连词分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。并列连词是连接主语与主语，谓语与谓语，句子与句 子，分词与分词的词，它要求前后两部分有相同的形式和语法作用；而从属连词一般连接主句与 从句，从句形式有名词性从句，定语从句和状语从句等。 （一）并列连词： 并列连词可用来连
接词与词，词组与词组，分句与分句。常用的并列连词有：and（和） ，as well as（既…又） ，both … and（不但…而且） ，not only … but also（不但…而且） ，not … but（不 是…而是） ，neither … nor（既不…也不） ，either … or（不是…就是） ，or（或者） ，but （但是） ， yet（然而） ，for（因为） ，so（所以） ，while（而） ，when（这时）等。如：Both my brother and my sister are teachers./ His room is bright but mine is gloomy（暗沉沉的）./ He can not only repair radios but also fix them./ It is a glorious（光荣的）yet difficult task./ Strike while iron is hot. （二）从属连词 从属连词是指在复合句中引导从句的连结词。常见的从属连词有： 引导时间状语从句的：after, before, when, as, while, since, until, till, as soon as 引导原因状语从句的：because, since, as 引导让步状语从句的：although, though, no matter（无论）, even if (though) 引导条件状语从句的：if, unless, once, so (as) long as 引导结果状语从句的：so … that …, such … that … 引导目的状语从句的：so that …, in order that … 引导比较状语从句的：as … as …, not so (as) … as …, … than … 引导方式状语从句的：as if … 引导主语，宾语或表语从句的连词主要有：that, whether, if 三个。其中 that 和 whether 间或 还可以引起同位从句和状语从句。 （三）某些用法比较特殊的从属连词用法区别 1、 当 while, when, as 引导时间状语从句时的区别： ①while 引导的状语从句中动词必须是持 续性。谓语动词多为进行时，或状态动词的一般时。while 的这些用法可用 when 代替，等于 “at the time that”, “during the time that”。例如：Please keep quiet while (when) others are studying；② when 除可指一段时间外，还可用来指一点时间，等于 “at the time”，也就是说 when 引出的时间 状语从句中的谓语动词可以是终止性的， 也可以延续性的。 因此主句和从句的谓语可以是一般时， 进行时，或完成时。例如：When I went into the lab, the teacher was doing an experiment.（when 不 能换成 while）He often makes mistakes when he is speaking English.（when 可换成 while）③as 常 可与 when， while 通用， 但强调 “一边、 一边” 。 例如： As (when, while) I was walking down the street,
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I noticed a police car in front of number 37. ④when 引导的状语从句中的主语与主句主语一致， 主、 谓是 “主语+系动词” 结构时， 这时主语和系动词可以省略。 例如： When (he was) young, he worked for a rich man./ She’ll be here to give you help when (if it is) necessary. ⑤when 有时代替 if，引导条 件句，意为“如果” 、 “假如” ，例如：I’ll come when (if) I’m free. 2、before 作连词一般表示时间，意为“在…之前” ，但有些句子中这样译就显得别扭。试 看以下句子的翻译：He almost knocked me down before he saw me.他几乎把我撞倒才看见我； Before I could get in a word he had measured me.我还没来得及插话，他已经给我量好了尺寸。 3、till, until 作为介词式从属连词引导时间状语短语或状语从句，用于否定句时，结构为 not …until (till)，主句谓语动词延续与非延续皆可，意为“直到…才…” 。用于肯定句时，只与延 续性动词连用，表示“到…为止” 。例如：They played volleyball until (till) it got dark./ They didn’t talk（延续性动词）until (till) the interpreter（译员）came./ He didn’t go to bed（非延续性动词）until (till) the his father came back.；until 可以放在句首，till 则不行，例如：Until the last minute of the match we kept on playing./ Not until he finished his work did he go home.（倒装） ；till, until 只用于时 间，以下句子是错误的：We walked till the edge of the forest.（要用 as far as 或 to） 。 4、because, since, as 引导原因状语时注意使用上的区别：①如果原因构成句子的最主要部 分,一般用 because ,因此 because 引导的从句往往放在句末。用 why 提问的句子，一定用 because 回答。例如：He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill.；②如原因已为人们所知，或不如 句子的其他部分重要，就用 as，或 since。since 比 as 更正式些。as 和 since 引导的从句一般放在 句子的开头。例如：As you are tired, you had better rest./ Since everyone is here, now let’s begin. 5、although 和 though 引导让步状语从句往往用法一样，但注意以下区别：①although 用于 各种文体， 而 though 则多用于非正式的口语或书面语中。 注意由 although, though 引导的从句后， 主句不能用 but，但可用副词 yet, still。例如：Although/ Though it rained all the morning, they still went on working.（或 yet they went on working）②though 常与 even 连用，even though 表示强调， 意为 “即使” ， 但不能说 even although， 例如： Even though I didn’t understand a word, I dept smiling. ③though 可用作副词，意为“然而” ，常用逗号与句子分开。although 则不能这样使用，它只作 连词。例如：It was a quiet party, I had a good time, though. 6、once 作副词译“曾经” ，作为连词译“一旦” ，引导条件状语从句。相当于 if 的加强形式。 例如： I don’t believe he was once a thief. (once 这里是副词)/ Once Aristotle had made up his mind that heavy objects always fell faster than light objects, he taught it as a truth to his students. (once 连词) 7、 unless 引导条件状语从句等于 if … not …。 例如： He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low. ( = He’ll accept the job if the salary is not too low.) 8、在用 as if 引导的方式状语从句及表语从句中，根据情况要使用虚拟语气。例如：He talks
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as if he knew all about it. 但有时也可用直陈语气。例如：It looks as if it is going to rain. 9、 whether, if 引导从句的用法区别： ①引导主语从句、 表语从句或同位语从句时， 用 whether， 不用 if。例如：Whether they will go to the Great Wall is not known./ The question is whether we can finish the task on time./ The question whether we will take part in the physics contest has not been decided. ②whether 可接不定式，而 if 则不可。例如：I haven’t decided whether to leave or not. ③ whether 可作介词的宾语或置于句首表示强调， 而 if 则不可。 例如： Everything depends on whether we have enough money./ Whether he will come, I am not sure. ④whether 和 if 均可引导宾语从句， whether 引导的宾语从句一般都是肯定句， if 引导的宾语从句可以是肯定的， 也可以是否定的 （此 时不能用 whether） ，例如：Could you tell us whether/ if it rains in winter in Australia?/ I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ⑤引导宾语从句的 whether 和 if 常可与 or not 连用。 连用时要注意 or not 的位置， 它 一般与 whether、if 分开使用，有时它可与 whether 合起来使用，但不能与 if 合起来使用。例如： I don’t know whether/ if they will come or not./ I don’t know whether or not they will come. ⑥if 可 用来引导条件状语从句， 译 “如果” ， whether 则不行。 例如： If you work hard, you are sure to succeed. 10、as 作从属连词可引导多种状语从句。①as 引导时间状语从句，意为“当…时” 。例如： As (he was) a young man, he was a storekeeper and later a postmaster./ He sang as he worked. 引导方式状语从句，意为“象…一样” 。例如：We must do as the Party teaches us. 状语从句。意为“由于” ，例如：As you are tired, you had better rest. ②as ③as 引导原因
意为“虽然” 、 “尽管”Child as he is, he can do it well. ( = Although he is a child, he can do it well.)
另外，as 做为关系代词还可以引导定语从句，如：I have the same book as you.
1 .He is very old,____ he still works very hard. 2. ____ you are dismissed. A. Neither you go nor A. because A. because of A. they A. So B. Either you go or C. so C. due to C. and they C. Now that C. Whether you go or D. since D. that D. so they D. By now. D. Both you go and 3. They had camped once before, ____ they knew what to take. B. now B. owing to B. but they B. Since that 4. Why these things happened was ____ the driver had been careless. 5. Although, it's raining, ____are still working in the fields. 6.___we have satisfied you, you have no grounds of complaint. 7. Write clearly ____ your teacher can understand .you correctly. A. but B.if C.when D.as
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A. since B. for C. because A. unless D. so that B. as C. if D. until B. as better as D. whom D. then B. as C. as if D. like that D. Since she went C. since D. when C. as well as D. as best as 8.You'll miss the train ____ you hurry up.
9. Francis did the task____ his brother. A. as good as A. as A. yet B. what B. besides C. that C. also A. that B. After she went
10.The size of the audience,____ we had expected, was well over twenty thousand. 11.I thought he hated the TV .You are right,____ he still watches the program. 12. It looks ____ it's going to rain. A. Because she went
13.____ to New York, her father has not heard from her. C. When she went A. after B. before D. If A. so B. until C. and D. when 14.___he daydreamed, Peter saw figures in the sky. 15. We arrived at the station ____ the train had left. A. But B. Although A. Until B. Since C. While D. During
16.____ he was in poor health, he worked just as hard as everyone else. C. Even if 17. Give me one more minute ____ I'll have finished. A. and B. yet C. or A. or B. and A. so B. as A. however B. or D. both, and B. after A. before C. After C. like A. besides B. except B. as C. since C. since D. Unless D. white C. except for D. except that D. when D. Since D. when
18. The worker hunted for jobs in New York for months,____ he could not find any work. D. and but C. so C. like C. so D. yet D. that D. otherwise 19. Hurry up, ____ you'll be late.
20. Do not make the same mistake ____ I did. 21. My sister is expecting me,____ I must be off now. A. either, or B. neither, nor
22. We should pay attention ____ to industry ____ to agriculture. C. not, but A. before 23. He ran off____ I could stop him.
24.____ you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. A. Till B. Until C. After 25. Where have you been ____ you left home? A. Until A. as B. Since B. than 26.____ the problem of method is solved, talking about the task is useless. 27. We have produced 15% more cotton this year____ we did last year. 28.It is late; ____, I'm too tired to go out. A. not .. .but...
29. Everything around us is ____ solid ..liquid ____ gas. B. either.. .or... C. neither.. .nor... D. whether.. .or...
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30. He will come ____ you ask him. A. whether A. If B. unless B. Where B. if C. if C. That C. how D. in order to D. while D. Whether D. where 31.____ he will come or not is still unknown. 32.I don' t know ____ to stay at home or go out. A. so A. On the one hand C. On the other hand A. if A. so that A. whatever B. whether B. when B. however B. that
A. whether C. so that
33. He spoke loudly ____ the audience could hear him clearly. 34. The book is not easy.____ it's rather difficult. B. On the contrary D. On the other contrary C. otherwise C. otherwise C. wherever A. what B. whatever A. Who B. What C. whoever C. Where C. Only C. No matter when C. as soon as C. so far as C. as far as B. why B. Whom C. what C. Which D. unless D. therefore D. whenever C. that D. as C. Whoever D. Whatever D. whenever D. When D. Only then D. No matter where D. as well as D. as well as D. as soon as D. whose D. How
35. You must work hard,____ you will not learn English well. 36. It rained heavily,____ the basketball match had to be put off. 37. We must do ____ the people want us to do.. 38. You are certainly right,____ others may say. 39.____ makes mistakes must correct them. 40.I’ll discuss it with you ____ you like to come. A. when A. Wherever A. Once B. where B. Whenever B. At once 41.____ you work, you must always serve the people heart and soul. 42.___you understand this rule, you will have no further difficulty. 43.___ difficult the task may be, we must fulfil it this month. A. No matter how B. No matter what A. so far as A. as soon as A. as well as 47. That is not ____ I want. 48. ___ he did it remains a secret. B. so long as B. as long as B. so long as A. that A. What 44. We can surely overcome these difficulties _,___ we are closely united. 45.___ I know he will stay here for half a year. 46. Please write me ____ you arrive in New York.
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49. It is quite clear ____ he won't see us. 51. I am sure ____ you said is true. A. why A. why B. that B. when A. while A. what A. what A. what B. that B. that B. that C. where C. which B. as soon as A. while C. since . C. as soon as C. Since C. as A. for C. if C. if C. for A. until B. where B. when C. wherever C. But C. When A. where B. when B. as C. why C. which C. which D. / D. what C. as C. when D. before D. before D. After D. before C. if D. whether D. since D. / D. how D. whose D. who 50. Would you tell me ____ way I should take?
52. The trouble is ____ we can not find such an expert. 53. It has not been decided ____ they will leave. 54. We shall go ____ you are ready.
55. He will tell you about it ____ you get there. 56. Don't try to get off the bus ____ it has stopped. A. while A. while A. While A. when B. as B. when B. When B. since
57. I'll come and see you _____ I go to the countryside. 58. ___ he came to study in the university, he has made much progress in the study of English. 59. Things have changed a lot ____ I wrote to you last time. 60. I can't use your pen, ___ there is no ink in it. A. for A. for A. when B. unless B. as B. if
61. I'd like to go swimming ____ the water is not too cold. D. whether D. whether D. unless C. which C. that D. so D. Though D. While D. when D. after 62. Difficulties are nothing ___ we are not afraid of them. 63. The doctor will not perform the operation ___ it is absolutely necessary. 64. Go back ___ you came from.
65. He lay ___ the grass was the thickest. A. where A. If A. If B. and B. Whether B. Whether
66. You will find friendly people ___ you go in China. 67. ___ it was already dark, they went on working in the fields. 68. ___ he has finished writing the novel is unknown.
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69. We'll go and see the patient ___we are busy. A. even if A. such... that B. for B. as...as C. if C. so...that D. while D. so … as 70. The museum is ___ far ____ it will take us half an hour to get there by bus.
语法复习二十一：连 词 1~5 ABCDA 6~10 CDACA 11~15 ACDBA 16~20 BCBAB 21~25 CDABC 26~30 BBABC 31~35 DACBC 36~40 AABCD 41~45 AAABC 46~50 DCDBC 51~55 ABBBC 56~60 DDCBA 61~65 CCDBA 66~70 CDBAC
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