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[精品课件]201x-201x学年高中英语 Unit 2 The Environment Section Ⅳ Grammar & Writing课件 牛津译_图文

Section Ⅳ
语法图解

Grammar & Writing

探究发现
①Having finished his homework, he went to bed. ②I used to find a trip to the park very relaxing. ③Having been discussed several times, the decision was
finally made. ④The state of our parks is very shocking, with rubbish
everywhere. ⑤Other types of waste flow into our water, killing river and
sea life.

⑥There are so many interesting animals and insects living in our parks.
⑦As the lecture being given is of great importance, the students are listening very carefully.
⑧When people think of factories, they think of clouds of dirty smoke or of pipes pouring chemical waste into rivers.
⑨Reading about your newspaper's decision to start a campaign for protecting the environment, I decided to write you this letter.

[我的发现] (1)以上各句中的黑体部分在句中担当的成分不尽相同。黑体部
分在第⑥、⑦、⑧句中作 定 语;在第④句中作表语;在第 ②句中作补语 ;在第①、③、⑤、⑨句中作 状语。 (2)从以上第⑥、⑦、⑧句来看,现在分词在句中作定语时位置 不同。单个的分词作定语时,一般放在所修饰名词的前面; 分__词__短__语__作定语时通常放在所修饰名词的后面。

(3)第①、③、⑤句中现在分词表示的动作与谓语动词 表示的 动作发生的时间不同。在第⑤句中,现在分词表示的动作 与谓语动词表示的动作 同时发生;在第①、③、⑨句中, 现在分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。
(4)第③、⑦句中现在分词与其逻辑主语存在着被动关系。

一、现在分词的时态和语态

现在分词的构成为“动词+-ing”。现在分词有一般式和完

成式,还有主动和被动两种形式。

语态 形式

主动 语态

一般式 完成式

结构 doing
having done

用法
表示一般性的动作,或表示的动 作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时 或几乎同时发生
表示的动作通常发生在谓语动词 表示的动作之前,特别强调动作 已经完成

语态 形式
一般式 被动 语态
完成式

结构

用法

being done

所表示的动作是一个正在进 行中的被动动作

having been done

表示一个被动动作发生在谓 语动词所表示的动作之前

Mary said angrily pointing to the notice. 玛丽生气地指着布告说。 Having watered the vegetables, we began to dig the ground. 我们浇过菜之后,就开始挖地。 This is the computer being repaired by Tom. 这就是由汤姆正在修的电脑。 Having been criticized by the teacher, Wang Ming gave up smoking. 受到老师的批评后,王明戒烟了。

[即时演练 1] 用所给词的适当形式填空 ① Having studied (study) English for three years, he can read brief stories in English. ② Seeing (see) the stranger coming towards him, little Jim ran away as fast as he could. ③ Having been called (call) by a stranger, he realized what would happen. ④He listened to the tape, making (make) notes now and then.

二、现在分词的句法功能 1.作定语 单个的分词作定语时一般放在被修饰词之前;现在分词短语作 定语一般放在被修饰词之后,且往往可转化为定语从句。 He brought us an interesting book. 他给我们带来了一本有趣的书。 The man sitting under a big tree is my uncle. 坐在大树下的人是我的叔叔。 The building being built now will be our dining hall. =The building which is being built now will be our dining hall. 现在正在建造的建筑将是我们的餐厅。

[辨析比较]

现在分词 它所修饰的名词通常就是现在分词的逻辑主 作定语 语,并且通常可转换成一个定语从句

动名词作 定语

表示的是被修饰名词的作用、用途等

比较:

??a moving truck ? ? ?a moving truck ??

正在移动的汽车?moving为现在分词, 与truck是主谓关系? 搬家汽车?moving为动名词,说明 truck的用途?

??a hunting dog ? ? ?a hunting dog ??

正在猎物的狗?hunting为现在分词, 与dog是主谓关系? 猎狗?hunting为动名词,说明dog 的用途?

[名师点津] (1)有些现在分词已经转化成形容词,它之前 常有程度副词或最高级等。常见的这种形容词化的现在分词 有:exciting, interesting, surprising, puzzling, frightening, amusing 等。
(2)现在分词的完成式(即 having done/having been done) 一般不作限制性定语。
[正] The students who have seen the film are coming out of the cinema.
[误] The students having seen the film are coming out of the cinema.
看完电影的学生们正走出电影院。

[即时演练 2]
(1)句型转换 ①Tell the boys who are playing over there not to make any noise. →Tell the boys playing over there not to make any noise. ②This is the path which leads to the school. →This is the path leading to the school.
(2)单句改错 ①There are people crying and people laugh.laugh→laughing ②The building built now will be the tallest in our city. building 后加 being

2.作表语 现在分词作表语,用来说明主语的性质和特征,相当于形 容词,其主语通常是物。一般跟在连系动词 be, get, become, look, sound, feel, keep, remain, grow, seem, appear 等后面。 Travelling is interesting but tiring. 旅行是有趣的,但也是令人疲劳的。 The news is encouraging. 这消息令人鼓舞。

[辨析比较]

现在分词 作表语

表示主语的性质和特征。不可与主语交 换位置

动名词 作表语

对主语内容的进一步说明和解释。可与 主语交换位置

比较: My job is interesting. 我的工作很有趣。(interesting 为现在分词,表示“工作” 的特征) My job is teaching. 我的工作是教书。(teaching 为动名词,它是对“工作”内 容的进一步说明)

[即时演练 3] 用所给词的适当形式填空 ①—The story that the old man told was touching (touch). —Yes, and very inspiring (inspire). ②What he said was disappointing (disappoint). ③The result of the accident is shocking (shock).

3.作补语 现在分词可以在 see, hear, notice, watch, feel, look at, listen to, observe, have, get, leave, keep, set, catch, find 等动词 (短语)后面作宾语补足语。变成被动语态时,现在分词就成了 主语补足语。 The police caught him stealing a car. 警察当场撞见他在偷汽车。 He was caught stealing a car by the police. 他偷汽车时被警察当场撞见。

I could feel my heart beating wildly. 我能够感觉到我的心在剧烈地跳动。 We noticed him swimming in the swimming pool. 我们注意到他在游泳池里游泳。 [名师点津] 在感官动词或动词短语(see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, notice 等)和使役动词(have)后面的宾语 补足语常有三种形式,即不带 to 的不定式、现在分词或过去 分词。不带 to 的不定式表主动和完成;现在分词表主动和进 行;过去分词表被动和完成。

[即时演练 4] (1)用所给词的适当形式填空
①We found him waiting (wait) to receive us. ②We kept the fire burning (burn) all the time. (2)完成句子 ①她让我们在这儿等了一个小时。 She kept us waiting here for an hour. ②今天早上 10 点钟有人发现他在洗车。 He was found washing the car at ten this morning.

4.作状语 现在分词作状语,其逻辑主语是句子的主语。现在分词 作状语,是对谓语动词表示的主要动作加以修饰或作为陪衬, 也就是说现在分词表示的是比较次要的动作,是对谓语动词 表示的动作或状态的补充说明,但它们表示的动作(或状态) 是与谓语动词动作同时发生(或进行)的。现在分词作状语可 以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。

(1)作时间状语,可以转换为 when/while 引导的时间状 语从句。
Leaving the airport (=When they left the airport), they waved again and again to us.
离开机场时,他们频频向我们挥手。 (2)作原因状语,可以转换为 because/since/as 引导的原 因状语从句。 Being league members ( = Since we are league members), we are ready to help others. 由于我们是团员,我们乐意帮助别人。

(3)作结果状语,常表示自然而然的、预料之中的结果。 可以转换为 so that 引导的结果状语从句。
He fell off the bike, hitting (=so that hit) his head against a big stone.
他从自行车上摔了下来,头撞到了一块大石头上。 [名师点津] 动词不定式作结果状语时,常表示出乎意料 的结果,而现在分词作结果状语则表示自然而然的结果。 They lifted a rock, only to drop it on their own feet. 他们搬起石头却砸了自己的脚。

(4)作条件状语,可以转换为 if 引导的条件状语从句。 Using your head (=If you use your head), you'll have a good idea. 如果你动动脑筋,你就会想出好办法来的。 (5)作让步状语,可以转换为 though/although 等引导的让步状 语从句。 Knowing (=Though/Although they knew) all this, they made me pay for the damage. 尽管他们了解了这一切,但还是要我赔偿损失。 (6)作伴随状语和方式状语,可以转换为与原句并列的一个分句。 The girls came in, following (=and followed) their parents. 那些女孩子跟在她们父母的后面进来了。

[即时演练 5] 用所给词的适当形式填空/句型转换
① Having eaten (eat) at the cafeteria before, Tina didn't want to eat there again. ② Climbing (climb) to the top of the tower, we saw a magnificent view. ③ Living (live) in the country, we had few social engagements. ④A lot of good land has gone with rain water, leaving (leave) only sand. ⑤Working very hard, he didn't feel a bit tired. → Though/Although he worked very hard, he didn't feel a bit tired.

三、现在分词的特殊结构 1.连词+现在分词 when, while, if, though, as, until, once, whether, unless, where 等连词后可接现在分词作状语,相当于这些连词引导的状语从 句,这时现在分词的逻辑主语是句子的主语。 While (=While he was) listening to the debate, he made notes. 听辩论时,他做了笔记。 If walking (=If you walk) the dog, you should be careful and don't let it get loose. 如果你遛狗,当心别松了手。

2.not +现在分词 现在分词的否定形式是在其前加 not。 Not knowing what to do next, she stopped to think. 不知道下一步做什么,她停下来思考。
Not having finished the homework, the little girl is not allowed to play outside.
由于没完成作业,这个小女孩不被允许出去玩。 3.现在分词的固定短语 有些惯用的现在分词的固定短语,在句子中可以没有逻辑
上的主语而独立存在,它们往往作为句子的独立成分来修饰全 句,表明说话者的态度、观点等,我们称这种成分为评论性状 语或评注性状语。常见的有:

generally speaking

一般来说

frankly speaking

坦白地说

strictly speaking

严格地说

honestly speaking

诚实地说

judging from/by ...

根据……来判断

Generally speaking, the learned are respected by people.

一般来说,有学问的人受人尊敬。

Judging from his look, he didn't agree with you at all.

从他的神情判断,他根本不同意你的看法。

[即时演练 6] 句型转换/完成句子
①Though he was ill, he still continued studying. → Though being ill , he still continued studying. ②To be honest, I didn't do it on purpose. → Honestly speaking , I didn't do it on purpose. ③没完成这项任务,他们不得不在这儿再待上两周。 _N_o_t_h_a_v_i_n_g_c_o_m__p_le_t_e_d_/_fi_n_is_h_e_d__th_e__ta_s_k_, they have to stay there for another two weeks.

Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.While reading (read) the book, he nodded from time to
time. 2. Having suffered (suffer) from heart trouble for years,
Professor White has to take some medicine with him wherever he goes. 3.Looking (look) at my classmates' faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes.

4.The lawyer listened with full attention, trying (try) not to miss any point.
5.When comparing (compare) different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities.
6.When we returned, we found a stranger standing (stand) in front of the house.

7.Tell Mary that there's someone waiting (wait) for her at the door.
8.The man standing (stand) at the window is our teacher. 9.When I was little, my mother used to sit by my bed, telling
(tell) me stories till I fell asleep. 10.The result of the test was rather disappointing (disappoint).

Ⅱ.单句写作 (用现在分词及其短语完成句子) 1.看着这些面人,我们都很兴奋。
(2015·北京高考改编) Looking at the figurines, we were all very excited. 2.在接下来的几周里,莎莉制定出 10 条班规并把它们贴在教室 里的墙上。 (2015·广东高考改编)In the following weeks , Sally worked out 10 class rules and posted them on the walls of the classroom.

3.相比较而言,我坚持认为关乎健康与文化的栏目的价值远 胜过那些娱乐栏目。 (2015·上海高考改编)Comparatively speaking , I maintain that the value of the columns concerning about health and _cu__lt_u_r_e far outweighs that of the entertainment.
4.我们班有 60 名学生,包括 35 名男生和 25 名女生。 (2014·天津高考改编)There are 60 students in our class, _in_c_l_u_d_in_g__3_5_b_o_y_s_ and 25 girls.

5.读了上面那么多来自母亲的常见抱怨后,我感到羞耻和 愧疚。 (重庆高考改编 ) Having read about the above common complaint from so many mothers, I feel ashamed and guilty.

Ⅲ.短文改错 It was cold last Monday morning. While I was walking in my way to school, I noticed two street cleaners sweeping the street in the wind. Seen them working so hard on such a cold morning, I was moved and made my mind to do something for them. I discussed with my classmates how we could do. Final we all agreed to get them some bread.

The next day, we prepare some bread at home. When we handed the cleaner the bread and expressed our appreciation for their hard work, they looked a little surprising at first. And then we took the bread and thanked us happily. Though it was cold, but we all felt warm at that moment.

答案:第二句:in→on 第三句:Seen→Seeing; made 后加 up 第四句:how→what 第五句:Final→Finally 第六句:prepare→prepared 第七句:cleaner→cleaners; surprising→surprised 第八句:we→they 第九句:去掉 but

海报是一种宣传广告,属于应用文。其内容是向广大群众 提供喜闻乐见的消息,如:球讯、电影消息及演出动态等等。 海报常配以绘画以增加吸引力。海报正中往往把有关内容作为 大字标题,如:Football Match, Film News 等字样以提示海报的 内容。
英文海报是应用文中的重要体裁,使用场合非常广泛,它 包括招聘广告、活动宣传和人物介绍等。

一、基本结构 第一部分:标题。正文前一般有吸引人的大字标题。 第二部分:正文。正文部分要写清具体内容,活动时间、 地点以及参加规定、主持或举办单位等。 第三部分:署名和日期。出海报的单位署名通常放在右 下角,日期位于署名的下一行,靠左下角。

二、增分佳句 1.The English Festival of our school is coming soon.
我校的英语节马上到来。 2.We are looking forward to your active participation.
我们期望你们积极参与。 3.Please come and cheer for them.
请来为他们加油。 4.I hope you won't miss it.
我希望你不要错过。

5.All the clothes are low in price but high quality. 所有衣服价廉物美。
6.Catch the chance, or you will regret. 抓住机会,否则你会后悔的。
7 . A friendly basketball match will be organised by the students' union of our school. 我校学生会将组织一次友谊篮球赛。
8.Besides, we are going to have listening, writing and reading competitions the following week. 除此以外,我们还将在下周进行听、写、读比赛。

[题目要求] 荒漠化问题在全世界日益严重。请根据下表要点以
“Fighting against desertification”设计一则海报。
问题 全球荒漠化的面积占整个地球陆地面积的1/4; 下个世纪,沙漠地区的面积将增加17% 人类的行为,如滥砍滥伐等;旱涝灾害、气候
原因 变暖等
倡议 植树造林;呼吁人们提高环保意识……

注意:词数 100 左右。标题和署名已给出,不计入总词数。 Fighting against desertification
The Students' Union

第一步:审题构思很关键 一、审题 1.确定体裁:本文为 英文海报 。 2.确定人称:本文人称应以 第三人称 为主。 3.确定时态:主要用 一般现在时 。 二、构思 正文安排以下三段内容: 第一段:荒漠化问题; 第二段:出现这些问题的原因; 第三段:发出倡议。

第二步:核心词汇想周全
1. threaten 2. be replaced with 3.suffer from 4.increase by 5.contribute to/lead to 6.speed up 7.there is no doubt that 8.take the responsibility to do sth. 9. promote people's awareness 10.take an active part in

威胁 被代替 遭受 增加了 导致 加速,加快 毫无疑问 担起做某事的责任 提高人们的意识 积极参加

第三步:由词扩句雏形现
1.近年来,沙漠化更加严重,在诸多方面威胁到我们。(and
并列句) _In___r_ec_e_n_t__y_e_a_r_s_, _d_e_s_e_r_t_if_ic_a_t_io_n___h_a_s__g_o_n_e__f_ro_m___b_a_d___to_ _w_o_r_s_e_a_n_d__t_h_r_ea_t_e_n_e_d__u_s_i_n_m__a_n_y_w__a_y_s_. 2.全球大约四分之一的陆地面积被沙漠替代。(被动语态) _A_b_o_u_t__o_n_e__f_o_u_r_th__o_f__th_e__w__o_r_ld_'_s__la_n_d__s_u_r_f_a_c_e_h__a_s_b_e_e_n_ _r_e_p_la_c_e_d__w_i_th__d_e_s_e_rt_.

3.下个世纪,沙漠地区的面积可能会增加 17%。(sth. be likely
to do ...) _T_h_e__a_r_ea__o_f_d_e_s_e_r_t_i_s_l_ik_e_l_y_t_o__in_c_r_e_a_s_e_b_y__1_7_%__i_n__th_e__n_e_x_t _c_e_n_tu_r_y_._ 4.一项调查表明,许多因素导致这一现象的发生。(宾语从句) _S_u_r_v_e_y__s_h_o_w_s___th__a_t __m_a_n__y__f_a_c_to_r_s___co_n__tr_i_b_u_t_e__t_o__t_h_e_ _p_h_e_n_o_m_e_n_o_n__.

5.人类的糟糕行为应受责备,例如:非法砍伐、不栽树等。
(be to blame) H__u_m__a_n_b__ei_n_g_'_s__b_a_d_b_e_h_a_v_i_o_u_r__is__to__b_l_a_m_e_,_s_u_c_h__a_s_i_ll_e_g_a_l c_u_t_t_in_g_,_p_l_a_n_t_in_g__n_o__tr_e_e_s_a_n_d__s_o_o_n_. 6.毫无疑问,如果任这种情况持续下去,我们的环境将受到
更大的破坏。(without doubt) O__u_r__e_n_v_i_r_o_n_m_e_n_t__w__il_l __w_i_th_o_u_t__d_o_u__b_t __su_f_f_e_r__a__g_r_e_a_te_r_ d__es_t_r_u_c_ti_o_n__if_w__e_l_e_t _th_i_s_s_i_tu_a_t_i_o_n_c_o_n_t_in__u_e_a_s_i_t_i_s.

7.政府应当号召人们多栽树。(call on sb. to do sth.) T__h_e_g_o_v_e_r_n_m__e_n_t_s_h_o_u_ld__c_a_ll__o_n_p_e_o_p_l_e_t_o_p_l_a_n_t_m__o_r_e_t_r_e_es_._
8.我们年轻人应当担负起责任,提高人们的环保意识。 W__e__y_o_u_n_g__p_e_o_p_le__s_h_o_u_ld__t_a_k_e_t_h_e__r_es_p_o_n_s_i_b_il_i_ty__t_o_p_r_o_m__o_te p_e_o_p_l_e_'_s_a_w__a_re_n_e_s_s_o_f__th_e__e_n_v_ir_o_n_m__e_n_t_a_l _p_r_o_te_c_t_io_n_.__

第四步:句式升级造亮点
1.用 It is likely that ...句式改写句 3 I_t_i_s_l_ik_e_l_y_t_h_a_t_t_h_e_a_r_e_a__o_f_d_e_s_e_rt__w_i_ll_i_n_c_r_e_as_e__b_y_1_7_%___in__t_h_e n__ex_t__ce_n_t_u_r_y_._
2.用 There is no doubt that ...句式改写句 6 T__h_e_re__is__n_o_d__o_u_b_t_t_h_a_t_o_u_r_e_n_v_i_r_o_n_m__e_n_t _w_i_ll_s_u_f_f_e_r_a__g_re_a_t_e_r d_e_s_t_r_u_c_ti_o_n_i_f_w__e_l_et__th_i_s_s_i_tu_a_t_io_n__c_o_n_t_in_u__e_a_s_i_t_is_.__

第五步:过渡衔接联成篇 Fighting against desertification
In recent years, desertification has gone from bad to worse and threatened us in many ways. About one fourth of the world's land surface has been replaced with desert. Worse still, it's likely that the area of desert will increase by 17% in the next century.
Survey shows that many factors contribute to the phenomenon. First, human being's bad behaviour is to blame,

such as illegal cutting, planting no trees and so on. Second,

flood and global warming have also speeded up the process.

There is no doubt that our environment will suffer a greater destruction if we let this situation continue as it is. The

following measures may stop further desertification. On the

one hand, the government should call on people to plant more trees. On the other hand, we young people should take the

responsibility to promote people's awareness of the

environmental protection. Just take an active part in the

activities!

The Students' Union


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