2012 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试 英 语 （江苏卷）
第二部分: 英语知识运用(共两节, 满分35 分) 第一节: 单项填空 (共15小题; 每小题1分,满分15分) 请认真阅读下面各题, 从题中所给的A、B、C、D 四个选项中, 选出最佳选项, 并 在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 例: It is generally considered unwise to give a child _______ he or she wants. A. however 答案是B。 21. — Can I help you with it? — I appreciate your _______, but I can manage it myself. A. advice B. question C. offer D. idea B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
22. After the flooding, people were suffering in that area, _______urgently needed clean water, medicine and shelter to survive. A. which B. who C. where D. what
23. Sophia waited for a reply, but _______ came. A. either B. another C. neither D. none
24. — Don’t worry, Mum. The doctor said it was only the flu. —_______! I’ll tell Dad there’s nothing serious. A. What a relief B. Congratulations C. How surprising D. I’m so sorry
25. There is little doubt in your mind that he is innocent, _______? A. is there B. isn’t there C. is he D. isn’t he
26. — OK, I’ve had enough of it. I give up. — You can’t _______your responsibilities. A. run off with B. run up against
C. run out of
D. run away from
27. The notice came around two in the afternoon_______ the meeting would be postponed. A. when B. that C. whether D. how
28. Days later, my brother called to say he was all right, but _______say where he was. A. mustn’t B. shouldn’t C. wouldn’t D. mightn’t
29. — Thank God you’re safe! — I stepped back, just _______ to avoid the racing car. A. in time B. in case C. in need D. in vain
30. One’s life has value _______ one brings value to the life of others. A. so that B. no matter how C. as long as D. except that
31. _______ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later. A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base
32. The manager is said to have arrived back from Paris where he _______ some European business partners. A. would meet B. is meeting C. meets D. had met
33. — Honey, the cat’s stuck in the tree. Can you turn off the TV and get a ladder. . . ? — Oh, it jumped off. _______. A. Never mind B. All right C. No problem D. Take care
34. The president hopes that the people will be better off when he quits than when he_______. A. has started 35. — Happy birthday! — Thank you! It’s the best present I _______ for. A. should have wished B. must have wished B. starts C. started D. will start
C. may have wished
D. could have wished
第二节: 完形填空(共20 小题; 每小题1 分, 满分20 分) 请认真阅读下面短文, 从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D 四个选项中, 选出 最佳选项, 并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 The concept of solitude (独处) in the digital world is almost non-existent. In the world of digital technology, e-mail, social networking and online video games, information is meant to be____36___. Solitude can be hard to discover ___37____ it has been given up. In this respect, new technologies have ___38____ our culture. The desire to be connected has brought solitude to a(n) ___39____ as we’ve known it. People have become so ___40____ in the world of networks and connections that one can often be contacted ____41___ they’d rather not be. Today we can talk, text, e-mail, chat and blog (写博客), not only from our ___42____, but from our mobile phones as well. Most developed nations have become ___43____ on digital technology simply because they’ve grown accustomed to it, and at this point not ___44____ it would make them an outsider. ___45____, many jobs and careers require people to be ___46____. From this point of view, technology has changed the culture of work. Being reachable might feel like a ___47____ to those who may not want to be able to be contacted at all times. I suppose the positive side is that solitude is still possible for anyone who ___48____ wants it. Computers can be shut ___49____ and mobile phones can be turned off. The ability to be “connected” and “on” has many ___50____, as well as disadvantages. Travelers have ended up ___51____on mountains, and mobile phones have saved countless lives. They can also make people feel ___52____ and forced to answer unwanted calls or___53____ to unwanted texts. Attitudes towards our connectedness as a society ___54____ across generations.
Some find today’s technology a gift. Others consider it a curse. Regardless of anyone’s view on the subject, it’s hard to imagine what life would be like ___55____ daily advancements in technology. 36. A. updated 37. A. though 38. A. respected 39. A. edge 40. A. sensitive 41. A. even if 42. A. media 43. A. bent 44. A. finding 45. A. Also 46. A. connected 47. A. pleasure 48. A. slightly 49. A. out 50. A. aspects 51. A. hidden 52. A. trapped 53. A. turn 54. A. vary 55. A. beyond B. received B. until B. shaped B. stage B. intelligent B. only if B. computers B. hard B. using B. Instead B. trained B. benefit B. hardly B. down B. weaknesses B. lost B. excited B. submit B. arise B. within C. shared C. once C. ignored C. end C. considerate C. as if C. databases C. keen C. protecting C. Otherwise C. recommended C. burden C. merely C. up C. advantages C. relaxed C. confused C. object C. spread C. despite D. collected D. before D. preserved D. balance D. reachable D. if only D. monitors D. dependent D. changing D. Somehow D. interested D. disappointment D. really D. in D. exceptions D. deserted D. amused D. reply D. exist D. without
第三部分: 阅读理解(共15 小题; 每小题2 分, 满分30 分) 请认真阅读下列短文, 从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D 四个选项中, 选出 最佳选项, 并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
56. According to the survey, people left alone on a desert island would most want their__________. A. MP3 player B. dog C. spouse/ partner D. celebrity
57. Which of the following is true about George Clooney?
A. He has been trained in wilderness survival B. He may not be able to help you survive. C. He does not think Roseane is beautiful D. He is the choice of most South African women. 58. The survey results are analyzed in terms of the respondents’ __________. A. sex, age and nationality C. marriage, age and race B Deputy Agriculture Secretary Kathleen Merrigan sees an epidemic ( 流行病 ) sweeping across America’s farmland. It has little to do with the usual challenges, such as flood, rising fuel prices and crop-eating insects. The country’s farmers are getting older, and there are fewer people standing in line to take their place. National agricultural census (普查) figures show that the fastest-growing group of farmers is the part over 65. Merrigan is afraid the average age will be even higher when the 2012 statistics are completed. Merrigan, a former college professor, is making stops at universities across the country in hopes of encouraging more students to think about careers in agriculture. Aside from trying to stop the graying of America’s farmers, her work is made tougher by a recent blog posting that put agriculture at No. 1 on a list of “useless” college degrees. Top federal agriculture officials are talking about the posting, and it has the attention of agricultural organizations across the country. “There couldn’t be anything that’s more incorrect,” Merrigan said. “We know that there aren’t enough qualified graduates to fill the jobs that are out there in American agriculture.” In addition, a growing world population that some experts predict will require 70% more food production by 2050, she said. B. race, nationality and sex D. age, sex and marriage
“I truly believe we’re at a golden age of agriculture. Global demand is at an all-time record high, and global supplies are at all-time record lows,” said Matt Rush, director of the Texas Farm Bureau. “Production costs are going to be valuable enough that younger people are going to have the opportunity to be involved in agriculture.” The Department of Agriculture has programs aimed at developing more farmers and at increasing interest in locally grown food. The National Young Farmers’ Coalition has also been pushing for state and federal policy changes to make it easier for new farmers. Ryan Best, president of Future Farmers of America, has been living out of a suitcase, traveling the country and visiting with high school students about careers in agriculture. The 21-year-old Best hopes his message—that this is a new time in agriculture—will motivate the next generation to turn around the statistics. “Never before have we had the innovations (创新) in technology which have led to agriculture in this country being the most efficient it has ever been,” he said. “There’s really a place for everybody to fit in.” 59. What is the new challenge to American agriculture? A. Fewer and older farmers C. More natural disasters B. Higher fuel prices. D. Lower agricultural output.
60. Why is Merrigan visiting universities across the country? A. To draw federal agriculture officials’ attention. B. To select qualified agriculture graduates. C. To clarify a recent blog posting. D. To talk more students into farming careers. 61. According to Matt Rush, American agriculture will provide opportunities for younger people because__________.. A. the government will cover production costs
B. global food supplies will be even lower C. investment in agriculture will be profitable D. America will increase its food export 62. What do the underlined words “to turn around the statistics” in the last paragraph mean? A. To re-analyze the result of the national census. B. To increase agricultural production. C. To bring down the average age of farmers. D. To invest more in agriculture. C Medical drugs sometimes cause more damage than they cure. One solution to this problem is to put the drugs inside a capsule, protecting them from the body—and the body from them—until they can be released at just the right spot. There are lots of ways to trigger (引发) this release, including changing temperature, acidity, and so on. But triggers can come with their own risks—burns, for example. Now, researchers in California have designed what could be a harmless trigger to date: shining near-infrared light (NIR, 近红外线) on the drug in the capsule. The idea of using light to liberate the drug in the capsule isn’t new. Researchers around the globe have developed polymers (聚合物) and other materials that begin to break down when they absorb either ultraviolet (UV, 紫外线) or visible light. But tissues also readily absorb UV and visible light, which means the drug release can be triggered only near the skin, where the light can reach the capsule. NIR light largely passes through tissues, so researchers have tried to use it as a trigger. But few compounds (化合物) absorb NIR well and go through chemical changes. That changed last year when Adah Almutairi, a chemist at the University of California, San Diego, reported that she and her colleagues had designed a polymer that
breaks down when it absorbs NIR light. Their polymer used a commercially available NIR-absorbing group called o-nitrobenzyl (ONB). When they catch the light, ONB groups fall off the polymer, leading to its breakdown. But ONB is only a so-so NIR absorber, and it could be poisonous to cells when it separates from the polymer. So Almutairi and her colleagues reported creating a new material for capsules that’s even better. This one consists of a long chain of compounds called cresol groups linked in a polymer. Cresol contains reactive(易反应的) components that make it highly unstable in its polymeric form, a feature Almutairi and her colleagues use to their advantage. After polymerizing the cresols, they cap each reactive component with a light-absorbing compound called Bhc. When the Bhcs absorb NIR light, the reactive groups are exposed and break the long polymer into two short chains. Shining additional light continues this breakdown, potentially releasing any drugs in the capsule. What’s more, Almutairi says, Bhc is 10 times better at absorbing NIR than is ONB and is not poisonous to cells. 63. According to the passage, which of the following could be the best trigger? A. Temperature change B. NIR light 64. Why is ONB unsatisfactory? A. It breaks down when it absorbs NIR light. B. It falls off the polymer and triggers drug release. C. It has not come onto the market up till now. D. It is not effective enough and could be poisonous. 65. Which word can be used to complete the following process of changes? C. Acidity change D. UV light.
B. formed D
Franz Kafka wrote that “a book must be the ax (斧子) for the frozen sea inside us. ”I once shared this sentence with a class of seventh graders, and it didn’t seem to require any explanation. We’d just finished John Steinbeck’s novel Of Mice and Men. When we read the end together out loud in class, my toughest boy, a star basketball player, wept a little, and so did I. “Are you crying?” one girl asked, as she got out of her chair to take a closer look. “I am,” I told her, “and the funny thing is I’ve read it many times.” But they understood. When George shoots Lennie, the tragedy is that we realize it was always going to happen. In my 14 years of teaching in a New York City public middle school, I’ve taught kids with imprisoned parents, abusive parents, irresponsible parents; kids who are parents themselves; kids who are homeless; kids who grew up in violent neighborhoods. They understand, more than I ever will, the novel’s terrible logic—the giving way of dreams to fate (命运). For the last seven years, I have worked as a reading enrichment teacher, reading classic works of literature with small groups of students from grades six to eight. I originally proposed this idea to my headmaster after learning that a former excellent student of mine had transferred out of a selective high school—one that often attracts the literary-minded children of Manhattan’s upper classes—into a less competitive setting. The daughter of immigrants, with a father in prison, she perhaps felt uncomfortable with her new classmates. I thought additional “cultural capital” could help students like her develop better in high school, where they would unavoidably meet, perhaps for the first time, students who came from homes lined with bookshelves, whose parents had earned Ph. D.’s. Along with Of Mice and Men, my groups read: Sounder, The Red Pony, Lord of the Flies, Romeo and Juliet and Macbeth. The students didn’t always read from the expected point of view. About The Red Pony, one student said, “it’s about being a man,
it’s about manliness.” I had never before seen the parallels between Scarface and Macbeth, nor had I heard Lady Macbeth’s soliloquies (独白) read as raps (说唱), but both made sense; The interpretations were playful, but serious. Once introduced to Steinbeck’s writing, one boy went on to read The Grapes of Wrath and told me repeatedly how amazing it was that “all these people hate each other, and they’re all white.” His historical view was broadening, his sense of his own country deepening. Year after year, former students visited and told me how prepared they had felt in their first year in college as a result of the classes. Year after year, however, we are increasing the number of practice tests. We are trying to teach students to read increasingly complex texts, not for emotional punch (碰 撞) but for text complexity. Yet, we cannot enrich (充实) the minds of our students by testing them on texts that ignore their hearts. We are teaching them that words do not amaze but confuse. We may succeed in raising test scores, but we will fail to teach them that reading can be transformative and that it belongs to them. 66. The underlined words in Paragraph 1 probably mean that a book helps to __________. A. realize our dreams C. smooth away difficulties B. give support to our life D. awake our emotions
67. Why were the students able to understand the novel Of Mice and Men? A. Because they spent much time reading it. B. Because they had read the novel before. C. Because they came from a public school. D. Because they had similar life experiences. 68. The girl left the selective high school possibly because__________.. A. she was a literary-minded girl C. she couldn’t fit in with her class B. her parents were immigrants D. her father was then in prison
69. To the author’s surprise, the students read the novels__________.. A. creatively B. passively C. repeatedly D. carelessly
70. The author writes the passage mainly to__________.. A. introduce classic works of literature B. advocate teaching literature to touch the heart C. argue for equality among high school students D. defend the current testing system 第四部分: 任务型阅读(共10 小题;每小题1 分,满分10 分) 请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当 的单词。 注意:请将答案写在答题卡上相应题号的横线上。每个空格只填一个单词。 “Happiness Advantage” Effect In July 2010 Burt’s Bees, a personal-care products company, was going through enormous change as it began a global expansion into 19 new countries. In this kind of high-pressure situation, many leaders bother their assistants with frequent meetings or flood their in-boxes with urgent demands. In doing so, managers lift everyone’s anxiety level, which activates the part of the brain that processes threats and steals resources from the prefrontal cortex (大脑皮层), which is responsible for effective problem solving. Burt’s Bees’s then-CEO, John Wolfgang, took a different approach. Each day, he’d send out an e-mail praising a team member for work related to global marketing. He’d interrupt his own presentations to remind his managers to talk with their teams about the company’s values. He asked me to further a three-hour session with employees on happiness in the course of the expansion effort. As one member of the senior team told me a year later, Wolfgang’s emphasis on developing positive leadership kept his managers actively involved and loyal as they successfully
transformed the company into a global one. That outcome shouldn’t surprise us. Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set (思维模式), performance on nearly every level—productivity, creativity, involvement— improves. Yet happiness is perhaps the most misunderstood driver of performance. For one, most people believe that success comes before happiness. “Once I get a promotion, I’ll be happy,” they think. Or, “Once I hit my sales target, I’ll feel great. ”But because success is a moving target—as soon as you hit your target, you raise it again—the happiness that results from success does not last long. In fact, it works the other way around: People who have a positive mind-set perform better in the face of challenge. I call this the “happiness advantage”—every business outcome shows improvement when the brain is positive. I’ve observed this effect in my role as a researcher and lecturer in 48 countries on the connection between employee happiness and success. And I’m not alone: In an analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers found strong evidence of cause-and-effect relationship between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes. Another common misunderstanding is that our genetics, our environment, or a combination of the two determines how happy we are. To be sure, both factors have an impact. But one’s general sense of well-being is surprisingly unstable. The habits you form, the way you interact with colleagues, how you think about stress—all these can be managed to increase your happiness and your chances of success.
第五部分: 书面表达(满分25 分) 生活中冲突时有发生。假设你班同学苏华和李江打篮球时发生争执,导致关系 紧张。请你结合此事,并根据以下提示,用英语写一篇短文,向学校英文报“Happy Teens”专栏投稿。
简要描述事情的经 过 分析发生冲突的原 因 谈谈避免冲突的做 法 注意:
1. 遇事不够冷静2. ……
1. 对所有要点逐一陈述,适当发挥,不要简单翻译。 2. 词数150 左右。开头已经写好,不计入总词数。 3. 作文中不得提及有关考生个人身份的任何信息,如校名、人名等。 Conflicts with others are common in everyday life.____________.
2012 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试 英语参考答案（江苏卷） 第二部分(共35 小题,每小题1 分,共35 分) 21. C 22. B 23. D 24. A 25. A C 31. B 32. D 33. A 34. C 35. D 41. A 42. B 43. D 44. B 45. A 51. B 52. A 53. D 54. A 55. D 第三部分(共15 小题,每小题2 分,共30 分) 新课 56. C 57. B 58. A 59. A 60. D 66. D 67. D 68. C 69. A 70. B 第四部分(共10 小题,每小题1 分,共10 分) 71. bother/ annoy 72. anxiety/ concern/ worry 一网 26. D 27. B 28. C 29. A 30. 36. C 37. C 38. B 39. C 40. D 46. A 47. C 48. D 49. B 50. C
61. C 62. C 63. B 64. D 65. C
73. considerate/ aware/ conscious 74. loyal/ faithful/ devoted/ committed 75. difference 76. positively 79. determined/ decided 第五部分(满分25 分) Conflicts with others are common in everyday life. During the basketball game yesterday afternoon, Su Hua and Li Jiang bumped into each other, trying to catch the ball. Then they started shouting and yelling, and it turned into a horrible quarrel. To be honest, it was Su’s fault but Li was also to blame—they were not calm enough and both said some really mean things. They cared too much about winning and losing. As a matter of fact, blocking, pushing and bumping are just part of a tough game. To avoid such conflicts, we should be kind to one another, which is essential to enjoying a harmonious life. It is also a virtue to forgive and forget, especially in such a 77. success/ achievements 78. strongly 80. chances/ possibilities/ opportunities
competitive and stressful society. Instead of blaming each other, we should communicate more and put ourselves in others’ place. Don’t be self-centered and try to be considerate. We must learn to handle conflicts calmly and wisely.
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