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知识要点: 一、不定式与动名词做主语: 1、 动名词做主语往往表示普通的、 一般的行为, 不定式做主语常表示某次具体的行为。 例如: Collecting information about children’s health is his job. 收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的 工作。 It’s necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher. 与一位有经验的老师 讨论这个问题是有必要的。 2、常用不定式做主语的句型有: (1)It’s difficult (important, necessary) for sb. to do (2)It’s kind (good, friendly, polite, careless, rude, cruel, clever, foolish, brave)of sb. to do. 3、常用动名词做主语的句型有: It’s no good (use, fun) doing. It’s (a) waste of time one’s doing. It’s worth while doing. 二、不定式、动名词、分词做表语: 1、不定式做表语常表示谓语动词所表示动作之后发生的动作。 His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 他这节课的教学 目的是要训练学生说的能力。 2、 动名词做表语是对主语内容的解释, 这时主语与表语位置可以互换, 动名词常用于口语中。 Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的(指蚁后)的专职工作是产卵。 3、现在分词做表语表示主语的性质与特征;进行时表示正在进行的动作。 The task of this class is practising the idioms. (现在分词做表语) With the help of the teacher, the students are practising the idioms. (现在进行时) 4、常用作表语的现在分词有:interesting, amusing, disappointing, missing, puzzling, exciting, inspiring, following 等。现在分词表示进行与主动。 The joke is amusing .这笑话很逗人。 The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人不解。 5、过去分词作表语表示主语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态。而被动语态表示主语所承 受的动作。 The village is surrounded by high mountains.(过去分词做表语) The enemy was surrounded by the Red Army.(被动语态) He is well educated.(过去分词做表语) He has been educated in this college for three years.(被动语态) 常用在句中做表语的过去分词有: used, closed, covered, interested, followed, satisfied, surrounded, done, lost, decided, prepared, saved, shut, won, completed, crowded, dressed, wasted, broken, married, unexpected 等。 6、注意如下动词的现在分词与过去分词用法不同:




interest(使…感兴趣),surprise(使…吃惊),frighten(使…害怕),excite(使…兴奋), tire(使…疲劳),please(使…满意),puzzle(使…迷惑不解),satisfy(使…满意), amuse(使…娱乐),disappoint(使…失望),inspire(使…欢欣鼓舞),worry(使…忧虑) 它们的现在分词常修饰物(有时修饰人),表示主动,过去分词常修饰人,表示被动(包括 某人的 look、voice 等)。例如: Climbing is tiring. 爬山很累人。 They are very tired. 他们很疲劳 三、不定式与动名词做宾语: 1、下列动词跟不定式做宾语: want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, long, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, cause, afford, beg, manage, agree, promise 等。 2、在下列动词或动词短语后用动名词做宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, keep, miss, appreciate, be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from), keep…from, stop…(from), protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on 等。 3、在 forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean 等动词后跟不定式与动名词意义不同,不定式 表示谓语动词之后的动作,而动名词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,常用一般式 doing 代替完成式 having done. He forgot to tell me to post the letter.(他忘了叫我发信。) I shall never forget finding that rare stamp on an ordinary envelope. 我永远也忘不了在 一个普通信封上发现了那枚珍贵的邮票。 Remember to write to us when you get there. 到那里,记得给我们写信。 I don’t remember meeting him. 我不记得见过他。 I regret to tell you that I can’t go to your birth-day party. 我很遗憾告诉你我不能去参加 你的生日晚会了。 They regretted agreeing to the plan. 他们后悔同意这个计划。 He tried to pretend to share in the pleasure with his friend. 他尽力假装与朋友分享欢乐。 She tried reading a novel, but that couldn’t make her forget her sorrow. 她试着看看小 说,但也不能使她忘记伤心事。 I didn’t mean to hurt you. 我没有企图伤害你。 A friend indeed means helping others for nothing in return. 真正的朋友意指不图回报地 帮助别人。 4、动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时,用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing. (或用: needs to be repaired) 这台洗衣机需要修理。 The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。 This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。 The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究。 四、不定式与分词在句中做宾语补足语: 1、以下动词后跟不定式做宾语补足语: ask, tell, beg, allow, want, like, hate, force, invite, persuade, advise, order, cause, encourage,




wait for, call on, permit, forbid The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. 医生嘱咐他再卧床休息几天。 We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。(注意 hope 后不跟不定式做宾补。) 2、有些动词后的复合宾语用不带“to“的不定式,这些动词有:see, watch, notice, hear, feel, make, let, have 等。例如: We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干 12 小时工作。 注意当 make、have 不做“迫使、让”讲,而做“制造、有”解时,跟带有 to 的不定式做状语。 Mother made a cake to celebrate his birthday. 妈妈做了一个蛋糕给他庆贺生日。 He had a meeting to attend. 他有个会要开。 3、下列动词后的复合宾语用分词做宾补:see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, set, have, leave, keep, find 等。 用现在分词还是用过去分词做宾补, 要看分词与宾语的关系。 例: We heard him singing the song when we came in. 当我们进来的时候,听见他正唱那首歌。 We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听过这首歌唱过两遍了。 五、非谓语动词做定语: 1、不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词后,表示在谓语动词之后发生的动作或过去的某一特定动 作。例如: He had no house to live in but a lot of work to do. 他没有房子住却有好多活要干。 Our monitor is the first to arrive. 我们班长是第一个到的。 2、动名词与现在分词做定语的区别: 动名词做定语说明所修饰名词的用途;现在分词做定语,表示所修饰名词进行的动作。 a walking stick 拐杖(动名词做定语,意为 a stick for walking) a sleeping car 卧铺车厢(动名词做定语,意为 a car for sleeping) the rising sun 正在升起的太阳(现在分词做定语,意为 the sun which was rising) the changing world 变化中的世界(现在分词做定语,意为 the world which is changing) 3、现在分词与过去分词做定语的区别:过去分词做定语表示完成或被动的动作,现在分词做 定语表示主动或进行的动作。如: a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息 (意同 a piece of news which disappointed us) in the following years 在后来的几年中(意同 in the years that followed) a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士(意同 a woman who is dressed well) a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车(意同 a car which was parked at the gate) 六、不定式与分词做状语: 1、不定式做状语,只表示目的、结果或原因: He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 他匆忙赶到家中, 发现钱被盗了。 (结果状语) To make himself heard, he raised his voice. 为了被听清楚,他提高了嗓门。(目的状语) All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. 看到他的进步,我们都很吃惊。(原因状语) 2、分词做状语可表示时间、条件、原因、伴随、让步、方式: Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful. 从山上看,这座城市很美。(条件状语) Coming into the room, he found his father angry. 当走进房间时,他发现父亲生气了。(时间状 语) Being tired, they went on working. 虽然累了,但他们继续工作。(让步状语)




Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. 由于被大孩子打了鼻 子,那个小男孩哭了。(原因状语) He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一个手指放进嘴 里,尝了尝,笑了,看起来挺高兴。(伴随状语)

接不定式或动名词做宾语都可以,但在意思上有区别的动词的用法 mean to do 想要(做某事) mean doing 意味(做某事) forget to do 忘记(要做的事) forget doing 忘记(已做的事) go on to do 继而(做另一件事) go on doing 继续(做原来的事) regret to do(对将要做的事)遗憾 特殊句型特殊用法 cannot help but do cannot choose but do can do nothing but do have nothing but to do have nothing to do but do do nothing but do there be 非谓语动词的用法 (1)做宾语时取决于谓语动词的持续要求。如: The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams. (2)做目的状语 for there to be,做其他状语用 there being。如: For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present. (for there to be…在句中做目的状语)

propose to do 打算(做某事) propose doing 建议(做某事) remember to do 记得(要做某事) remember doing 记得(已做过的事) stop to do 停下来去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事 regret doing(对已做过的事)后悔

have difficulty/trouble doing sth. have a good/great time doing sth. It’s no good/use doing sth. There is no point/sense/harm/ use doing sth. There is no use crying over spilt milk.




There being no further questions, we’ll stop here today. (3)引导主语用 for there to be。如: It is unusual for there to be no late comers today. (4)做除 for 外的介词宾语,用 there being。如:

(there being…做原因状语)

He would always ignore the fact of there being such a contradiction in his inner thought 非谓语动词练习题 1. ______won't be of much help . A .Tom's going B. Tom going C. Tom to go D. Tom goes 2. They managed _____the meeting room before the guests arrived. A. finishing to clean B. finishing cleaning C. to finish cleaning D. to finish to clean 3. We must find a room big enough _____. A. for all of us to live B. for all of us to live in C. to live in all of us D. of all of us to live 4. _____a teacher , I should set a good example to students . A. Being B. Having been C. To be D. As I being 5. _____a teacher, one must first be their pupil . A. Being B. Having been C. To be D. To have been 6. It was stupid _____ your advice. A. for me not to take B. for me not taking C. of me not to take D. of me not taking 7. The teacher told him to speak louder _____by , everybody. A. so as to be heard B. so as to hearC. in order that heard D. in order to hear 8. They suggested _____ the sports meet till next Tuesday. A. us to put off B. putting off C. us of putting off D. our put off 9. The doctor gave me some medicine , _____ three times a day before meals. A. to take B. to be taking C. to be taken D. I took it 10. Thanking them for their kindness , he said that the old lady really appreciated _____by them. A. visiting B. visited C. to be visited D. being visited 11. _____made her parents very angry . A. Jane's engaging Black B. Jane's being engaged to Black C. Jane having engaged to Black D. Jane has engaged to Black 12. Don't you think it good _____in public places? A. forbidding smoking B. to forbid smoking C. to forbid to smoke D. forbidding to smoke 13. China is a _____ country and we should introduce _____ science and technology from the _____ countries. A. developed; advanced; developed B. developing; advanced; developed C. developing; advancing; developing D. developed; advancing ; developing 14. _____, the work can be done much better . A. Given more time B. We had been given more time C. More time given D. If more time had given




15. _____from space , the earth , with water _____seventy percent of its surface , looks like a "blue ball". A. Seen ; covered B. Seeing ; covering C. Seeing; covered D. Seen; covering 17. _____, tears ran down her pale face. A. No word said B. Say no word C. Not saying a word D. Without saying a word 18. Tigers _____ meat -eating animals, _____meat . A. belonged to ;fed on B. belonging to ; feed on C. were belonged to ; feed on D. belonging to ; feeding on 19. We must take measures to prevent our earth _____. A. to be polluted B. from polluting C. from being polluted D. from polluted




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