainly mustn?t miss _______( see ) the wonderful film.

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8.The doctor advised ______( stay ) longer in hospital. 9.We appreciate your ______( want ) ______( help ) us in our difficulties. 10.Michael has delayed ______( write ) to her till today. 11.The law forbids ______( sell )liquor to children. 12.They all suggested ______( give ) more chances. 13.Can you imagine ______( leave ) standing outside for a whole night. 14.They built the banks to prevent the area from ______( flood).



背 只接动词-ing形式而不接不定式作宾语的动词有: admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 put off 推迟 keep 保持 consider 考虑

delay 耽搁 excuse 原谅
fancy想不到

dislike 嫌恶 practice 练习
feel like 意欲

resist抵制
escape 避免

mention 提及 enjoy 喜欢

mind介意
finish 完成

risk 冒险
give up 放弃

include 包括
suggest 建议

forgive 原谅
miss 逃过

imagine 设想 cannot help 情不自禁

② 既可用动词-ing形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语 这类动词虽然既能用-ing形式作宾语,也能用不定式 作宾语,但用法并不相同,主要有以下几种情况: ☆有些动词,如attempt, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer等,后面接动词-ing形式或不定式区 别不是很大。 They prefer spending/to spend their summer vacation in Dalian. 他们更喜欢在大连度暑假。 I intend to buy/buying an English-Chinese dictionary. 我想买一本英汉词典。

提 示 应尽量避免接连出现两上动词-ing形式。 I am starting to learn Russian. 我开始学俄语。 避免说:I am starting learning Russian. 我开始学俄语。

☆有些动词或词组后可带动名词或不定式作宾语, 但意义上有所不同。 come to do★表示一个渐渐发展的过程 I hope we shall be friends and come to understand one another.我希望我们会成为朋 友并互相了解 come doing★表示陪衬性的动作 It was already two o'clock when she came hurrying in. 她急急忙忙跑进来时已经两点了。

go on to do★做完一件事后,接下去做另外一件事 Having finished the exercises, we went on to learn the new words in the next unit. 做完练习以 后,我们继续学习下一单元的单词。

go on doing★继续做同一件事。 Though it was raining heavily, they went on working, 尽管天下着大雨,他们仍然继续工作。 mean to do★想要做某事 I didn't mean to hurt you. 我并不想要伤害你。
mean doing★意味着要有一个结果 Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这班车就意味着再等一个小时。

regret to do★对即将要做的事表示遗憾 I regret to say I must leave tomorrow. 很遗憾,我 明天必须离开了。 regret doing★对所做的事感到后悔 I regret not having told her earlier.没能更早地告诉 她,我很后悔。 remember to do ★讲的是将来的事,表示“不要忘 记” Remember to lock the door when you leave. 离开 时记得要锁门。

remember doing ★讲的是过去的事,表示“记起来” I remember posting that letter. 我记得寄了那封信。

forget to do★忘记要做某事 She nearly forgot to give the porter a tip for his service. 她几乎忘记给行李搬运工付小费。 forget doing★忘记以前曾做过的事 I'll never forget meeting my school headmaster for the first time. 我永远忘不了和我小学校长初次见面 的情景。

stop to do★停止原来做的事,开始做另一件事 While working, he stopped to talk with Tom at times. 工作的时候,他不时停下来和汤姆谈话。 stop doing★停止正在做的事 When the teacher came into the classroom, the pupils stopped talking. 教师走进教室的时候,小学生 们停止了说话。

try to do★设法做某事 I must try to get everything ready before he arrives. 在他到 来之前,我必须尽力把一切都准备 好。 try doing★试验做某事 Would you please try doing that again? 请你再试一次好吗?

☆need, require, want作“需要”解时,后面接动词 -ing形式的主动形式或不定式的被动形式,意义上并无 差别,但用动词-ing形式比较普通。 Your composition needs correcting / to be corrected. 你的作文需要修改。 His coat wants cleaning/to be cleaned. 他的外套需要洗了。 The old woman requires looking after carefully/to be looked after carefully. 这个老大娘需要细心地照料。 2 作介词宾语 动词-ing形式作介词宾语大都和一些固定搭配有关。

D 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语

1 动词-ing形式可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, smell, look at, listen to, observe, find等表示感官和心理状态的动词后 面作宾语补足语,和一个名词或代词一起构成复 合宾语。 We heard the children shouting upstairs. 我们听见孩子们在楼上叫喊。 I felt my heart beating violently. 我觉得我的心在猛烈地跳动。

2 动词-ing形式和不定式作宾语补足语的区别。 在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等感官 动词后,既可用动词-ing形式构成复合宾语, 也可用不定式构成复合宾语,两者之间有一定 的区别。用动词-ing形式时,表示动作正在进 行;用不定式时,表示动作发生了,即动作的 全过程结束了。 He saw a girl getting on the bus. 他看见一个女孩在上公共汽车。 He saw a girl get on the bus and drive off. 他看见一个女孩上公共汽车后开走了。

3 动词-ing形式也可用在have, get, leave, keep, set, catch等表示"致使"的动词后作宾语补足语。 They should not leave us wondering what they will do next. 他们不应该不让我们知道他们下一步要做什么。 I won't have you running about in the room. 我不允许你在房间里跑来跑去。 We kept the fire burning all night long. 我们让火整夜燃烧着。

点 津 坊 如果宾语补足语是一系列的动作,通常只能用不定式来表示,不 用动词-ing形式。 I saw him enter the room sit down and light a cigarette.我 看见他走进房间,坐了下来,点燃了一根香烟。

E 动词-ing形式作定语 1 单个的动词-ing形式可以作前置定语,一般具有两种含 义。 ① 说明被修饰名词的用途和性能。 a reading room = a room which is used for reading 阅览室
running shoes =shoes for running 跑鞋

a working method =a method of working 工作方法
必 背

a drawing board 画板
a swimming pool 游泳池 a dining car 餐车

a sewing machine 缝纫机
a waiting room a driving permit 候车室 驾驶许可证

a singing competition 歌咏比赛 a walking stick 手杖

② 表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近 一个定语从句,可以表示正在进行的动作,也可表示经常 性动作或当时的状态。 developing countries = countries that are developing 发展中国家 an ordinary-looking house = a house that looks ordinary 看起来很普通的房子

a puzzling problem = a problem that puzzles somebody
困扰人的问题





a barking dog 狂吠的狗 a disappointing play 令人失望的戏剧 an astonishing adventure 惊人的冒险 a sleeping baby 熟睡的婴儿 boiling water 正在沸腾的水

failing sight 逐渐衰退的视力
the setting sun 落日

the coming week 下一周

2 作定语的动词-ing形式如是一个短语,则应放在被修 饰词的后面。 The bottle containing vinegar should be sent to the laboratory.装着醋的那个瓶子应送到实验室去

They lived in a house facing south. 他们住在一所朝南的房子里。
3 某些情况下,动词-ing形式不能用来作定语,必须用 定语从句。 ① 作定语的动词-ing形式表示的动作要与主句谓语的动 作同时发生,如两者不能同时发生的话,则需使用定语从 句。【误】The professor coming here yesterday will give us a lecture. 【正】The professor who came here yesterday will give us a lecture. 昨天来的教授将要给我们作一个讲座。

② 动词-ing形式的完成式一般只用来作 状语,不作定语。

【误】The temple having been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 【正】The temple which has been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 被地震毁坏的庙宇很快就要重建了。

F 动词-ing形式作状语 动词-ing形式可以作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示时间、 原因、结果、条件、让步、行为方式或伴随情况等。动词 -ing形式作时间、原因、条件、让步状语时多位于句首; 作结果、伴随情况状语时常位于句末。 1 表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。 Having made full preparations, we are ready for the examination.我们已经作好了充分准 备,现在可以应考了。(= After we have made full preparations...) 2 表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 Being ill, he didn't go to school yesterday.

由于生病,他昨天没有上学。(= Since he was ill...)

3 表示结果,相当于一个并列谓语。 His father died, leaving him a lot of money. = and left him a lot of money. 他父亲死了,留给他许多钱. 4 表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Working hard at your lessons, you will succeed. =If you work hard at your lessons...如果你努力学习,就 一定能成功。 5 表示让步,相当于一个让步状语从句。

Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage.
= Although they knew all this...尽管知道了一切情况,他 们还是要我赔偿损失。

6 表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明,相当于一个并列结构。 He lay on the grass, staring at the sky for a long time. = ...and stared at the sky for a long time 他躺在草地上,长时间地望着天空。

e.g. Having finished my homework,I went to watchTV. e.g.________a reply, he decided to write a sixth letter. A. Not receiving B. Not to receive C. Not having received D. Having not received
没收信的动作发生在决定写信这一动作之前 所以应该用having done ;此题又是表否定含 义,分词的否定式为not doing/not having done; 故选 c

-ing 形式

European football is played in 80 countries, ___ it the most popular sport in the world.

A. making B. makes

C. made

D. to make

He rushed to the train station, only ____ the train had gone
A. finding B. found C. finds

D to find D.

Making it the popular sport in the world为现在分词短语作结果状语,这 类分词短语常放在句子的后面,v-ing表 示顺其自然,不定式表示突然,出乎 意料。如:
His parents died, leaving him an orphan. He rushed to the post office only to find it was closed

动 词 -ing 形 式 的 逻 辑 主 语

A 作主语的动词-ing形式
动词-ing形式作主语时,其逻辑主语对于谈话双方是不言 而喻的。 Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处 的。 (Reading aloud的逻辑主语是泛指任何人,因 而无需表达出来)



津 坊 如果作主语的动词-ing形式需要自己的逻辑主语时, 一般用物主代词或名词所有格(即名词后加‘s) His father’s falling ill worried him greatly. 他父亲生病使他很着急。
(his father是falling ill的逻辑主语)

B 作表语的动词-ing形式 动词-ing形式作表语时,其逻辑主语往往是句子中的主 语,但用作表语的-ing形式也可带有自己的逻辑主语。

What worries me most is her staying too late every night. (staying too late every night的逻辑 主语是her) C 作定语的动词-ing形式 动词-ing形式作定语时,其逻辑主语就是它 修饰的名词。 an interesting book 一本有意思 的书= a book that interests its readers
a running stream 一条奔流的 小溪 = a stream that is running

如果动词-ing形式的逻辑主语是动 作的承受者,就要用-ing形式的被动式。 The meeting being held in Beijing now is of great importance. 正在北京召开的会议非常重要。 (the meeting和"举行"之间的关系是被 动的,所以用being held)

D 作宾语的动词-ing形式

动词-ing形式作宾语时,其逻辑主语常是句子中的主语。 如要明确动作的执行者,也可以在-ing形式前加上名词或 代词表示逻辑主语。 比 较 He insisted on doing it himself. 他坚持要自己做。 (doing it的逻辑主语是句子的主语“他”) He insisted on my doing it. 他坚持要我做。 (doing it的逻辑主语是“我”) Would you mind opening the window? 请你把窗子打开好吗? (opening the window的逻 辑主语是“你”) Would you mind my opening the window? 你介意我把窗子打开吗? (opening the window的 逻辑主语是“我”)

E 作宾语补足语的动词-ing形式

动词-ing形式作宾语补足语时,它的逻辑主语 就是它前面的宾语。 We often hear her singing this song. 我们经常听见她唱这首歌。 (singing this song的逻辑主语是“她”) We often hear this song (being) sung. 我们经常听见这首歌被人唱。 (逻辑主语"this song"和宾语补足语“唱”的 关系是被动的,所以用动词-ing形式的被动式或ed分词。)

F 作状语的动词-ing形式 1 动词-ing形式作状语,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主 语保持一致。 Entering the classroom, I found nobody in it. 如动词-ing形式表示的动作不是句中主语发出或承受的, 那就是误用。这种无依着的-ing形式,语法上称之为“垂 悬分词”。

【误】Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. (looking out through the window的逻辑主语是 the garden,显然不对) 【正】Looking out through the window, we saw a beautiful garden.

【误】Reading the evening newspaper, a dog started barking. (逻辑主语是dog,它不会看晚报) 【正】I was reading the evening newspaper when a dog started barking.
2 如不能和句子中的主语保持一致,该动词-ing形式 必须有自己的逻辑主语,通常由名词或代词来担任。 The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Friday.

必 背 高中阶段有一些固定的动词-ing形式短语,如generally speaking, judging from...,considering..., talking of..., supposing...等,它们的逻辑主语可以和句子的主 语不一致。这种动词-ing短语可当作一个插入语。 Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls.一般说来,男孩比女孩对科学更感兴趣.

Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada.从他的口音看,他一定来自加拿大.

Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free.考虑到他是多么的穷, 我们决定让他免费听音乐会。 Supposing it rains, what will you do?假使下雨,你 会怎么办呢?

B) 关于逻辑主语的问题 1. ______to the meeting surprised all of the boards. A. Mike coming B. Mike came C. Mike coming D. Mike?s coming 2. It?s no use _______ that you didn?t know the rules. A. you pretend B. you pretending C. your pretending D. your pretend Change the following into the simple sentences. That Peter didn?t attend the meeting made it put off.

不定式

? 1.不定式作主语:
? 1) change the following into the infinitive ? 1. ______( die ) for people is a glorious thing. ? 2. ______( talk ) with him is a great pleasure. ? 3. ______( help ) others is our duty. ? 4. ______( see ) is to believe. ? 2) change the sentences above into the ones ? using “it” as informal.

? 3)A: 如果要说明不定式表示的动作是谁做 的,可以在不定式前加一个由for 引起的短 语。 ? It is easy for the students to read. ? It will be a mistake for us to help you.

It is + 形容词 + for / of sb + 不定式结构 在"It is + 形容词 + of sb + 不定式"结构中,形容词
往往表示人物的性格和特征,如kind, silly, good, unwise, clever, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, rude, impolite, bold, thoughtful, honest, bad, sensible, naughty 等。在“It is + 形容词 + for sb + 不定式”结构中,形 容词通常表示事物的性质,如important, possible, impossible, necessary, difficult, hard, reasonable等。 比 较 It is good of you to help me with my English. 你真好,帮助我学英语。 (强调you的特征=You are good to help me.) It is good for you to give up smoking. 戒烟对你有好处。 (强调的是give up smoking这一行为= For you to give up smoking is good.)

2.不定式作表语
1. Her work is ______( look )after the children. 2. My aim is ______( go ) to Tsinghua University. 3. She seemed ______( think ) about the problem.

3.不定式作宾语: 有些及物动词常用不定式作宾语。常见 的动词有: want, demand, like, hate, hope, begin, seem, fail, help, offer, manage, pretend, forget, remember, promise, prepare, learn, expect, agree, determine, prefer, intend, etc.

?
? ? ?

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They wanted ______( get ) on the bus, didn?t they? He said he wished______(be )a professor. I agreed______ (go ) there with the doctor. My daughter preferred ______( dance ) when she was in her twenties. He had promised ______(give) me a hand.



较 一般说来,动词-ing形式表示一般性、习惯性的动作,或 抽象性的动作,时间概念不强。而动词不定式表示的动作往往 是具体的或一次性的动作,特别是将来的动作。 Smoking is forbidden here. 这里禁止吸烟。(泛指)

It?s not good for you to smoke so much. 吸这么多烟对你的身体不好。(具体) They prefer staying indoors when the weather is cold. 天冷时他们喜欢呆在室内。(泛指) Would you prefer to stay at home this evening? 今晚你想待在家里吗?(具体)

I like singing ,but I don't like to sing this night .

4.不定式作宾语补足语 A)1. I didn?t want my parents ______(help ) me. 2. We?d prefer you _______( take ) the job instead of Zhang. 3. The school ordered all the classroom ______( clean ). 4. My parents expect me _______( go )to a ideal university. 5. Joan promised the dinner ______( cook ) before we returned. 6. The doctor advised the patient ______( take ) two pills every four hours. 7. He determined me_______( tell ) everything.

动词不定式作定语
不定式作定语通常放在其修饰的名词名代词之后,与被修饰 的名词或代词之间是主谓关系、动宾关系、同位关系或修饰关系。 1 主谓关系 The future to greet us will be bright. 我们的未来会十分美好的。 The next train to arrive was from New York. 下一列到站的火车是从纽约开来的。 2 动宾关系 On Sundays, he always has a lot of letters to write. 星期天,他总是有许多信要写。 He can find no one to make friends with. 他找不到可交朋友的人。

3 同位关系 We students should have the courage to face any difficulty.我们学生应该有勇气面对任何困难。

4 修饰关系
Now it is time to begin our class. 现在是上课的时间了。

点 津 坊
由于动词不定式与其修饰的词之间往往有动宾关系,因 此,如果该不定式的动词是不及物动词,其后应有必要的 介词。 She has a child to take care of. 她有一个孩子要照看。 There is nothing to worry about. 没什么可担心的。 He has no friend to depend on. 他没有可依靠的朋友。 I've got a lot of things to see to this morning. 今天上午我有许多事情要处理。

5.不定式作定语 Change the following into infinitives. ? He was the first person that came to the classroom this morning. ? The only thing that I want to get is the diamond necklace.

? Everything that is done needs praising.
? Here are some books that you can read.

动词不定式作状语

不定式作状语可以表示行为的目的、结果、原因、条件等。 1 表示目的 I?m saving up to buy a computer. 我在存钱买电脑。

点 津 坊
有时为了强调或突出这种目的,也可以用in order (not) to do, 和so as (not) to do结构 (so as to do不可以置于句首)。 He shouted and waved in order to be noticed.为了引起注意,他又嚷嚷又挥手。 I?ll write down his telephone number so as not to forget it。我要把他的电话号码记下来,以防 忘记

2 表示结果 He got to the station only to find the train had gone. 他赶到车站,发现火车已经开走了。 必 背 : 不定式表示结果常见于下列句型 1) so...as to do Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle? 把你的自行车借给我好吗? 2) such...as to do We are not such fools as to believe him. 我们还没蠢到会相信他的地步。 3) enough to do He didn't run fast enough to catch the train. 他跑得不够快,没赶上火车。 4) only to do He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet. 他搬起石头砸自己的脚。 5) too...to do His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. 他的视力太差了,看不清这么小的字。

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1.He got up early so that he could catch the first bus to the town. He got up early__so___ _as____ _to____ catch the first bus. 2. We must work hard at English in order that we can contact foreigners freely. We must work hard at English _____so _as____ _to___ contact foreigners freely. 3. He was so frightened that he could hardly say anything. He was___so___ frightened __to_____say anything. He was __not____ brave _enough_____ __to____say anything. 4. __to____(save ) the badly sick lady, the doctor had an operation on her. 5. He hurried to the station only _to find____( find ) the train left.

be+不定式结构
“be + 不定式”结构可以表示将来发生的动作,常有以下两种情 况: 1 表示命令和指示 The room is to be locked. 这房间要上锁。 2表示计划或安排 We are to begin the work next month. 我们下月开始这项工作。 比 较 be to do表示计划和安排将要发生的动作。 Another new railway is to be built in my hometown next year.明年我家乡又要修建一条铁路了。 be about to do表示最近即将要发生的动作。不能和具体的时间 状语连用。 The manager was about to leave when his secretary called him back. 经理正要离开时,他的秘书叫住了他。

with/without + 名词 + 不定式结构 "with/without + 名词 + 不定式“结构在句子中通 常起状语的作用。

With so much work to do, I shall not be able to go to the cinema with you. 有这么多工作要做,我不能和你去看电影了。 With him to stay in the house, I feel quite safe. 有他呆在家里,我感到十分安全。 Without anything to eat, he died of hunger. 由于没有东西吃,他饿死了。

用主动式表示被动含义的不定式
I hope to have met him at the railway station, but he didn't turn up. 我本希望在火车站接到他,但他未露面。 We would love to have gone to the match, but the tickets were all sold out. 我们原想去看这场比赛的,但票已售完了。 The plane was to have taken off at 9:00, but something went wrong.飞机原计划九点起飞,但出现了一些故障。

用作独立成分的不定式
有一些不定式短语可以作状语修饰整个句子,也可被称为插入语。 To be honest, we are not sure to find the girl in the forest. 说老实话,我们不能确保在森林里能找到那个女孩。 He is very honest, to begin with. 首先,他很诚实。 必 背 to tell you the truth 说老实话 to begin with 首先 to say nothing of 姑且不说 so to speak 可以这么说 to be sure 诚然,固然 to be exact 精确地说 to do him justice 说句对他公道的话 to make a long story short 长话短说 to be frank 坦率地说 to be brief 简言之 to conclude 总而言之

用主动式表示被动含义的不定式
1 不定式做后置定语,与被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关 系,但又与该句主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时。 Do you have anything to say on this question? 针对这个问题,你有什么要说的吗? 2 不定式作形容词的宾语,与句子主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时。 The book is difficult to understand. 这本书很难理解。 3 There be结构中,当说话人考虑必须有人去完成某件事时。 There is nothing to worry about. 没什么可担心的。 比 较 She has two letters to type. 她有两封信要打。 (自己打) She has two letters to be typed. 她有两封信要打。 (别人打)

用于感叹句
不定式可用于感叹句,含有惊异、不满、惋惜或赞美等感 情色彩。 To think that he should do this! 想想,他竟然干出这等事! (表示惊讶)

Oh, God, to see her dance!
哦,天哪,看看她的舞蹈!(表示赞美)

To think that all the money has been wasted.
想想,所有的钱都被浪费掉了!(表示不满)

不带to的不定式
1 在口语中,动词原形come和go后可接不带to的不定式。 Go tell her. 去告诉她吧。 Come have a glass. 来喝一杯。

2 在why引起的一些问句中,疑问词直接跟动词原形或"not + 动词原形"。 Why make so much noise? 为什么发出这么大的噪音? Why not join us? 为什么不加入我们?
3 在had better, had best, would rather, would rather...than, would sooner, would sooner...than, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but等结 构后直接跟动词原形或"not + 动词原形"。 You'd better listen to your teacher's opinion. 你最好听一听老师的意见。 We had best call for the doctor at once. 我们最好马上就请医生来。

4 如不定式前有行为动词do,那么在表语中的不定式或者介词 except/but之后的不定式可不带to。 The only thing I could do was go home. 我能做的惟一一件事就是回家。 5 两个动词不定式并列使用时,为了避免重复,后面的不定式符号 to可省略。 The little girl hardly knew whether to laugh or cry. 这小姑娘不知道是哭好还是笑好。 Can you help me to call him and ask him to attend the meeting at 2:00 p.m.? 你能不能帮我打电话给他,叫他下午两点来开会? 6 在一些固定搭配中用不带to的不定式。 He let go the rope. 他松开了绳子。 I hear say there will be an earthquake soon. 我听说不久就要有一次地震。 She made believe she was innocent. 她假装清白。 7 在感官动词see, hear, watch, feel, notice以及使役动词 make, let, have等后作宾语补足语的动词不定式不带to。

非谓语动词的一些特殊用法后只接不定式作宾语的一 些常用特殊谓语动词:want, hope和wish, agree, decide, mean, manage, promise, expect, pretend,且说两位算 在此,要记牢,要记住,掌握它们靠自己。

后接动词不定式做宾语补足语省略不定式符号“to”的 一些常用特殊动词:
一些动词要掌握,have, let和make, 此三动词是使役,“注意”“观察(look at, observe)”“听到(hear, listen to)”see, 还有feel和watch,使用它们要仔细

‘后接“宾补”略去“to”,此点千万要牢记

不定式符号的单独使用
1 在助动词或情态动词之后,如be, going to, used to, have to, ought to, be able to, be about to等。 She must go but you don't have to. 她必须走,但你没有必要。

2 在want, decide, like, love, hope, wish, mean, refuse, try等动词之后。 -Did you go to see the Great Wall?你游览长城了吗? -I wanted to, but I was too busy.我本来想去,但太忙了。
3 在作宾语补足语的ask, tell, order, advise, persuade, warn, wish, permit, allow, forbid等动词之后。 Don‘t do anything unless your father tells you to. 除非你父亲叫你去做,不然不要做任何事情。 4 在对话的答语中的happy, glad, eager, anxious, willing, ready, pleased, afraid等形容词之后。 -Will you lend me a hand? 你能帮我一个忙吗? -I'm willing to, but I can't now. 我很愿意,但现在不行。

提 示 如果动词不定式是to be或to have,则一般不省略动词。 -Did you finish the work? 你的工作完成了吗? -No, but I hoped to have. 没有,但我希望已经完成了。

介词to与不定式符号to的辨别
英语中有很多常用短语带有to,要正确判断to是不定式符号还 是介词,千万不可混淆。 These young lads are longing to go to watch the football match. 这几个小伙子极想去看足球赛。
If you stick to the truth, you will have nothing to fear. 如果你坚持真理,就没有什么可害怕的。



背 常见的带不定式的短语: 应该做某事 决心要做某事 未能做某事 全力以赴做某事

be supposed to do be determined to do fail to do go all out to do

have the nerve to do

有胆量做某事

have a great mind to do 很想做某事 make up one's mind to do 决定做某事 make a point to do prepare oneself to do 坚持做某事 有思想准备做某事

take the trouble to do

不辞辛苦地做某事



背 常见的带介词to的短语: 习惯 be related to 与……有关

be used to

get down to 着手做
be equal to 胜任 lead to 导致 look forward to 盼望 stick to 坚持

be given to 沉溺于
devote oneself to 献身于 be opposed to object to 反对 pay attention to 注意 反对

put one‘s mind to 全神贯注于 give rise to 引起

动词-ed形式也是非谓语动词的一种,它具有动词的一些 特点,同时也具有形容词、副词的句法功能,在句中可用 作表语、定语、状语和宾语补足等。 动词-ed形式的特征
1 动词-ed形式表示已完成的动作。 除了作形容词用的动词-ed形式外,动词-ed形式可带有完成的 意义,有的同时也带有被动的意义。 Born and brought up in the countryside, he was interested in biology. 由于在农村出生并长大,他对生物很感兴趣。 One of the glasses was found broken. 有人发现其中一个杯子破了。 The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people. 鲁迅写的这些书,受到了许多中国人的喜爱。

2 及物动词的-ed形式一般表示被动的意思。 Given more time, I could have solved that riddle. 要是有充足的时间,我就能猜出那个谜语。 (句子的主语I和动词give之间是被动关系。) When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood. 你说英语的时候,一定要让人懂得你的意思。 (宾语yourself和宾语补足语understand之间是被动关系。) The experience gained in the army was of great value to our study. 在军队获得的经验对我们的学习很有帮助。 3 不及物动词-ed形式只表示完成的意义,并不带有被动的含义。 an escaped prisoner 逃犯 = a prisoner who has escaped a retired worker 退休工人= a worker who has retired a newly arrived guest 新来的客人 = a guest who has just arrived People should pay attention to the changed situation. 人们应该注意到变化了的形势。

A 动词-ed形式作表语
1 动词-ed形式在连系动词后作表语,说明主语的状态。 The students are fully prepared. 学生们已做好了充分的准备。 When we got there, the shop was closed. 我们到那儿时,商店已经关门了。 比 较 要把动词-ed形式作表语和被动语态区别开来。作表语的-ed形式 表示状态,被动语态表示被动动作。 Peter the Great is buried here. 彼得大帝就埋葬在这里。
Peter the Great was buried here in 1725.

彼得大帝于1725年被埋葬在这里。
2 同一动词的-ed形式与-ing形式作表语时的区别。 动词-ed形式作表语,主要表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态, 含有被动的意思,而动词-ing形式作表语多表示主语具有的特征, 含有主动的意思。

They were frightened to hear the frightening sound. 他们听到那可怕的声音很害怕。 At the sight of the moving scene, all the people present were moved. 看到这么动人的情景,所有在场的人都感动了。 比较: amusing 使人高兴的 amused 开心的 encouraging 鼓舞人心的 encouraged 受鼓励的 disappointing 令人失望的 disappointed 失望的 exciting 使人激动的 excited 激动的 puzzling 迷惑人的 puzzled 迷惑的 satisfying 令人满意的 satisfied 感到满意的 Worrying 令人烦恼的 worried 烦恼的 tiring 引起疲劳的 tired 疲劳的 pleasing 令人愉快的 pleased 高兴的 astonishing 令人惊讶的 astonished 惊讶的

1)分词与动名词作表语时的区别:

1.Our plan is ______( finish ) the task before May. 2. Tom?s job was ______( guard ) the factory. 3. His lecture is ______( interest ), which made us ______( interest ). 4. The situation is ______( encourage).

B 动词-ed形式作宾语补足语
当作宾语补足语的动词和前面的宾语之间是被动关系时,一般应用 动词-ed形式作宾语补足语。 1 在感觉动词see, hear, feel, notice, watch, find等后作宾 语补足语。 I heard the Ninth Symphony played last night. 昨晚我听了第九交响乐的演奏。 We found all the rivers seriously polluted. 我们发现所有的河流都被严重污染了。 比 较 动词get后也可接动词不定式或动词-ing形式作宾语补足语,和 宾语是主动关系。 I couldn't get the car to start this morning. 今早我无法把汽车发动起来。 He got his sister to help him with his clothes. 他让姐姐帮他洗衣服。 It is not hard to get him talking; the problem is stopping him! 让他说话不难,难的是说开了止不住他。

2 在使役动词get, have, make, leave, keep等后作宾语补足 语。 ① 动词-ed形式作get的宾语补足语。 Doris got her bad tooth pulled out in the hospital. 多丽丝在医院把坏牙拔了。 I'll just get these dishes washed and then I'll come. 我得先把盘子洗了,然后就来。 ② 动词-ed形式作make的宾语补足语。 He raised his voice in order to make himself heard. 他提高了嗓门为了使别人听清他的讲话。 You should make your views known to the public. 你应该让公众知道你的观点。 ③动词-ed形式作keep或leave的宾语补足语。 They all went home, leaving all the work undone. 所有的工作都没完成,他们就回家了。 The detective and his assistant kept themselves locked in the room all night. 侦探和他的助手把自己整夜反锁在房。

比 较 动词get后也可接动词不定式或动词-ing形式作宾语补足语,和 宾语是主动关系。 I couldn't get the car to start this morning. 今早我无法把汽车发动起来。 He got his sister to help him with his clothes. 他让姐姐帮他洗衣服。 It is not hard to get him talking; the problem is stopping him! 让他说话不难,难的是说开了止不住他。 Can you really get that old clock going again? 你真的能让那只旧钟再走起来吗? 点 津 坊 动词make后的宾语补足语可用不带to的动词不定式或动词-ed 形式,但不可用动词-ing形式。 【误】Can you make the students understanding the text? 【正】Can you make the students understand the text? 你能让学生理解这篇课文吗? 【正】Can you make the text understood by the students? 你能让学生理解这篇课文吗?

④ 使役动词have后既可接动词-ed形式,也可接动词不定式和动 词-ing形式作宾语补足语。三者之间有一定的区别。 have 不定式动作由宾语发出,表示让某人做某事 *I'm going to have the teacher answer this question after class. 我打算课后让老师回答这个问题。 1. 让某人做某事或让某种情况发生。 *He had the car waiting outside. 他让小汽车在外面等着。 2. 常用于否定结构,表示“不容忍”、“不能让”。 *We won‘t have the child talking to his mother like that. 我们不能容忍那个孩子那样对他的妈妈说话。 1. 宾语和补足语之间有逻辑上的被动关系,表示某事由别人做。 *Where did you have your hair cut? 你在哪儿理的发? 2. 表示主语遭到某种不幸或陷入恶劣的环境。 *The house had its roof blown off. 房子的屋顶被吹掉了。 3. 完成某事(自己也可能参与)。 *He has had one thousand yuan saved.他已存了1000元。 4. 否定式表示“不允许”。 *I won't have anything said against her. 我不允许别人说反对她的话。

3 动词-ed形式也可用在with (without) 结构中,作介词的宾 语补足语。 With everything well arranged, he left the office. 一切都安排妥善之后,他离开了办公室。 She has come back with her backpack filled with interesting picture-books. 她已经回来了,背包里塞满了有趣的图书。 Without any more time given, we couldn't finish the task in three weeks. 如果不再给我们任何时间的话,我们三星期之内完成不了任务。 4 某些动词后(如want, need, prefer, would like等),作宾 语补足语的不定式被动形式省略“to be”,就成了动词-ed形式 作宾语补足语。 I would like this matter (to be) settled immediately. 我希望这事立即得到解决。 The peasants don't want good farmland (to be) built on. 农民们不想让好好的农田被用来建造房子。

3)现在分词与过去分词作宾语补足语的区别: whom flns+sb do (经常性动作) +sb doing sth.(正在进行) +sth done(被动) 1.I used to see these boys ____( play ) on the playground. 2.I saw them _____( play ) the computer this afternoon. 3.She was surprised to find the house _____( break ) into when she went back home.

4. Unfortunately, he got his wallet _____( steal ) on the bus. 5. He won?t have us _____( criticize ) him. 6. It?s a bad habit to leave the work ______( undo ). 7. Yesterday I caught him _____( take ) my dictionary when I went into the classroom.

C 动词-ed形式作定语
1 前置定语 单个动词-ed形式作定语一般放在被修饰的名词之前,作前置 定语。 A watched pot never boils. 心急锅不开。 All the broken doors and windows have been repaired. 所有的坏门窗都修好了。

When we arrived, we each were given a printed question paper. 我们到达的时候,每人被发给了一份印制好的试卷。 提 示 如要表示强调,单个动词-ed形式也可作后置定语。 Money spent is more than money earned. 入不敷出。

2 后置定语 作后置定语的动词-ed形式一般都带有修饰语或其他成分,在 语法上相当于一个定语从句。 We have read many novels written by this author. 我们读过这个作家写的许多小说。 (= that are written by this author) Half of the honoured guests invited to the reception were foreign ambassadors.被邀请到招待会上的贵宾有一半都是外国 大使。(= who had been invited to the reception) The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success.这次会议获得很大的成功,共有一千名学生出席了。 (= which was attended by one thousand students) A woman, dressed like a lawyer, came in and took her seat as judge.一个律师装扮的女人走了进来,并作为法官就座。 (= who was dressed like a lawyer)

3 动词-ed形式作定语和-ing形式作定语的区别 动词-ed形式作定语表示动作已完成,而动词-ing形式作定语 表示动词正在进行。 the risen sun 升起了的太阳 the rising sun 正在升起的太阳 boiled water 开水 fallen leaves 落叶 boiling water 正沸腾的水 falling leaves 正在飘落的叶子

changed condition 改变了的情况

changing condition 变化着的情况
developed countries 发达国家 developing countries 发展中国家

4) 分词作定语: 1. Do you know the man _____(speak ) at the meeting? 2. Do you know the man _____( praise ) at the meeting? 3. The building _____( put ) up last now is our library. 4. The building _____( put ) up now will be our new company.

5. The building _____( put ) up next year will be our new company. 6. There was an old temple _____ ( stand ) at the top of the hill. 7. There is a sports meeting _____ ( hold ) next Tuesday. 8. There was an old man ______( live ) in the village.

D 动词-ed形式作状语
动词-ed形式作状语和动词-ing形式作状语一样,也可以表示时间、 原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。 1 表示时间 动词-ed形式作状语表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。 Seen from the tower, the city looks beautiful.
从塔上往下看,城市显得很美丽。 (= When the city is seen from the tower...) Shown the lab, we were taken to see the library. 带我们参观了实验室之后,又带我们参观了图书馆。

(= After we had been shown the lab ...)
Completely examined by the doctors, he went back to school right away.经过医生彻底检查以后,他立刻回到了学校。 (= After he was completely examined...)







有时动词-ed形式前可加连词when, while等来强调 时间概念。 Once recovered, he went all out to do his work. 一恢复健康,他就全力以赴地干起了工作。 When asked why she was late for class again, she hung her head in shame. 当被问到为什么上课又迟到时,她羞愧地低下了头。 Once started, the clock will go half a month and keep good time. 一旦给这钟上了发条,它就会走半个月,并且走得很 准。

2 表示原因 动词-ed形式作状语表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 Moved by the heroic deeds, the children couldn't help crying. 孩子们被英雄事迹感动,情不自禁地哭了起来。 (= Since they were moved by the heroic deeds ...)

Written in haste, her letter is very hard to read.
因为写得快,她的信很难阅读。 (= As it was written in haste ...) Excited by the new discovery, we decided to go out and celebrate.

我们因为新发现而激动万分,决定出去庆祝一下。
(= Because we were excited by...)

3 表示条件 动词-ed形式作状语表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Heated, water changes into steam.加热,水就能变成蒸汽。 (= If water is heated...) Given more time, he would be able to do better. 假如多给一些时间,他会干得更出色。 (= If he was given more time ...) Compared with other professors, she was an excellent speaker. 与其他教授相比,她是一个优秀的演说家。 (= If she was compared with other protessors...) 点 津 坊 为了使-ed形式表示的条件、动词让步意义更加明显,我们可 以加上适当的连词。 Even if invited, I won't go. 即使受到邀请,我也不去。 Though beaten by the opposite team, they did not lose heart. 虽然被对手打败,但他们并没有丧失信心。 Unless invited, he will not come back to the company. 除非被邀请,不然他不会回到公司来的。

4 表示让步 动词-ed形式作状语表示让步,相当于一个 though/although引导的让步状语从句。 Exhausted by the running, they went on running after the robber.尽管已经跑得筋疲力尽,他们还是继续追赶着那个强盗。 (= Although they were exhausted by the running ...) Laughed at by many people, he continued his research. 尽管被许多人嘲笑,他还是继续他的研究。 (= Even if he was laughed by many people ...) 点 津 坊 有时动词-ed形式作状语和动词-ing形式被动式作状语,并没 有多大的区别,可以互换。 Suddenly seized with a high fever, he was unable to attend school. = Being suddenly seized with a high fever, he was unable to attend school. 他因突然发热不能来上学。 Brought up in the countryside, he found it hard to get used to town life. = Having been brought up in the countryside, he found it hard to get used to town life. 因为是在农村长大的,他感到很难适应城镇生活。

5 表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明 动词-ed形式作状语表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明时, 通常位于句子的后面,相当于一个并列分句。 The teacher stood there, surrounded by the students. 老师站在那儿,被学生围住了。 (= and he was surrounded by the students) He went into the office, followed by some children. 他走进办公室,后面跟着一些孩子。 (= and he was followed by some children) 点 津 坊 动词的-ed形式在句中不能用作主语或宾语。 【误】I cannot stand laughed at. 【正】I cannot stand being laughed at. 我不能容忍被人嘲笑。 【误】Invited to the state banquet is a great honour. 【正】To be invited to the state banquet is a great honour.

A) 1._____(see ) those picture, he couldn?t help thinking of those days in Yan?an. 2._____( turn ) round, Fanny found an ambulance driving up. 3_____( water ) the vegetables, they began to pick up the apples. 4._____( finish ) the work, he went back home on foot. 5._____( inspire ) by Dr. Chen?s speech, they decided to study maths harder. 6._____( persuade) by her mother, she gladly went there alone.

7.Warmly _____( praise ) for his work, he was too excited to fall asleep. 8._____( surround), the enemy found nowhere to hide and had to give up. 9.Once _____( arm ), we are afraid of nothing. 10.While _____( cross )the street, look out for cars. 11.While_____( criticize ),she cried. 12.She came earlier than _____( expect). 13.Everything goes well as _____( plan ). 14.____( give ) more time, we are sure to do it better.

? 判断对或错: 1. Seeing from the hill, the city looks more beautiful. 2. Leaving home, the little girl felt much afraid. 将上列句子分词部分改成从句:

(动词-ed形式的逻辑主语) A 动词-ed形式作状语或表语时
1 动词-ed形式在句中作状语或表语时,它的逻辑主语一般来说就 是句子的主语,动词-ed形式和主语之间是被动关系。 Locked up, he had no way to escape. 他被锁了起来,没有办法逃跑了。 Lost in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. 他陷入了沉思,几乎撞到了前面的汽车。 She became discouraged at the news. 听到这个消息,她泄气了。

B 动词-ed形式作定语时
当动词-ed形式在句中作定语时,它的逻辑主语是被它修饰的名词, 它和名词之间是被动关系。 The first textbooks written for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 第一批编写出来作为英语教材的课本是16世纪出版的。

C 动词-ed形式在句中作宾语补足语或主语补足语时, 它的逻辑主语是句子的主语或宾语,它们之间的关系是被 动关系。
Vivien got her fingers trapped in the bicycle chain. 薇薇恩把手指卡在自行车链条里了。 (trapped的逻辑主语是句子的宾语fingers) The valuable vase was found stolen. 那个珍贵的花瓶发现被盗了 (stolen的逻辑主语是句子的主语vase) We got home only to find the whole house turned upside down. Thieves obviously had broken in. 我们回到家发现整幢房子被翻得乱七八糟,很明显小偷闯进来 了。 (turned up side down的逻辑主语是句子的宾语house)

D 动词-ed形式有时可有独立的逻辑主语
动词-ed形式有时可有其独立的逻辑主语,常用作状语 Everything done, we went home. 一切事情都做完了,我们就回家了。 All our money run out, Henry had to find another job. 钱都用完了,亨利不得不再找一份工作。

E 动词-ed形式作独立成分
动词-ed形式的一些固定词组也可在句中作独立成分,不受逻辑 主语的限制。 Put frankly, I don't agree with what he said. 坦白地说,我不同意他所说的。 Given the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. 考虑到他一般的身体状况,手术后的恢复可能需要一段时间。

独立主格结构 ( 所谓独立主格结构,分词的逻辑主 语不是句子主语,而是有自己的逻辑 主语时,叫独立主格结构。) A)1. Today ____( be ) Sunday, the library doesn?t open. 2. There _____( be ) no buses, we had to walk home.

3. The signal _____( give ), the bus started. 4. Weather ____ ( permit ), we?ll visit the Great Wall. 5. A teacher from England ____( teach ) us English, we?re sure to learn it well. 6. With him ____( give ) us a lead, our team is to win. 7. With the worker ____( lead ), the Young Pioneers went through the forest and started towards the mountain village.

8. Many people spoke aloud in front of our classroom, with nobody ____( stop ) them. 9. He was looking at the screen again, with the machine ____( turn ) on. 10. The girl felt uneasy with the whole class _____( stare ) at her. 11. With the machinery _____( do ) all the work, we finished the task last month. 12. She lay on the grass with her eyes _____( close ). 13. You might catch a cold with your feet _____( expose).

分词做定语的位置及其它

“定分”位置有二条,词前词后定分晓。
单个分词在词前,有时此规有颠倒。 分词短语在词后,“定从”和它互对照。 “现分”动作进行时,“过分”动作完成了。 注:“定分”:做定语的分词;“定从”:定语从句;“现 分”:现在分词;“过分”:过去分词。) 分词做状语在句子中所表示的意义 分词做状语,概有七意义。“ 时间”和“原因”,“结果”与“目的”。 “方式”加“伴随”,“条件”常出席。

且谈其主语,谓语头前的*。(*指句子的主语)


动名词 gerund

谓语动词

分词 participle

不定式
infinitive

非谓语动词
1.性质:它具有动词的特点,但在 句子中起着名词、形容词、副词的作 用,充当主语、表语、定语、宾语、 宾语补足语、状语的作用,即:除谓 语以外一切成分。

2.形式
? 不定式相当于名词、形容词、副词。充当 主语、宾语、定语、表语、宾语补足语、 状语。 ? 动名词相当于名词充当主语、表语、定语、 宾语。 ? 分词相当于形容词、副词。作表语、定语、 宾语补足语、状语形成分

主语 不定式 ? 过去 分词

定语

宾语

表语

状语

宾语补 足语

?

?

?

?

?

×

?

×

?

?

?

v-ing 形式

?

?

?

?

?

?

? 3.语态:必须搞清逻辑主 语与非谓语动词的关系,从 而来确定非谓语动词态的语 态。

A 动词-ing形式的一般式

1 动词-ing形式的一般式可用来泛指一个动作, 没有特别的时间意义。 Swimming is her favorite sport. 游泳是她最喜欢的体育运动。 Learning is important to modern life. 学习对现代生活很重要。 2 动词-ing形式的一般式可用来表示与谓语动词 同时发生的动作。 They went out of the classroom, talking and laughing. 他们有说有笑地走出教室。

3 动词-ing形式的一般式有时也可表示在谓语 动词的动作之前或之后发生的动作。 I remembered sending him an e-mail last week. 我记得上星期给他发过一份电子邮件。 He suggested taking my daughter to the zoo the next Sunday. 他建议下个星期天带我女儿去动物园。

B 动词-ing形式的完成式 动词-ing形式的完成式表示一个已完成的动作,这个动作 发生或完成在谓语动词表示的动作之前。 Having lived in this city for three years, she knows it very well. 点 津 坊 在现代英语中,作宾语的动词-ing形式的完成式可用一般 式来代替。 I really regretted missing such an exciting lecture. 错过了这么振奋人心的演讲,我真的很遗憾。

(=I rally regretted having missed such an exciting lecture.)

We remembered seeing the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 (=We remembered having seen the film.)

C 动词-ing形式的被动形式
动词-ing形式的被动形式表示它的逻辑主语是动词-ing 形式表示的动作的承受者。 The question being discussed is very important. 正在讨论的问题很重要。

I can‘t stand being kept waiting. 我不堪久等。
Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the school library. 在被带去看了实验室之后,我们又被带去参观校图书 馆。

D 动词-ing形式的否定形式

动词-ing形式的否定形式由not加动词 -ing形式构成。 His not coming made everyone present very disappointed. 他没来使在场的每个人都很失望。

A 动词-ing形式作主语

1 动词-ing形式可直接置于句首作主语。 Seeing is believing.= To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。

2 为了保持句子平衡,通常用先行词it作形式主语, 而把真正的主语放在句末。 It is no use crying over spilt milk. 作无益的后悔是没有用的。 It's a waste of time arguing about it. 争论这事是浪费时间。

必 背 动词-ing形式作主语的几个常用句型。 It‘s no good talking to him. 和他谈话是没 有用的。 It is useless telephoning him. He is not willing to come. 给他打电话没用。他不愿意来。 It‘s worth making an effort. 努力一下是值得 的。 There is no saying when it will stop raining. 无法断定这场雨什么时候会停。 There is no joking about such matters. 这种 事开不得玩笑。

B 动词-ing形式作表语

1 表示主语的内容 Her job is keeping the lecture hall as clean as possible. 她的工作是尽量使报告厅 保持干净。 2 表示主语具有的特征 The problem is quite puzzling. 题很令困惑。

这个问

1. Her work is ______( look )after the children. 2. My aim is ______( go ) to Tsinghua University. 3. One of my bad habit is ______(bite ) nails(指 甲).

C 动词-ing形式作宾语

动词-ing形式既可作及物动词的宾语,也可作介 词的宾语。 1 能用动词-ing形式作宾语的及物动词可分两类, 一类是只能用动词-ing形式作宾语,另一类是既可 用动词-ing形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语。 ①只能用-ing形式作宾语的动词(这类动词只能用ing形式作宾语,不能用不定式作宾语。)

Fancy meeting you here! 想不到在这儿见到你了! I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。

只能接动词-ing形式作宾语的动词:

建议冒险去献身,忍受期待不停顿; 放弃延期悔失去,坚持欣赏实践成; 注意原谅避反对,考虑要求不自禁; 允许习惯不介意,价值开始想动名。

1.He was in low spirits and even consider _____(go ) away. ? 2.Practise _____( put ) your hand to the ground. ? 3.I can?t help ______( have ) the trip to Britain. ? 4.Don?t tell me you always escape _____( fine) because you have a fast sports car. ? 5.Leave off ______(bite) your nails! ? 6.He didn?t feel like ______( work ), so he suggested _____( spend ) the day in the garden. ? 7.You certainly mustn?t miss _______( see ) the wonderful film.

? ?

?
? ? ?

?

8.The doctor advised ______( stay ) longer in hospital. 9.We appreciate your ______( want ) ______( help ) us in our difficulties. 10.Michael has delayed ______( write ) to her till today. 11.The law forbids ______( sell )liquor to children. 12.They all suggested ______( give ) more chances. 13.Can you imagine ______( leave ) standing outside for a whole night. 14.They built the banks to prevent the area from ______( flood).



背 只接动词-ing形式而不接不定式作宾语的动词有: admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 put off 推迟 keep 保持 consider 考虑

delay 耽搁 excuse 原谅
fancy想不到

dislike 嫌恶 practice 练习
feel like 意欲

resist抵制
escape 避免

mention 提及 enjoy 喜欢

mind介意
finish 完成

risk 冒险
give up 放弃

include 包括
suggest 建议

forgive 原谅
miss 逃过

imagine 设想 cannot help 情不自禁

② 既可用动词-ing形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语 这类动词虽然既能用-ing形式作宾语,也能用不定式 作宾语,但用法并不相同,主要有以下几种情况: ☆有些动词,如attempt, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer等,后面接动词-ing形式或不定式区 别不是很大。 They prefer spending/to spend their summer vacation in Dalian. 他们更喜欢在大连度暑假。 I intend to buy/buying an English-Chinese dictionary. 我想买一本英汉词典。

提 示 应尽量避免接连出现两上动词-ing形式。 I am starting to learn Russian. 我开始学俄语。 避免说:I am starting learning Russian. 我开始学俄语。

☆有些动词或词组后可带动名词或不定式作宾语, 但意义上有所不同。 come to do★表示一个渐渐发展的过程 I hope we shall be friends and come to understand one another.我希望我们会成为朋 友并互相了解 come doing★表示陪衬性的动作 It was already two o'clock when she came hurrying in. 她急急忙忙跑进来时已经两点了。

go on to do★做完一件事后,接下去做另外一件事 Having finished the exercises, we went on to learn the new words in the next unit. 做完练习以 后,我们继续学习下一单元的单词。

go on doing★继续做同一件事。 Though it was raining heavily, they went on working, 尽管天下着大雨,他们仍然继续工作。 mean to do★想要做某事 I didn't mean to hurt you. 我并不想要伤害你。
mean doing★意味着要有一个结果 Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这班车就意味着再等一个小时。

regret to do★对即将要做的事表示遗憾 I regret to say I must leave tomorrow. 很遗憾,我 明天必须离开了。 regret doing★对所做的事感到后悔 I regret not having told her earlier.没能更早地告诉 她,我很后悔。 remember to do ★讲的是将来的事,表示“不要忘 记” Remember to lock the door when you leave. 离开 时记得要锁门。

remember doing ★讲的是过去的事,表示“记起来” I remember posting that letter. 我记得寄了那封信。

forget to do★忘记要做某事 She nearly forgot to give the porter a tip for his service. 她几乎忘记给行李搬运工付小费。 forget doing★忘记以前曾做过的事 I'll never forget meeting my school headmaster for the first time. 我永远忘不了和我小学校长初次见面 的情景。

stop to do★停止原来做的事,开始做另一件事 While working, he stopped to talk with Tom at times. 工作的时候,他不时停下来和汤姆谈话。 stop doing★停止正在做的事 When the teacher came into the classroom, the pupils stopped talking. 教师走进教室的时候,小学生 们停止了说话。

try to do★设法做某事 I must try to get everything ready before he arrives. 在他到 来之前,我必须尽力把一切都准备 好。 try doing★试验做某事 Would you please try doing that again? 请你再试一次好吗?

☆need, require, want作“需要”解时,后面接动词 -ing形式的主动形式或不定式的被动形式,意义上并无 差别,但用动词-ing形式比较普通。 Your composition needs correcting / to be corrected. 你的作文需要修改。 His coat wants cleaning/to be cleaned. 他的外套需要洗了。 The old woman requires looking after carefully/to be looked after carefully. 这个老大娘需要细心地照料。 2 作介词宾语 动词-ing形式作介词宾语大都和一些固定搭配有关。

D 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语

1 动词-ing形式可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, smell, look at, listen to, observe, find等表示感官和心理状态的动词后 面作宾语补足语,和一个名词或代词一起构成复 合宾语。 We heard the children shouting upstairs. 我们听见孩子们在楼上叫喊。 I felt my heart beating violently. 我觉得我的心在猛烈地跳动。

2 动词-ing形式和不定式作宾语补足语的区别。 在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等感官 动词后,既可用动词-ing形式构成复合宾语, 也可用不定式构成复合宾语,两者之间有一定 的区别。用动词-ing形式时,表示动作正在进 行;用不定式时,表示动作发生了,即动作的 全过程结束了。 He saw a girl getting on the bus. 他看见一个女孩在上公共汽车。 He saw a girl get on the bus and drive off. 他看见一个女孩上公共汽车后开走了。

3 动词-ing形式也可用在have, get, leave, keep, set, catch等表示"致使"的动词后作宾语补足语。 They should not leave us wondering what they will do next. 他们不应该不让我们知道他们下一步要做什么。 I won't have you running about in the room. 我不允许你在房间里跑来跑去。 We kept the fire burning all night long. 我们让火整夜燃烧着。

点 津 坊 如果宾语补足语是一系列的动作,通常只能用不定式来表示,不 用动词-ing形式。 I saw him enter the room sit down and light a cigarette.我 看见他走进房间,坐了下来,点燃了一根香烟。

E 动词-ing形式作定语 1 单个的动词-ing形式可以作前置定语,一般具有两种含 义。 ① 说明被修饰名词的用途和性能。 a reading room = a room which is used for reading 阅览室
running shoes =shoes for running 跑鞋

a working method =a method of working 工作方法
必 背

a drawing board 画板
a swimming pool 游泳池 a dining car 餐车

a sewing machine 缝纫机
a waiting room a driving permit 候车室 驾驶许可证

a singing competition 歌咏比赛 a walking stick 手杖

② 表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近 一个定语从句,可以表示正在进行的动作,也可表示经常 性动作或当时的状态。 developing countries = countries that are developing 发展中国家 an ordinary-looking house = a house that looks ordinary 看起来很普通的房子

a puzzling problem = a problem that puzzles somebody
困扰人的问题





a barking dog 狂吠的狗 a disappointing play 令人失望的戏剧 an astonishing adventure 惊人的冒险 a sleeping baby 熟睡的婴儿 boiling water 正在沸腾的水

failing sight 逐渐衰退的视力
the setting sun 落日

the coming week 下一周

2 作定语的动词-ing形式如是一个短语,则应放在被修 饰词的后面。 The bottle containing vinegar should be sent to the laboratory.装着醋的那个瓶子应送到实验室去

They lived in a house facing south. 他们住在一所朝南的房子里。
3 某些情况下,动词-ing形式不能用来作定语,必须用 定语从句。 ① 作定语的动词-ing形式表示的动作要与主句谓语的动 作同时发生,如两者不能同时发生的话,则需使用定语从 句。【误】The professor coming here yesterday will give us a lecture. 【正】The professor who came here yesterday will give us a lecture. 昨天来的教授将要给我们作一个讲座。

② 动词-ing形式的完成式一般只用来作 状语,不作定语。

【误】The temple having been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 【正】The temple which has been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 被地震毁坏的庙宇很快就要重建了。

F 动词-ing形式作状语 动词-ing形式可以作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示时间、 原因、结果、条件、让步、行为方式或伴随情况等。动词 -ing形式作时间、原因、条件、让步状语时多位于句首; 作结果、伴随情况状语时常位于句末。 1 表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。 Having made full preparations, we are ready for the examination.我们已经作好了充分准 备,现在可以应考了。(= After we have made full preparations...) 2 表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 Being ill, he didn't go to school yesterday.

由于生病,他昨天没有上学。(= Since he was ill...)

3 表示结果,相当于一个并列谓语。 His father died, leaving him a lot of money. = and left him a lot of money. 他父亲死了,留给他许多钱. 4 表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Working hard at your lessons, you will succeed. =If you work hard at your lessons...如果你努力学习,就 一定能成功。 5 表示让步,相当于一个让步状语从句。

Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage.
= Although they knew all this...尽管知道了一切情况,他 们还是要我赔偿损失。

6 表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明,相当于一个并列结构。 He lay on the grass, staring at the sky for a long time. = ...and stared at the sky for a long time 他躺在草地上,长时间地望着天空。

e.g. Having finished my homework,I went to watchTV. e.g.________a reply, he decided to write a sixth letter. A. Not receiving B. Not to receive C. Not having received D. Having not received
没收信的动作发生在决定写信这一动作之前 所以应该用having done ;此题又是表否定含 义,分词的否定式为not doing/not having done; 故选 c

-ing 形式

European football is played in 80 countries, ___ it the most popular sport in the world.

A. making B. makes

C. made

D. to make

He rushed to the train station, only ____ the train had gone
A. finding B. found C. finds

D to find D.

Making it the popular sport in the world为现在分词短语作结果状语,这 类分词短语常放在句子的后面,v-ing表 示顺其自然,不定式表示突然,出乎 意料。如:
His parents died, leaving him an orphan. He rushed to the post office only to find it was closed

动 词 -ing 形 式 的 逻 辑 主 语

A 作主语的动词-ing形式
动词-ing形式作主语时,其逻辑主语对于谈话双方是不言 而喻的。 Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处 的。 (Reading aloud的逻辑主语是泛指任何人,因 而无需表达出来)



津 坊 如果作主语的动词-ing形式需要自己的逻辑主语时, 一般用物主代词或名词所有格(即名词后加‘s) His father’s falling ill worried him greatly. 他父亲生病使他很着急。
(his father是falling ill的逻辑主语)

B 作表语的动词-ing形式 动词-ing形式作表语时,其逻辑主语往往是句子中的主 语,但用作表语的-ing形式也可带有自己的逻辑主语。

What worries me most is her staying too late every night. (staying too late every night的逻辑 主语是her) C 作定语的动词-ing形式 动词-ing形式作定语时,其逻辑主语就是它 修饰的名词。 an interesting book 一本有意思 的书= a book that interests its readers
a running stream 一条奔流的 小溪 = a stream that is running

如果动词-ing形式的逻辑主语是动 作的承受者,就要用-ing形式的被动式。 The meeting being held in Beijing now is of great importance. 正在北京召开的会议非常重要。 (the meeting和"举行"之间的关系是被 动的,所以用being held)

D 作宾语的动词-ing形式

动词-ing形式作宾语时,其逻辑主语常是句子中的主语。 如要明确动作的执行者,也可以在-ing形式前加上名词或 代词表示逻辑主语。 比 较 He insisted on doing it himself. 他坚持要自己做。 (doing it的逻辑主语是句子的主语“他”) He insisted on my doing it. 他坚持要我做。 (doing it的逻辑主语是“我”) Would you mind opening the window? 请你把窗子打开好吗? (opening the window的逻 辑主语是“你”) Would you mind my opening the window? 你介意我把窗子打开吗? (opening the window的 逻辑主语是“我”)

E 作宾语补足语的动词-ing形式

动词-ing形式作宾语补足语时,它的逻辑主语 就是它前面的宾语。 We often hear her singing this song. 我们经常听见她唱这首歌。 (singing this song的逻辑主语是“她”) We often hear this song (being) sung. 我们经常听见这首歌被人唱。 (逻辑主语"this song"和宾语补足语“唱”的 关系是被动的,所以用动词-ing形式的被动式或ed分词。)

F 作状语的动词-ing形式 1 动词-ing形式作状语,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主 语保持一致。 Entering the classroom, I found nobody in it. 如动词-ing形式表示的动作不是句中主语发出或承受的, 那就是误用。这种无依着的-ing形式,语法上称之为“垂 悬分词”。

【误】Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. (looking out through the window的逻辑主语是 the garden,显然不对) 【正】Looking out through the window, we saw a beautiful garden.

【误】Reading the evening newspaper, a dog started barking. (逻辑主语是dog,它不会看晚报) 【正】I was reading the evening newspaper when a dog started barking.
2 如不能和句子中的主语保持一致,该动词-ing形式 必须有自己的逻辑主语,通常由名词或代词来担任。 The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Friday.

必 背 高中阶段有一些固定的动词-ing形式短语,如generally speaking, judging from...,considering..., talking of..., supposing...等,它们的逻辑主语可以和句子的主 语不一致。这种动词-ing短语可当作一个插入语。 Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls.一般说来,男孩比女孩对科学更感兴趣.

Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada.从他的口音看,他一定来自加拿大.

Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free.考虑到他是多么的穷, 我们决定让他免费听音乐会。 Supposing it rains, what will you do?假使下雨,你 会怎么办呢?

B) 关于逻辑主语的问题 1. ______to the meeting surprised all of the boards. A. Mike coming B. Mike came C. Mike coming D. Mike?s coming 2. It?s no use _______ that you didn?t know the rules. A. you pretend B. you pretending C. your pretending D. your pretend Change the following into the simple sentences. That Peter didn?t attend the meeting made it put off.

不定式

? 1.不定式作主语:
? 1) change the following into the infinitive ? 1. ______( die ) for people is a glorious thing. ? 2. ______( talk ) with him is a great pleasure. ? 3. ______( help ) others is our duty. ? 4. ______( see ) is to believe. ? 2) change the sentences above into the ones ? using “it” as informal.

? 3)A: 如果要说明不定式表示的动作是谁做 的,可以在不定式前加一个由for 引起的短 语。 ? It is easy for the students to read. ? It will be a mistake for us to help you.

It is + 形容词 + for / of sb + 不定式结构 在"It is + 形容词 + of sb + 不定式"结构中,形容词
往往表示人物的性格和特征,如kind, silly, good, unwise, clever, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, rude, impolite, bold, thoughtful, honest, bad, sensible, naughty 等。在“It is + 形容词 + for sb + 不定式”结构中,形 容词通常表示事物的性质,如important, possible, impossible, necessary, difficult, hard, reasonable等。 比 较 It is good of you to help me with my English. 你真好,帮助我学英语。 (强调you的特征=You are good to help me.) It is good for you to give up smoking. 戒烟对你有好处。 (强调的是give up smoking这一行为= For you to give up smoking is good.)

2.不定式作表语
1. Her work is ______( look )after the children. 2. My aim is ______( go ) to Tsinghua University. 3. She seemed ______( think ) about the problem.

3.不定式作宾语: 有些及物动词常用不定式作宾语。常见 的动词有: want, demand, like, hate, hope, begin, seem, fail, help, offer, manage, pretend, forget, remember, promise, prepare, learn, expect, agree, determine, prefer, intend, etc.

?
? ? ?

?

They wanted ______( get ) on the bus, didn?t they? He said he wished______(be )a professor. I agreed______ (go ) there with the doctor. My daughter preferred ______( dance ) when she was in her twenties. He had promised ______(give) me a hand.



较 一般说来,动词-ing形式表示一般性、习惯性的动作,或 抽象性的动作,时间概念不强。而动词不定式表示的动作往往 是具体的或一次性的动作,特别是将来的动作。 Smoking is forbidden here. 这里禁止吸烟。(泛指)

It?s not good for you to smoke so much. 吸这么多烟对你的身体不好。(具体) They prefer staying indoors when the weather is cold. 天冷时他们喜欢呆在室内。(泛指) Would you prefer to stay at home this evening? 今晚你想待在家里吗?(具体)

I like singing ,but I don't like to sing this night .

4.不定式作宾语补足语 A)1. I didn?t want my parents ______(help ) me. 2. We?d prefer you _______( take ) the job instead of Zhang. 3. The school ordered all the classroom ______( clean ). 4. My parents expect me _______( go )to a ideal university. 5. Joan promised the dinner ______( cook ) before we returned. 6. The doctor advised the patient ______( take ) two pills every four hours. 7. He determined me_______( tell ) everything.

动词不定式作定语
不定式作定语通常放在其修饰的名词名代词之后,与被修饰 的名词或代词之间是主谓关系、动宾关系、同位关系或修饰关系。 1 主谓关系 The future to greet us will be bright. 我们的未来会十分美好的。 The next train to arrive was from New York. 下一列到站的火车是从纽约开来的。 2 动宾关系 On Sundays, he always has a lot of letters to write. 星期天,他总是有许多信要写。 He can find no one to make friends with. 他找不到可交朋友的人。

3 同位关系 We students should have the courage to face any difficulty.我们学生应该有勇气面对任何困难。

4 修饰关系
Now it is time to begin our class. 现在是上课的时间了。

点 津 坊
由于动词不定式与其修饰的词之间往往有动宾关系,因 此,如果该不定式的动词是不及物动词,其后应有必要的 介词。 She has a child to take care of. 她有一个孩子要照看。 There is nothing to worry about. 没什么可担心的。 He has no friend to depend on. 他没有可依靠的朋友。 I've got a lot of things to see to this morning. 今天上午我有许多事情要处理。

5.不定式作定语 Change the following into infinitives. ? He was the first person that came to the classroom this morning. ? The only thing that I want to get is the diamond necklace.

? Everything that is done needs praising.
? Here are some books that you can read.

动词不定式作状语

不定式作状语可以表示行为的目的、结果、原因、条件等。 1 表示目的 I?m saving up to buy a computer. 我在存钱买电脑。

点 津 坊
有时为了强调或突出这种目的,也可以用in order (not) to do, 和so as (not) to do结构 (so as to do不可以置于句首)。 He shouted and waved in order to be noticed.为了引起注意,他又嚷嚷又挥手。 I?ll write down his telephone number so as not to forget it。我要把他的电话号码记下来,以防 忘记

2 表示结果 He got to the station only to find the train had gone. 他赶到车站,发现火车已经开走了。 必 背 : 不定式表示结果常见于下列句型 1) so...as to do Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle? 把你的自行车借给我好吗? 2) such...as to do We are not such fools as to believe him. 我们还没蠢到会相信他的地步。 3) enough to do He didn't run fast enough to catch the train. 他跑得不够快,没赶上火车。 4) only to do He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet. 他搬起石头砸自己的脚。 5) too...to do His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. 他的视力太差了,看不清这么小的字。

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1.He got up early so that he could catch the first bus to the town. He got up early_____ _____ _____ catch the first bus. 2. We must work hard at English in order that we can contact foreigners freely. We must work hard at English _____ _____ ____ contact foreigners freely. 3. He was so frightened that he could hardly say anything. He was______ frightened _______say anything. He was ______ brave ______ ______say anything. 4. ______(save ) the badly sick lady, the doctor had an operation on her. 5. He hurried to the station only _____( find ) the train left.

be+不定式结构
“be + 不定式”结构可以表示将来发生的动作,常有以下两种情 况: 1 表示命令和指示 The room is to be locked. 这房间要上锁。 2表示计划或安排 We are to begin the work next month. 我们下月开始这项工作。 比 较 be to do表示计划和安排将要发生的动作。 Another new railway is to be built in my hometown next year.明年我家乡又要修建一条铁路了。 be about to do表示最近即将要发生的动作。不能和具体的时间 状语连用。 The manager was about to leave when his secretary called him back. 经理正要离开时,他的秘书叫住了他。

with/without + 名词 + 不定式结构 "with/without + 名词 + 不定式“结构在句子中通 常起状语的作用。

With so much work to do, I shall not be able to go to the cinema with you. 有这么多工作要做,我不能和你去看电影了。 With him to stay in the house, I feel quite safe. 有他呆在家里,我感到十分安全。 Without anything to eat, he died of hunger. 由于没有东西吃,他饿死了。

用主动式表示被动含义的不定式
I hope to have met him at the railway station, but he didn't turn up. 我本希望在火车站接到他,但他未露面。 We would love to have gone to the match, but the tickets were all sold out. 我们原想去看这场比赛的,但票已售完了。 The plane was to have taken off at 9:00, but something went wrong.飞机原计划九点起飞,但出现了一些故障。

用作独立成分的不定式
有一些不定式短语可以作状语修饰整个句子,也可被称为插入语。 To be honest, we are not sure to find the girl in the forest. 说老实话,我们不能确保在森林里能找到那个女孩。 He is very honest, to begin with. 首先,他很诚实。 必 背 to tell you the truth 说老实话 to begin with 首先 to say nothing of 姑且不说 so to speak 可以这么说 to be sure 诚然,固然 to be exact 精确地说 to do him justice 说句对他公道的话 to make a long story short 长话短说 to be frank 坦率地说 to be brief 简言之 to conclude 总而言之

用主动式表示被动含义的不定式
1 不定式做后置定语,与被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关 系,但又与该句主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时。 Do you have anything to say on this question? 针对这个问题,你有什么要说的吗? 2 不定式作形容词的宾语,与句子主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时。 The book is difficult to understand. 这本书很难理解。 3 There be结构中,当说话人考虑必须有人去完成某件事时。 There is nothing to worry about. 没什么可担心的。 比 较 She has two letters to type. 她有两封信要打。 (自己打) She has two letters to be typed. 她有两封信要打。 (别人打)

用于感叹句
不定式可用于感叹句,含有惊异、不满、惋惜或赞美等感 情色彩。 To think that he should do this! 想想,他竟然干出这等事! (表示惊讶)

Oh, God, to see her dance!
哦,天哪,看看她的舞蹈!(表示赞美)

To think that all the money has been wasted.
想想,所有的钱都被浪费掉了!(表示不满)

不带to的不定式
1 在口语中,动词原形come和go后可接不带to的不定式。 Go tell her. 去告诉她吧。 Come have a glass. 来喝一杯。

2 在why引起的一些问句中,疑问词直接跟动词原形或"not + 动词原形"。 Why make so much noise? 为什么发出这么大的噪音? Why not join us? 为什么不加入我们?
3 在had better, had best, would rather, would rather...than, would sooner, would sooner...than, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but等结 构后直接跟动词原形或"not + 动词原形"。 You'd better listen to your teacher's opinion. 你最好听一听老师的意见。 We had best call for the doctor at once. 我们最好马上就请医生来。

4 如不定式前有行为动词do,那么在表语中的不定式或者介词 except/but之后的不定式可不带to。 The only thing I could do was go home. 我能做的惟一一件事就是回家。 5 两个动词不定式并列使用时,为了避免重复,后面的不定式符号 to可省略。 The little girl hardly knew whether to laugh or cry. 这小姑娘不知道是哭好还是笑好。 Can you help me to call him and ask him to attend the meeting at 2:00 p.m.? 你能不能帮我打电话给他,叫他下午两点来开会? 6 在一些固定搭配中用不带to的不定式。 He let go the rope. 他松开了绳子。 I hear say there will be an earthquake soon. 我听说不久就要有一次地震。 She made believe she was innocent. 她假装清白。 7 在感官动词see, hear, watch, feel, notice以及使役动词 make, let, have等后作宾语补足语的动词不定式不带to。

非谓语动词的一些特殊用法后只接不定式作宾语的一 些常用特殊谓语动词:want, hope和wish, agree, decide, mean, manage, promise, expect, pretend,且说两位算 在此,要记牢,要记住,掌握它们靠自己。

后接动词不定式做宾语补足语省略不定式符号“to”的 一些常用特殊动词:
一些动词要掌握,have, let和make, 此三动词是使役,“注意”“观察(look at, observe)”“听到(hear, listen to)”see, 还有feel和watch,使用它们要仔细

‘后接“宾补”略去“to”,此点千万要牢记

不定式符号的单独使用
1 在助动词或情态动词之后,如be, going to, used to, have to, ought to, be able to, be about to等。 She must go but you don't have to. 她必须走,但你没有必要。

2 在want, decide, like, love, hope, wish, mean, refuse, try等动词之后。 -Did you go to see the Great Wall?你游览长城了吗? -I wanted to, but I was too busy.我本来想去,但太忙了。
3 在作宾语补足语的ask, tell, order, advise, persuade, warn, wish, permit, allow, forbid等动词之后。 Don‘t do anything unless your father tells you to. 除非你父亲叫你去做,不然不要做任何事情。 4 在对话的答语中的happy, glad, eager, anxious, willing, ready, pleased, afraid等形容词之后。 -Will you lend me a hand? 你能帮我一个忙吗? -I'm willing to, but I can't now. 我很愿意,但现在不行。

提 示 如果动词不定式是to be或to have,则一般不省略动词。 -Did you finish the work? 你的工作完成了吗? -No, but I hoped to have. 没有,但我希望已经完成了。

介词to与不定式符号to的辨别
英语中有很多常用短语带有to,要正确判断to是不定式符号还 是介词,千万不可混淆。 These young lads are longing to go to watch the football match. 这几个小伙子极想去看足球赛。
If you stick to the truth, you will have nothing to fear. 如果你坚持真理,就没有什么可害怕的。



背 常见的带不定式的短语: 应该做某事 决心要做某事 未能做某事 全力以赴做某事

be supposed to do be determined to do fail to do go all out to do

have the nerve to do

有胆量做某事

have a great mind to do 很想做某事 make up one's mind to do 决定做某事 make a point to do prepare oneself to do 坚持做某事 有思想准备做某事

take the trouble to do

不辞辛苦地做某事



背 常见的带介词to的短语: 习惯 be related to 与……有关

be used to

get down to 着手做
be equal to 胜任 lead to 导致 look forward to 盼望 stick to 坚持

be given to 沉溺于
devote oneself to 献身于 be opposed to object to 反对 pay attention to 注意 反对

put one‘s mind to 全神贯注于 give rise to 引起

动词-ed形式也是非谓语动词的一种,它具有动词的一些 特点,同时也具有形容词、副词的句法功能,在句中可用 作表语、定语、状语和宾语补足等。 动词-ed形式的特征
1 动词-ed形式表示已完成的动作。 除了作形容词用的动词-ed形式外,动词-ed形式可带有完成的 意义,有的同时也带有被动的意义。 Born and brought up in the countryside, he was interested in biology. 由于在农村出生并长大,他对生物很感兴趣。 One of the glasses was found broken. 有人发现其中一个杯子破了。 The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people. 鲁迅写的这些书,受到了许多中国人的喜爱。

2 及物动词的-ed形式一般表示被动的意思。 Given more time, I could have solved that riddle. 要是有充足的时间,我就能猜出那个谜语。 (句子的主语I和动词give之间是被动关系。) When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood. 你说英语的时候,一定要让人懂得你的意思。 (宾语yourself和宾语补足语understand之间是被动关系。) The experience gained in the army was of great value to our study. 在军队获得的经验对我们的学习很有帮助。 3 不及物动词-ed形式只表示完成的意义,并不带有被动的含义。 an escaped prisoner 逃犯 = a prisoner who has escaped a retired worker 退休工人= a worker who has retired a newly arrived guest 新来的客人 = a guest who has just arrived People should pay attention to the changed situation. 人们应该注意到变化了的形势。

A 动词-ed形式作表语
1 动词-ed形式在连系动词后作表语,说明主语的状态。 The students are fully prepared. 学生们已做好了充分的准备。 When we got there, the shop was closed. 我们到那儿时,商店已经关门了。 比 较 要把动词-ed形式作表语和被动语态区别开来。作表语的-ed形式 表示状态,被动语态表示被动动作。 Peter the Great is buried here. 彼得大帝就埋葬在这里。
Peter the Great was buried here in 1725.

彼得大帝于1725年被埋葬在这里。
2 同一动词的-ed形式与-ing形式作表语时的区别。 动词-ed形式作表语,主要表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态, 含有被动的意思,而动词-ing形式作表语多表示主语具有的特征, 含有主动的意思。

They were frightened to hear the frightening sound. 他们听到那可怕的声音很害怕。 At the sight of the moving scene, all the people present were moved. 看到这么动人的情景,所有在场的人都感动了。 比较: amusing 使人高兴的 amused 开心的 encouraging 鼓舞人心的 encouraged 受鼓励的 disappointing 令人失望的 disappointed 失望的 exciting 使人激动的 excited 激动的 puzzling 迷惑人的 puzzled 迷惑的 satisfying 令人满意的 satisfied 感到满意的 Worrying 令人烦恼的 worried 烦恼的 tiring 引起疲劳的 tired 疲劳的 pleasing 令人愉快的 pleased 高兴的 astonishing 令人惊讶的 astonished 惊讶的

1)分词与动名词作表语时的区别:

1.Our plan is ______( finish ) the task before May. 2. Tom?s job was ______( guard ) the factory. 3. His lecture is ______( interest ), which made us ______( interest ). 4. The situation is ______( encourage).

B 动词-ed形式作宾语补足语
当作宾语补足语的动词和前面的宾语之间是被动关系时,一般应用 动词-ed形式作宾语补足语。 1 在感觉动词see, hear, feel, notice, watch, find等后作宾 语补足语。 I heard the Ninth Symphony played last night. 昨晚我听了第九交响乐的演奏。 We found all the rivers seriously polluted. 我们发现所有的河流都被严重污染了。 比 较 动词get后也可接动词不定式或动词-ing形式作宾语补足语,和 宾语是主动关系。 I couldn't get the car to start this morning. 今早我无法把汽车发动起来。 He got his sister to help him with his clothes. 他让姐姐帮他洗衣服。 It is not hard to get him talking; the problem is stopping him! 让他说话不难,难的是说开了止不住他。

2 在使役动词get, have, make, leave, keep等后作宾语补足 语。 ① 动词-ed形式作get的宾语补足语。 Doris got her bad tooth pulled out in the hospital. 多丽丝在医院把坏牙拔了。 I'll just get these dishes washed and then I'll come. 我得先把盘子洗了,然后就来。 ② 动词-ed形式作make的宾语补足语。 He raised his voice in order to make himself heard. 他提高了嗓门为了使别人听清他的讲话。 You should make your views known to the public. 你应该让公众知道你的观点。 ③动词-ed形式作keep或leave的宾语补足语。 They all went home, leaving all the work undone. 所有的工作都没完成,他们就回家了。 The detective and his assistant kept themselves locked in the room all night. 侦探和他的助手把自己整夜反锁在房。

比 较 动词get后也可接动词不定式或动词-ing形式作宾语补足语,和 宾语是主动关系。 I couldn't get the car to start this morning. 今早我无法把汽车发动起来。 He got his sister to help him with his clothes. 他让姐姐帮他洗衣服。 It is not hard to get him talking; the problem is stopping him! 让他说话不难,难的是说开了止不住他。 Can you really get that old clock going again? 你真的能让那只旧钟再走起来吗? 点 津 坊 动词make后的宾语补足语可用不带to的动词不定式或动词-ed 形式,但不可用动词-ing形式。 【误】Can you make the students understanding the text? 【正】Can you make the students understand the text? 你能让学生理解这篇课文吗? 【正】Can you make the text understood by the students? 你能让学生理解这篇课文吗?

④ 使役动词have后既可接动词-ed形式,也可接动词不定式和动 词-ing形式作宾语补足语。三者之间有一定的区别。 have 不定式动作由宾语发出,表示让某人做某事 *I'm going to have the teacher answer this question after class. 我打算课后让老师回答这个问题。 1. 让某人做某事或让某种情况发生。 *He had the car waiting outside. 他让小汽车在外面等着。 2. 常用于否定结构,表示“不容忍”、“不能让”。 *We won‘t have the child talking to his mother like that. 我们不能容忍那个孩子那样对他的妈妈说话。 1. 宾语和补足语之间有逻辑上的被动关系,表示某事由别人做。 *Where did you have your hair cut? 你在哪儿理的发? 2. 表示主语遭到某种不幸或陷入恶劣的环境。 *The house had its roof blown off. 房子的屋顶被吹掉了。 3. 完成某事(自己也可能参与)。 *He has had one thousand yuan saved.他已存了1000元。 4. 否定式表示“不允许”。 *I won't have anything said against her. 我不允许别人说反对她的话。

3 动词-ed形式也可用在with (without) 结构中,作介词的宾 语补足语。 With everything well arranged, he left the office. 一切都安排妥善之后,他离开了办公室。 She has come back with her backpack filled with interesting picture-books. 她已经回来了,背包里塞满了有趣的图书。 Without any more time given, we couldn't finish the task in three weeks. 如果不再给我们任何时间的话,我们三星期之内完成不了任务。 4 某些动词后(如want, need, prefer, would like等),作宾 语补足语的不定式被动形式省略“to be”,就成了动词-ed形式 作宾语补足语。 I would like this matter (to be) settled immediately. 我希望这事立即得到解决。 The peasants don't want good farmland (to be) built on. 农民们不想让好好的农田被用来建造房子。

3)现在分词与过去分词作宾语补足语的区别: whom flns+sb do (经常性动作) +sb doing sth.(正在进行) +sth done(被动) 1.I used to see these boys ____( play ) on the playground. 2.I saw them _____( play ) the computer this afternoon. 3.She was surprised to find the house _____( break ) into when she went back home.

4. Unfortunately, he got his wallet _____( steal ) on the bus. 5. He won?t have us _____( criticize ) him. 6. It?s a bad habit to leave the work ______( undo ). 7. Yesterday I caught him _____( take ) my dictionary when I went into the classroom.

C 动词-ed形式作定语
1 前置定语 单个动词-ed形式作定语一般放在被修饰的名词之前,作前置 定语。 A watched pot never boils. 心急锅不开。 All the broken doors and windows have been repaired. 所有的坏门窗都修好了。

When we arrived, we each were given a printed question paper. 我们到达的时候,每人被发给了一份印制好的试卷。 提 示 如要表示强调,单个动词-ed形式也可作后置定语。 Money spent is more than money earned. 入不敷出。

2 后置定语 作后置定语的动词-ed形式一般都带有修饰语或其他成分,在 语法上相当于一个定语从句。 We have read many novels written by this author. 我们读过这个作家写的许多小说。 (= that are written by this author) Half of the honoured guests invited to the reception were foreign ambassadors.被邀请到招待会上的贵宾有一半都是外国 大使。(= who had been invited to the reception) The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success.这次会议获得很大的成功,共有一千名学生出席了。 (= which was attended by one thousand students) A woman, dressed like a lawyer, came in and took her seat as judge.一个律师装扮的女人走了进来,并作为法官就座。 (= who was dressed like a lawyer)

3 动词-ed形式作定语和-ing形式作定语的区别 动词-ed形式作定语表示动作已完成,而动词-ing形式作定语 表示动词正在进行。 the risen sun 升起了的太阳 the rising sun 正在升起的太阳 boiled water 开水 fallen leaves 落叶 boiling water 正沸腾的水 falling leaves 正在飘落的叶子

changed condition 改变了的情况

changing condition 变化着的情况
developed countries 发达国家 developing countries 发展中国家

4) 分词作定语: 1. Do you know the man _____(speak ) at the meeting? 2. Do you know the man _____( praise ) at the meeting? 3. The building _____( put ) up last now is our library. 4. The building _____( put ) up now will be our new company.

5. The building _____( put ) up next year will be our new company. 6. There was an old temple _____ ( stand ) at the top of the hill. 7. There is a sports meeting _____ ( hold ) next Tuesday. 8. There was an old man ______( live ) in the village.

D 动词-ed形式作状语
动词-ed形式作状语和动词-ing形式作状语一样,也可以表示时间、 原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。 1 表示时间 动词-ed形式作状语表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。 Seen from the tower, the city looks beautiful.
从塔上往下看,城市显得很美丽。 (= When the city is seen from the tower...) Shown the lab, we were taken to see the library. 带我们参观了实验室之后,又带我们参观了图书馆。

(= After we had been shown the lab ...)
Completely examined by the doctors, he went back to school right away.经过医生彻底检查以后,他立刻回到了学校。 (= After he was completely examined...)







有时动词-ed形式前可加连词when, while等来强调 时间概念。 Once recovered, he went all out to do his work. 一恢复健康,他就全力以赴地干起了工作。 When asked why she was late for class again, she hung her head in shame. 当被问到为什么上课又迟到时,她羞愧地低下了头。 Once started, the clock will go half a month and keep good time. 一旦给这钟上了发条,它就会走半个月,并且走得很 准。

2 表示原因 动词-ed形式作状语表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 Moved by the heroic deeds, the children couldn't help crying. 孩子们被英雄事迹感动,情不自禁地哭了起来。 (= Since they were moved by the heroic deeds ...)

Written in haste, her letter is very hard to read.
因为写得快,她的信很难阅读。 (= As it was written in haste ...) Excited by the new discovery, we decided to go out and celebrate.

我们因为新发现而激动万分,决定出去庆祝一下。
(= Because we were excited by...)

3 表示条件 动词-ed形式作状语表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Heated, water changes into steam.加热,水就能变成蒸汽。 (= If water is heated...) Given more time, he would be able to do better. 假如多给一些时间,他会干得更出色。 (= If he was given more time ...) Compared with other professors, she was an excellent speaker. 与其他教授相比,她是一个优秀的演说家。 (= If she was compared with other protessors...) 点 津 坊 为了使-ed形式表示的条件、动词让步意义更加明显,我们可 以加上适当的连词。 Even if invited, I won't go. 即使受到邀请,我也不去。 Though beaten by the opposite team, they did not lose heart. 虽然被对手打败,但他们并没有丧失信心。 Unless invited, he will not come back to the company. 除非被邀请,不然他不会回到公司来的。

4 表示让步 动词-ed形式作状语表示让步,相当于一个 though/although引导的让步状语从句。 Exhausted by the running, they went on running after the robber.尽管已经跑得筋疲力尽,他们还是继续追赶着那个强盗。 (= Although they were exhausted by the running ...) Laughed at by many people, he continued his research. 尽管被许多人嘲笑,他还是继续他的研究。 (= Even if he was laughed by many people ...) 点 津 坊 有时动词-ed形式作状语和动词-ing形式被动式作状语,并没 有多大的区别,可以互换。 Suddenly seized with a high fever, he was unable to attend school. = Being suddenly seized with a high fever, he was unable to attend school. 他因突然发热不能来上学。 Brought up in the countryside, he found it hard to get used to town life. = Having been brought up in the countryside, he found it hard to get used to town life. 因为是在农村长大的,他感到很难适应城镇生活。

5 表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明 动词-ed形式作状语表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明时, 通常位于句子的后面,相当于一个并列分句。 The teacher stood there, surrounded by the students. 老师站在那儿,被学生围住了。 (= and he was surrounded by the students) He went into the office, followed by some children. 他走进办公室,后面跟着一些孩子。 (= and he was followed by some children) 点 津 坊 动词的-ed形式在句中不能用作主语或宾语。 【误】I cannot stand laughed at. 【正】I cannot stand being laughed at. 我不能容忍被人嘲笑。 【误】Invited to the state banquet is a great honour. 【正】To be invited to the state banquet is a great honour.

A) 1._____(see ) those picture, he couldn?t help thinking of those days in Yan?an. 2._____( turn ) round, Fanny found an ambulance driving up. 3_____( water ) the vegetables, they began to pick up the apples. 4._____( finish ) the work, he went back home on foot. 5._____( inspire ) by Dr. Chen?s speech, they decided to study maths harder. 6._____( persuade) by her mother, she gladly went there alone.

7.Warmly _____( praise ) for his work, he was too excited to fall asleep. 8._____( surround), the enemy found nowhere to hide and had to give up. 9.Once _____( arm ), we are afraid of nothing. 10.While _____( cross )the street, look out for cars. 11.While_____( criticize ),she cried. 12.She came earlier than _____( expect). 13.Everything goes well as _____( plan ). 14.____( give ) more time, we are sure to do it better.

? 判断下列对或错: 1. Seeing from the hill, the city looks more beautiful. 2. Leaving at home, the little girl felt much afraid. 将上列1-14句分词部分改成从句:

(动词-ed形式的逻辑主语) A 动词-ed形式作状语或表语时
1 动词-ed形式在句中作状语或表语时,它的逻辑主语一般来说就 是句子的主语,动词-ed形式和主语之间是被动关系。 Locked up, he had no way to escape. 他被锁了起来,没有办法逃跑了。 Lost in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. 他陷入了沉思,几乎撞到了前面的汽车。 She became discouraged at the news. 听到这个消息,她泄气了。

B 动词-ed形式作定语时
当动词-ed形式在句中作定语时,它的逻辑主语是被它修饰的名词, 它和名词之间是被动关系。 The first textbooks written for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 第一批编写出来作为英语教材的课本是16世纪出版的。

C 动词-ed形式在句中作宾语补足语或主语补足语时, 它的逻辑主语是句子的主语或宾语,它们之间的关系是被 动关系。
Vivien got her fingers trapped in the bicycle chain. 薇薇恩把手指卡在自行车链条里了。 (trapped的逻辑主语是句子的宾语fingers) The valuable vase was found stolen. 那个珍贵的花瓶发现被盗了 (stolen的逻辑主语是句子的主语vase) We got home only to find the whole house turned upside down. Thieves obviously had broken in. 我们回到家发现整幢房子被翻得乱七八糟,很明显小偷闯进来 了。 (turned up side down的逻辑主语是句子的宾语house)

D 动词-ed形式有时可有独立的逻辑主语
动词-ed形式有时可有其独立的逻辑主语,常用作状语 Everything done, we went home. 一切事情都做完了,我们就回家了。 All our money run out, Henry had to find another job. 钱都用完了,亨利不得不再找一份工作。

E 动词-ed形式作独立成分
动词-ed形式的一些固定词组也可在句中作独立成分,不受逻辑 主语的限制。 Put frankly, I don't agree with what he said. 坦白地说,我不同意他所说的。 Given the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. 考虑到他一般的身体状况,手术后的恢复可能需要一段时间。

独立主格结构 ( 所谓独立主格结构,分词的逻辑主 语不是句子主语,而是有自己的逻辑 主语时,叫独立主格结构。) A)1. Today ____( be ) Sunday, the library doesn?t open. 2. There _____( be ) no buses, we had to walk home.

3. The signal _____( give ), the bus started. 4. Weather ____ ( permit ), we?ll visit the Great Wall. 5. A teacher from England ____( teach ) us English, we?re sure to learn it well. 6. With him ____( give ) us a lead, our team is to win. 7. With the worker ____( lead ), the Young Pioneers went through the forest and started towards the mountain village.

8. Many people spoke aloud in front of our classroom, with nobody ____( stop ) them. 9. He was looking at the screen again, with the machine ____( turn ) on. 10. The girl felt uneasy with the whole class _____( stare ) at her. 11. With the machinery _____( do ) all the work, we finished the task last month. 12. She lay on the grass with her eyes _____( close ). 13. You might catch a cold with your feet _____( expose).

分词做定语的位置及其它

“定分”位置有二条,词前词后定分晓。
单个分词在词前,有时此规有颠倒。 分词短语在词后,“定从”和它互对照。 “现分”动作进行时,“过分”动作完成了。 注:“定分”:做定语的分词;“定从”:定语从句;“现 分”:现在分词;“过分”:过去分词。) 分词做状语在句子中所表示的意义 分词做状语,概有七意义。“ 时间”和“原因”,“结果”与“目的”。 “方式”加“伴随”,“条件”常出席。

且谈其主语,谓语头前的*。(*指句子的主语)


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