1.achieve ①gain or reach (sth), usu by effort, skill, courage, etc （通常藉努力﹑ 技巧﹑ 勇气等） 获得或达到（某事物）: achieve success, one's ambition, notoriety, peace of mind 获得成 功﹑ 实现抱负﹑ 落得个臭名﹑ 得到心情的平静. ②get (sth) done; accomplish or complete 做成（某事物）; 实现; 完成: I've achieved only half of what I'd hoped to do. 我希望做到的, 我仅完成了一半. > achievable adj (of an objective) that can be achieved （指目的）可完成的, 可达到的. achievement n ①[U] action of achieving 完成; 达到: celebrate the achievement of one's aims 庆祝愿望 的实现. ②[C] thing done successfully, esp with effort and skill 成就, 成绩（尤指藉努力和技巧而 得到者）: the greatest scientific achievement of the decade 这十年的最伟大的科学成就. 2.campaign n ①series of military operations with a particular aim, usu in one area 战役: He fought in the N African campaign during the last war. 在上次战争中他在北非战役参战. ②series of planned activities with a particular social, commercial or political aim 运动（为 某一社会的﹑ 商业的或政治的目的而进行的一系列有计划的活动）: a campaign against nuclear weapons 反对核武器运动 * an advertising campaign, ie to promote a particular product 广告宣传运动 （以推销某产品） * an election campaign 竞选运动 * a campaign to raise money for the needy 为贫苦人筹款的运动. > campaign v [I, Ipr, It] ~ (for/against sb/sth) take part in or lead a campaign 参加 或领导一战役或运动: She spent her life campaigning for women's rights. 她毕生致力於女 权运动. * campaign to have sanctions imposed 发起实施制裁的运动. campaigner n person who campaigns 参加战役或运动的人: an old campaigner, ie sb with much experience of a particular activity 老练的人.
3.behave v ①[I, Ipr] ~ well, badly, etc (towards sb) act or conduct oneself in the specified way （举止或行为）表现: She behaves (towards me) more like a friend than a mother. 她像朋 友一样（待我）, 而不像是我的母亲. * He has behaved shamefully towards his wife. 他对 妻子的态度很可耻. ②[I, Tn] ~ (oneself) show good manners; conduct oneself well 表现良好; 行为良好: Children, please behave (yourselves)! 孩子们, 规矩些! ③[I] (of machines, etc) work or function well (or in another specified way) （指机器等） 运转或性能良好: How's your new car behaving? 你的新汽车好使吗? > -behaved (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) behaving in a specified way 有某种表现的:well-/ ill-/ badly-behaved children.
4.shade n ①[U] ~ (from sth) (place where there is) comparative darkness and often coolness caused by sth blocking direct light or heat, esp of the sun 荫; 阴凉处: a temperature of 35C in the shade 阴凉处 35C 的温度 * sit in the shade of a tree, wall, etc 坐在树﹑ 墙等 的阴凉处 * Stay in the shade it's cooler. 呆在背阴处吧--那儿凉快些. * The trees give some welcome shade from the sun. 这些树遮住了阳光, 很舒适凉快. ②[C] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) thing that shuts out light or makes it less bright 遮光物: an `eye-shade 遮光帽檐 * a new shade for the `lamp/`lampshade 新灯 罩. ③shades [pl] the ~s of sth (fml 文) the darkness of sth 黑暗: the shades of evening/night 暮[夜]色. ④shades [pl] (infml 口 esp US) sun-glasses 墨镜. ⑤[U] darker part(s) of a picture, etc （图画﹑ 照片等的） 较阴暗部分: There is not enough light and shade in your drawing. 你这幅画的明暗色调不够. ⑥[C] (degree or depth of) colour; hue 颜色; 色度: material in several shades of blue 几 种色度的蓝色材料 * choose a lighter shade 选择淡些的颜色 * Do you like the blouse in this shade? 你喜欢这种色度的女衬衫吗? ⑦(a) [C] ~ of sth slight difference in sth 细微的差别: a word with many shades of meaning 有许多 相近意思的一个词 * people with all shades of opinion 意见不一的人们. (b) [sing] a ~ (better, worse, etc) a small amount 少量; 些微: I think it's a shade warmer today. 我 觉得今天暖和一点儿. * She feels a shade better than yesterday. 她感觉比昨天好一些. ⑧shades [pl] ~ s of sb/sth (infml 口) reminders of sb/sth 对某人[某事物]的联想: `Shades of Hitler!' I thought, as I listened to the dictator haranguing the crowd. 那个独裁 者向群众声嘶力竭地训话, 我一听就想到, ‘真像希特勒!’ * In some modern fashions we can see shades of the 1930s. 在有些摩登时装中可以看到三十年代的影子. ⑨[C] (fml 文) soul after death; ghost 灵魂; 鬼魂; 阴魂: the shades of my dead ancestors 我的先祖的幽魂. ⑩(idm 习语) put sb/sth in the `shade be very superior to sb/sth 使某人[某事物]相形 失色: I thought I was quite a good artist, but your painting puts mine in the shade. 我原 以为自己画得不错, 可比起你的画儿来未免相形见绌. > shade v ① [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (from sth) block off light from sb/sth; give shade to sb/sth 给 某人[某物]遮住光线; 给某人[某物]阴凉: She shaded her eyes (from the sun) with her hand. 她把手放在眼睛上方挡住阳光. ② [Tn] screen (a lamp, light, etc) to reduce its brightness 遮挡（灯﹑ 光等）以减弱亮度: shade the bulb with a dark cloth 用深色布遮挡灯泡使光暗些. ③ [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (in) darken (a part of a drawing, etc), eg with parallel pencil lines, to give an effect of light and shade 将（图画等的某部）颜色加深（如加铅笔线条以显出明暗 效果）: shade (in) this area to represent the person's shadow 把这部分画暗些以显出人影 * the shaded areas on the map 地图上颜色深的地方. ④ [Ipr, Ip] ~ from sth into sth; ~ (off) into sth (esp of colours) change gradually into (another colour or variety) （尤指颜色）逐渐变成（其他颜色）: scarlet shading (off) into
pink 猩红色逐渐变成粉色 * a colour that shades from blue into green 由蓝逐渐变绿的颜 色 * (fig 比喻) socialism shading into communism 逐渐向共产主义过渡的社会主义. shading n [U] (use of) pencil marks, etc that give an effect of darkness in a part of a
5.observe v ①[I, Tn, Tf, Tw, Tnt only passive 只用於被动语态, Tng, Tni] see and notice (sb/sth); watch carefully 看到, 注意到（某人[某事物]）; 观察; 监视: He observes keenly, but says little. 他观察敏锐, 但是很少说话. * observe the behaviour of birds 观察鸟类的行为 * She observed that he'd left but made no comment. 她看见他离去, 但未置一词. * They observed how the tiny wings were fitted to the body. 他们观看了微型翼的安装情况. * The woman was observed to follow him closely. 有人看到那女子紧跟着他. * The police observed the man entering/enter the bank. 警方监视着那男子进入银行的情况. ②[Tn] (fml 文) (a) obey (rules, laws, etc) 遵守, 奉行（规则﹑ 法令等）: observe the speed limit 遵守速度限制规定 * observe the laws of the land 遵守该国法律. (b) celebrate (festivals, birthdays, anniversaries, etc) 庆祝, 过（节日﹑ 生日﹑ 周年等）: Do they observe Christmas Day in that country? 那个国家的人过圣诞节吗? ③[Tn, Tf] (fml 文) say by way of comment; remark 评说; 评论: He observed that it would probably rain. 他说很可能下雨. * `It may rain,' he observed. ‘可能要下雨, ’他说. > observer n ① person who observes 观察者; 遵守者; 评论者: an observer of nature 自然界的观察家 * a poor observer of speed restrictions 不遵守速度限制的人. ② person who attends a conference, lesson, etc to listen and watch but not to take part （会议﹑ 课堂等的）观察员, 旁听者: an observer at a summit conference 高峰会议上的 观察员 * send sb along as an observer 派某人作观察员.
6.respect n ①[U] ~ (for sb/sth) admiration felt or shown for a person or thing that has good qualities or achievements; regard 尊敬; 敬重; 钦敬: a mark, token, etc of respect 尊敬的 标志﹑ 表示等 * have a deep, sincere, etc respect for sb 深深地﹑ 由衷地...敬重某人 * I have the greatest respect for you/hold you in the greatest respect. 我非常尊敬您. * The new officer soon won/earned the respect of his men. 那新来的军官很快博得了士兵的钦敬. ②[U] ~ (for sb/sth) politeness or consideration arising from admiration or regard 尊敬 之表示; 尊重之情: Children should show respect for their teachers. 学生要尊敬老师. * Out of respect, he took off his hat. 他脱帽以示敬意. * have some, little, no, etc respect for sb's feelings 相当﹑ 不太﹑ 毫不...尊重某人的感情 * With (all due) respect, sir, I disagree. 先生, 恕我直言, 我不能同意. ③[U] ~ (for sb/sth) protection or recognition 维护; 承认; 尊重: very little respect for human rights 极不尊重人权. ④[C] particular aspect or detail 方面; 着眼点: in this one respect 在这一点上 * in some/all/many/several/few respects 在某些[各个/许多/几个/极少]方面 * In what respect
do you think the film is biased? 你认为影片在哪一方面失之偏颇? ⑤(idm 习语) in respect of sth (fml or commerce 文或商) as regards sth; with special reference to sth 关於某事物; 就某方面而言: The book is admirable in respect of style. 这 本书风格极佳. * price rises in respect of gas and water costs 煤气费和水费涨价. with respect to sth (fml or commerce 文或商) concerning sth 涉及﹑ 提到或关於某事物: This is true with respect to English but not to French. 这一点在英语属实而在法语则不同. * With respect to your enquiry, I enclose an explanatory leaflet. 关於你的询问, 兹附上有关
7.argue v ①[I, Ipr] ~ (with sb) (about/over sth) express an opposite opinion; exchange angry words; quarrel 争论; 争辩; 争吵: The couple next door are always arguing. 邻居的夫妇 总吵架. * Don't argue with your mother. 不要和母亲争辩. * We argued with the waiter about the price of the meal. 我们跟服务员争执那顿饭的价钱. ②[I, Ipr, Tf] ~ (for/against sth) give reasons for or against sth, esp with the aim of persuading sb 说理; 争辩; 辩论: He argues convincingly. 他的辩解很有说服力. * argue for the right to strike 为争取罢工权利而辩论 * I argued that we needed a larger office. 我 据理力争我们需要大些的办公室. ③[Tn] (fml 文) discuss (sth); debate 讨论; 辩论: The lawyers argued the case for hours. 律师们对那个案件辩论了几小时. ④(idm 习语),argue the `toss say that one disagrees about a decision 反对某项决定: Let's not argue the toss we have to accept his choice. 我们不必争论已经决定的事--只好听 他的. ⑤(phr v) argue sb into/out of doing sth persuade sb to do/not to do sth by giving reasons 说服﹑ 劝说某人做[不做]某事: They argued him into withdrawing his complaint. 他们说服他撤回了投诉. > arguable adj ① that can be argued or asserted 可论证的; 可断言的: It is arguable that we would be just as efficient with fewer staff. 我们的职员少一些也能发挥同样效率, 这是言之成理的. ② not certain; questionable 可疑的; 有问题的: This account contains many arguable statements. 这种说法含有很多疑点. arguably adv one can argue(2) that 可争辩地; 按理; 按说: John sings very well though Peter is arguably the better actor. 约翰唱得很好, 不过按理说彼得演得更好.
8.crowd v ①[Ipr, Ip] ~ around/round(sb) gather closely around (sb) 聚集在（某人）周围: People crowded round to get a better view. 人们争相围观. * Pupils crowded round (their teacher) to ask questions. 小学生围着（老师）提问题. ②[Tn] fill (a space) so that there is little room to move 充塞（某空间）: Tourists crowded the pavement. 游客把人行道挤得水泄不通. * crowd a restaurant, theatre, beach, etc 挤
满餐厅﹑ 剧院﹑ 海滨等. ③[Tn] (infml 口) put pressure on (sb); harass 给（某人）施加压力; 逼迫: Don't crowd me: give me time to think! 不要逼我: 给我时间 让我想想! ④(idm 习语) crowd on `sail (nautical 海) raise many sails in order to increase speed 扬 起许多风帆（以增加速度）. ⑤(phr v) crowd in on sb (of thoughts, etc) come into the mind in large numbers （指想 法等）大量涌现: Memories crowded in on me. 往事一齐涌上我心头. crowd into sth; crowd in move in large numbers into a small space 大批涌入 （某狭小空间内） : Supporters crowded through the gates into the stadium. 来捧场的人挤过大门, 涌入运动场. * We'd all crowded into Harriet's small sitting-room. 我们大家涌进了哈丽特那狭小的客厅. * (fig 比 喻) Disturbing thoughts crowded into my mind. 我心乱如麻. crowd sb/sth into sth; crowd sb/sth in put many people or things into a small space or period of time; cram (sb/sth) into sth 使很多人或物挤进狭小空间或在短时期涌现出来; 勉强塞入: They crowd people into the buses. 他们让许多人挤进公共汽车里. * Guests were crowded into the few remaining rooms. 把客人都挤在剩余的几个房间里了. * She crowds too much detail into her paintings. 她的画过於繁杂. crowd sb/sth out (of sth) (a) keep sb/sth out of a space by filling it oneself 挤占某空间使某人[某物]无法进入: The restaurant's regular customers are being crowded out by tourists. 这家餐馆的老主顾被游客挤得不得其门而入. (b) prevent sb/sth from operating successfully 排挤某人[某事物]: Small shops are being crowded out by the big supermarkets. 小商店受到大型超级市场不断排挤.
9.support [Tn] help to show that (a theory, claim, etc) is true; confirm 支持（某理论﹑ 主张等）; 证 实; 肯定: a theory that is not supported by the facts 缺乏事实根据的理论 * This evidence supports my argument that she is guilty. 这一证据支持了我认为她有罪的推定.
10.refer v (-rr-) ①[Ipr] ~ to sb/sth (a) mention or speak of sb/sth; allude to sb/sth 提到﹑ 说到或涉及 到某人[某事物]: When I said some people are stupid, I wasn't referring to you. 我说有些 人很愚蠢, 并不是指你. * Don't refer to this matter again, please. 请不要再提这件事了. * This incident in his childhood is never again referred to. 他小时候的这件事永远不再提了. (b) be relevant to sb/sth; concern sb/sth 与某人[某事物]有关; 关系到某人[某事物]: What I have to say refers to all of you. 我要说的事和你们大家都有关. ②[Ipr] ~ to sth/sb turn to sth/sb for information, etc 向某事物[某人]查询信息等: refer to a dictionary, an expert 查词典﹑ 询问专家 * I referred to my watch for the exact time. 我看了一下手表好知道准确的时间. * The speaker often referred to his notes. 那个讲演的 人不时地看发言稿. ③[Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sb/sth to sb/sth send sb/sth to sb/sth for help, advice, action, etc 将某人[某事物]送交某人[某事物]以谋求帮助﹑ 指点﹑ 行动支持等: refer a patient to a specialist for treatment 把病人交给专科医生治疗 * The dispute was
referred to the United Nations/to arbitration. 该项争端已提交联合国处理[予以仲裁]. * I was referred to the manager/the enquiry office. 人家叫我去找经理[去问讯处]. * The reader is referred to page 3. 请读者参看第 3 页.
④(phr v) refer sth back (to sb) return (a document, etc) to the sender for further clarification 将（文件等）退给送件人予以澄清: The letter was referred back (to us) with a query. 该函已退给（我方）要求对某问题加以解释.
11.intend / v ①(a) [Tn, Tf, Tt, Tnt, Tg, Cn.n/a, Dn.n] ~ sth (as sth) have (a particular purpose or plan) in mind; mean 打算; 意欲; 想要: I meant it to be an informal discussion, but it didn't turn out as I intended (it should). 我本想随便商量一下, 结果事与愿违. * It's not what I intended (it to be). 那并不是我的本意. * I hear they intend to marry/intend marrying. 听 说他们要结婚了. * I intended to do it, but I'm afraid I forgot. 我本有意去做, 但很遗憾, 我 忘记了. * I don't intend to listen to this rubbish any longer! 我再也不想听这种无稽之谈了! * I intended it as a joke. 我不过说笑罢了. * He intends you no harm, ie does not plan to harm you. 他对你并无恶意. (b) [Tf, Tnt] have (sth) as a fixed plan or purpose for sb else 为某人定下计画或目标: I intend that you shall take over the business. 我有意让你接管公 司. * I intend you to take over. 我打算让你来接管. * You weren't intended (ie supposed) to hear that remark. 你按说不应该听那些话. ②[Dn.pr] ~ sth for sb plan that sb should receive or be affected by sth 为某人准备某事 物; 要使某人受某事物的影响: I think the bomb was intended for (ie planned to harm) me. 我认为那颗炸弹是要炸我的. ③[Cn.n/a] ~ sth as sth plan that sth should be or become sth 打算使某事物成为另一事 物: Was that remark intended as (ie supposed to be) a joke? 那句话是不是当作笑话说的? ④[Tn.pr] ~ sth by sth plan that sth should have the specified meaning 欲使某事物具有 某意义; 意指; 意谓: What did he intend by that remark? 他说那话是什麽意思? > intended adj ① [attrib 作定语] planned; meant; desired 计画的; 打算的; 意欲的: the intended meaning, result, effect, purpose 原来的意思﹑ 想要的结果﹑ 预期的效果﹑ 原有的目的. ②~ for sb/sth [pred 作表语] planned or designed for sb/sth 为（某人[某事物]）计画或 设计: a book, course, programme, etc intended for children, adults, beginners, etc 为儿童 ﹑ 成人﹑ 初学者等而写的书﹑ 开设的课程﹑ 编排的节目等 * water (not) intended for drinking （非）饮用水.
12.deliver v ①[I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sth) (to sb/sth) take (letters, parcels, goods, etc) to the places or people they are addressed to 递送, 传送（信件﹑ 包裹﹑ 货物等）: We deliver (your order) to your door! 我们送货上门! * A courier delivered the parcels (to our office). 送急 件的人将包裹送来（送到我们办公室）了. * Did you deliver my message to my father? 你
把我的信息传给我父亲了吗? ②(a) [Tn.pr only passive 只用於被动语态] be ~ed of sb (fml 文) give birth to (a child) 生（小孩儿）: She was delivered of a healthy boy. 她生了一个健康的男孩儿. (b) [Tn] help a mother to give birth to (a child) 协助产妇分娩; 助产; 接生: Her baby was delivered by her own doctor. 她的婴儿是由她自己的医生给接生的. (c) [Tn.pr] ~ oneself of sth (fml 文) state sth 发言; 发表: deliver oneself of an opinion, a judgement, etc 发表意见﹑ 看 法等. ③[Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (up/over) (to sb) (fml 文) give sth up; hand sth over; surrender sth 放弃某事物; 交出某物: deliver (up) a fortress to the enemy 弃守要塞任敌 人占据 * deliver over one's property to one's children 把财产交给子女. ④[Tn, Tn.pr] give (a lecture, sermon, speech, etc) 授（课）; 讲（道）; 讲（话）: She delivered a talk on philosophy to the society. 她给学会作了一次有关哲学的讲话. ⑤[Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (from sth) (arch 古) rescue sb (from sth); save sb; free sb 拯救某人; 解救某人; 释放某人: May God deliver us from evil. 愿上帝拯救我们脱离罪恶. ⑥(a) [Tn] throw or launch (sth) in flight; release 投掷, 发射 （某物） ; 放出: In cricket, the ball is delivered overarm. 打板球时, 要举臂过肩掷球. * The missile is delivered from underground. 这种导弹由地下发射. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] give (a blow) 给予（打击）: deliver a blow to the jaw 给颌部一击 * (fig 比喻) The teacher delivered a sharp rebuke to the class. 教师尖刻地申斥了全班学生. ⑦(infml 口) (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) give what is expected or promised 不负所望; 履行诺 言: They promise to finish the job in June, but can they deliver (on that)? 他们答应六月份 完成这项工作, 但他们能说到做到吗? (b) [Tn] achieve (a level of performance) 达到（某 一能力﹑ 性能等的水平）: The new model delivers speed and fuel economy. 这种新型设 计能提高速度﹑ 节约燃料. * If you can't deliver improved sales figures, you're fired! 你要 是不能提高销售额, 就把你解雇! ⑧(idm 习语) come up with/deliver the goods => goods. > deliverer n ① person who delivers (deliver 1, 2, 3, 4) 递送者; 助产者; 述说者; 放弃者; 交付者; 授 课者; 讲道者; 演讲者. ② rescuer; saviour 拯救者; 救星.
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