阅读理解归纳为以下四大题型， 根据阅读理解题考查角度的不同， 可采用不同的解题技巧来 应付。 Ⅰ.事实细节题 Ⅱ.猜测词义题 学会"顺藤摸瓜"，通过构词，语法，定义，同位，对比，因果，常识，上下文等线索确定词 义。在阅读解题时要注意从以下七个方面着手： 1）根据定义或解释、说明猜测生词的词义 2）根据对比关系猜测生词的词义 3）通过因果关系猜测词义 4）根据生活常识猜测词义 5）根据同等关系猜测词义 6）根据列举的事例猜测词义 7）根据构词法知识猜测词义 Ⅲ.推理判断题 做这类题要求考生在阅读理解整体语篇的同时， 又要求学生对作者的态度、 意图及文章细节 的发展作正确的推理判断，力求从作者的角度去考虑，不要固守自己的看法或观点。不要主 观臆断，凭空想象，任意发挥，而走入误区。学生要学会运用主题句去推测、揣摩文字背后 作者的意图，运用归纳、对比、演绎技能，运用背景知识去挖掘文章深层含义，从而正确理 解作者的言外之意，同时认真体会文章的语气与感情基调(如：否定、厌恶、反问、讽刺等)。 这类试题常以如下句式发问： ①What can you conclude/ imply from this passage? ②What’s the author’s attitude（态度）towards...? ③We can infer /learn from the passage that... Ⅳ.主旨大意题 这种题型要求考生能够把握文章的总体，并真正理解主题和中心；要求能较好地运用概括、 判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维方法解题，难度较大，属于高层次题。 一般主旨大意题可以分为两类： 1．确定文章的标题和主题(title or topic) 标题位于文章之首，用来高度概括文章内容，点明文章主题。它可以是单词，短语，也可以 是句子。要确定文章标题，首先，要在阅读原文的基础上，考虑标题是否与主题密切相关； 其次，看标题是否能概括全文内容。不能只概括短文中的某些事实或细节；然后，要注意标 题范围不应太大或太小； 最后，标题应简练并能吸引读者。 即:1、 独特新颖 2、概括性强 3、 短小精炼。 常见的标题型题干： 1) The best title/ headline for this passage might be________. 2) The text (passage) could be entitled ______. 3) What is the best title for the passage? 4) What’s the topic of the article? 2.主题句（topic sentence）及主旨大意(main idea)的概括 一篇文章一般表达一个中心内容或主题。 这个中心内容或主题通常用一个句子来概括。 此句 叫做主题句。一般来说，说明文和议论文都有主题句，而且多位于文章的开头，有时也位于
文章的中间或末尾。但有时不能在文中直接找到主题句，要求读者把握每段的主题句，弄清 段于段之间逻辑关系的基础上自己归纳总结。主题句必须能简洁明了地概括全文的主要内 容，具有高度的综合性和概括性。文章或段落的其他句子都是对主题句的进一步解释,说明, 论证或扩展. 常见的主题句和主旨型题干： 1) What is the topic sentence of the passage? 2) This article/text/passage mainly tells that _____________. 3) Which of the following gives a general idea of the passage? 4) Which of the following is the main idea of the passage? 阅读推理判断题分类： 1. 推断隐含意义 It can be inferred from the text that________________________. The story indicates that______________________. 标志性词语：infer, indicate, suggest, imply, conclude... 2. 推断作者观点或态度 What does the author think of __________________? What's the author's attitude toward_______________________? In the author's opinion, _________________________. 标志性词语：according to the writer, attitude, think, opinion, consider... 3. 推断写作目的 What is the author's main purpose in this passage? In the passage the author wants to tell__________________________. The article is intended to ____________________________________________. 标志性词语：purpose, intend to, show, want ... 4. 推断文章出处 Where would this passage most probably appear? The passage is most likely a part of ______________. 标志性词语：be taken from, appear, a part of, be taken out of ... 5. 推断人物的观点、情感、品性 Sb think that _________________. What do we know/learn about sb in the text? How did …feel about…? 标志性词语：attitude, learn form, know from, feel about ... 6. 推断读者对象或文章的作者 Who probably wrote the letter? Who is the passage written for? Who are the intended readers of the passage? 标志性词语：the intended reader, writer, author… 7. 推断作者的情感 How does the author feel about_______________? The writer probably feels that______________________. 标志性词语：feel, feel about...
Find the answers to the inference questions in the reading personally.
第 1 题 When I was a teenager, my mother’s broken English embarrassed me. But now, I see it differently. To me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It is my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, and full of observation and wisdom. It was the language that helped shape the way 1 saw things, expressed ideas, and made sense of the world. [2010 年广东卷 A 篇 44] What does the author think of her mother’s English now? A. It confuses her. B. It embarrasses her. C. It helps her understand the world. D. It helps her tolerate rude people. 第 2 题 Batteries can power anything from small sensors to large systems. While scientists are finding ways to make them smaller but even more powerful, problems can arise when these batteries are much larger and heavier than the devices themselves. University of Missouri researchers are developing a nuclear energy source that is smaller, lighter and more efficient. … Together with J. David Robertson, chemistry professor and associate director of the MU Research Reactor, Kwon is working to build and test the battery. In the future, they hope to increase the battery’s power, shrink its size and try with various other materials. Kwon said that the battery could be thinner than the thickness of human hair.【2010 山东卷 D 篇 75】 The text is most probably a _________________. A. science news report B. book review C. newspaper ad D. science fiction story 第 3 题 Forget Twitter and Facebook, Google and the Kindle. Television is still the most influential medium around. Indeed ,for many of the poorest regions(地区)of the world, it remains the next big thing——finally becomes globally available. And that is a good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for the better. ... Too much TV has been associated with violence, overweight and loneliness. However, TV is having a positive influence on the lives of billions worldwide. The author intends to____________. [2010 年福建卷 B 篇 62] . A.stress the advantages of TV to people’s lives B.persuade women to become more independent C.encourage people to improve their reading skills D.introduce the readers some websites such as Google 第 4 题 Dress to impress: Stylist and business consultant Daniela Smith says, “Girls should keep in mind that your college professors will often be the bridge that connects you to your future career and your classmates will become your professional network.
You don’t need to dress like you’re going to the office, but you should display an ability to properly present yourself with appropriate maturity and confidence, and look put together.”[2011 年广州市高三年级调研测试 A 篇 26] The second paragraph indicates the importance of ________. A. impressing professors B. getting on well with classmates C. creating a professional image D. dressing appropriately
第 5 题* But in London, dinner parties are in people's homes. Not only that, the guests are an interesting mix. The last time I went to one, the guests were from France, India, Denmark and Nigeria; it was like a gathering at the United Nations. In New York the mix is less striking. It's like a gathering at Bloomingdale's, a well-known department store.[2010 年辽宁卷 B 篇 62] What does the author think of the parties in London? A. A bit unusual. B. Full of tricks. C. Less costly. D. More interesting. 第 6 题** ... My mother has long realized the limitations of her English as well. When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on the phone to pretend I was she. I was foxed to ask for information or even to yell at people who had been rode to her. One time 1 had to call her stockbroker (股票经纪人). I said in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, "This is Mrs. Tan. "[2010 年高考广东卷 A 篇 42] From Paragraph 2, we know that the author was _________ . A. good at pretending B. rode to the stockbroker C. ready to help her mother D. unwilling to phone for her mother 第 7 题*** ... He talked to me because he wants his editors to demand so much more of him. He wants to be pushed, challenged, coached to new heights. The reporter believes that good stories spring from good questions, but his editors usually ask how long the story will be, when it will be in, where it can play, and what the budget is. He longs for conversations with an editor who will help him turn his good ideas into great ones. He wants someone to get excited about what he's doing and to help him turn his story idea upside down and inside out, exploring the best ways to report it. He wants to be more valuable for your paper. That's what you want for him, too,
isn't it? ...[2010 年高考北京卷 B 篇 60] What does the writer think of the reporter? A. Optimistic. B. Imaginative. C. Ambitious.
第 8 题** Columbus College , 241 Queen Elizabeth Drive ,Kowloon City To: All Staff From: Jakie Mok , Secretary;Sports Development Committee Date: May 20, 2010 A week ago , “Sports for Life” pregramme was sent to the parents, requiring them to select a sport they wanted their child to play. Since then , our staff have received lots of calls from parents asking for more information about it . Here is a memo (备忘录) for your reference when you answer the phones. ...[2010 年高考福建卷 D 篇 71] The purpose of the memo is to_____________. A.attract students’interest in the programme B.require the parents to select a sport for their child C.help the staff explain the programme to the parents D.remind teachers and lifeguards to be present on time 第 9 题* One day a man walked a pet shop and said to the shop assistant， “I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches（蟑螂） and two spiders（蜘蛛）.”? “What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised.? “Well，”replied the man，“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.” The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the apartment，it was ______. A. very clean ? B. just cleaned by the landlord ? C. tidy and comfortable ? D. dirty and full of insects ?
1.跳读：就是快速的一步阅读法。实际上是有选择阅读，找关键词。用这种阅读方法回答 who、what、when、where 之类的问题最为有效。 2.略读：指比跳读慢些的二步阅读法。即泛泛地、粗略地快速阅读，目的是了解大意，对文 章有个总的概念。此种阅读方法能回答 why、how 之类的问题。 3.精读：即最细致、最慢的深层阅读方法，目的是求得对所读文章的全部意义的理解与掌 握。 在使用阅读技巧时尽量做到以下几点： 1.带着问题阅读短文。 2.找出主题句、确定中心思想。 3.推断单词、句子和文章的含义。 4.尽快选择答案。
1.记叙文 记叙文又可分传记类和故事类。 传记类文章在阅读中时间是全文的关键，根据时间我 们可以找到相关的事件，抓住文章的主要内容。故事类文章情节性较强，阅读时要注意故事 中的时间、地点、人物和发生的事件，这些都是文章中的主要内容和信息，对于准确理解文 章十分重要。 2.说明文 说明文是对事物的形状、性质、特征、成果或功用等进行介绍，解释或阐述的文章。把 握所说明事物的特征和本质是理解说明文的关键。 说明事物特征的方法很多， 主要有定义法、 解释法、比较法、比喻法、数字法、图表法、引用法和举例法等。 ? 数字说明文 在阅读数字说明文时要特别注意文中数字的含义， 从这些数字中可以找到文章的主要内容。 ? 解释说明文 解释说明文着重说明事物的本质、特征和功用等。许多科普文章都属于这一类。在阅读这类 文章时要学会解决 what, how, why 等一类的问题。它们是文章的关键。如能带着这些问题阅 读，将会更迅速抓住文章的主题。 ? 比较说明文 比较说明文是通过对比方法说明问题。在阅读这类文章时要善于把握全篇陈述的基本倾向。 作者在谈论一个有争议的问题时总要顾及到争议的各个方面。但是，在一般情况下，作者的 陈述总要倾向于某一种观点。 3.应用文 应用文涉及的范围比较广，包括广告、通知、书信等。应用文一般语言简洁，省略及不规范 的句子较多。 阅读时一般要求考生全面掌握文章中提供的信息， 并运用这些信息去解决问题。 因此对题干的理解尤为重要。 阅读理解的考题分为客观理解题(是指在短文中客观存在的事实， 客观信息的答案一般 都可以在原文中找到。即理解文中的具体事实或抽象概念)和主观理解题(这类问题都不可能 直接从原文中找到答案， 须通过阅读文章对文章主旨和深层含义有更深理解， 并据此进行判 断和推理)。其中细节理解题和猜测词义题属于客观题；主旨大意题和推理判断题属于主观 题。针对不同类型的题目，要在平时的练习过程中，结合具体的题目，给学生进行解题方法 的指导和讲解。对于客观题，要提醒他们阅读时关注文章的细节，如时间，地点或一些具体 数字，在选择答案时，务必从原文中找到确切的依据。
一、速读全文，了解大意知主题。 二、看题干，带着问题读文章。 三、 逻辑推理，做好深层理解题。 四、 猜词悟义，扫除阅读拦路虎。
故事类 (1) Son’s Help Mr. Lang worked in a factory. As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much. His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home. So he had enough time when he had a holiday. A few friends of his
liked gambling(赌博) and he learned it soon. So he was interested in it and hardly forgot anything except gambling. He lost all his money and later he began to sell the television, watches and so on. His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police. He and his friends were punished for it. And he was hardly sent away. After he came out of lockup(拘留所), he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him. It was New Year’s Day. Mr. Lang didn’t go to work. He felt lonely and wanted to gamble again. He called his friends and they came soon. But they were afraid the police would come. He told his five-year-old son to go to find out if there were the policemen outside. They waited for a long time and didn’t think the police would come and began to gamble. Suddenly opened the door and in came a few policemen. “I saw there weren’t any policemen outside, daddy,” said the boy, “so I went to the crossing and asked some to come.” 1. Mr. Lang was paid much because _______. A. he was a driver B. he worked in a factory C. he had a lot of work to do D. he had worked there for a long time 2. Mrs. Lang did all housework because _______. A. she couldn’t find any work B. she thought her husband was tired C. her husband spent all time in gambling D. she wouldn’t stop her husband gambling 3. _______, so he was put into lockup. A. Mr. Lang often gambled B. Mr. Lang was late for work C. Mr. Lang didn’t help his wife at home D. Mr. Lang wasn’t polite to the police 4. The woman had to leave Mr. Lang because _______. A. he didn’t love her any longer B. he wouldn’t stop gambling C. he had been put into lockup D. he was hardly sent away by the factory 5. Which of the following is right? A. The boy hoped his father to be put into lockup again. B. The boy thought his father needed some policemen. C. The boy hoped his father to stop gambling soon. D. The boy hoped his mother to come back.
教育类 （2） Students in many countries are learning English. Some of these students are small children. Others are teen-agers. Many are adults. Some learn at school, others by themselves. A few learn English by learning the language over the radio, on TV, or in film. One must work hard to learn another language. Why do all these people want to learn English? It is difficult to answer this question. Many boys and girls learn English at school because it is one of their subjects required for study. They study their own language and maths and English: Some people learn it because it is useful for their work. Many people learn English for their work. Many people learn English for their higher studies, because at college or university some of their books are in English. Other people learn English because they want to read newspapers or magazines in English. 1. People learn English _______. A. at school B. over the radio C. on TV D. not all in the same way
2. Different kinds of people want to learn English _______. A. together with other subjects B. for different reas** C. for their work D. for higher studies at colleges 3. From this passage we know that _______. A. we can learn English easily B. English is very difficult to learn C. English is learned by most people in the world D. English is a useful language but one must work hard to learn 4. Which of the following is right? A. We don’t need to learn any foreign languages. B. We can do well in all our work without English. C. English is the most important subject in schools. D. We should learn English because we need to face the world. 科技类 （3） The computer is a useful machine. It is the most important invention in many years. The oldest kind of computer is the abacus(算盘), used in China centuries ago, but the first large, modern computer was built in 1946. A computer then could do maths problems quite fast. Today computers are used in many ways and can do many kinds of work. In a few years the computer may touch the life of everyone, even people in faraway villages. In the last few years, there have been great changes in computers. They are getting smaller and smaller, and computing faster and faster, Many scientists agree that computers can now do many things, but they cannot do everything. Who knows what the computers of tomorrow will be like? Will computers bring good things or bad things to people? The scientists of today will have to decide how to use the computers of tomorrow. 1. The computer is a _______ machine. A. helpful B. strange C. large D. dangerous 2. The first large, modern computer was built about _______ years ago. A. a few B. forty C. sixty D. eighty 3. The computers of today are _______ than before. A. bigger B. fewer C. smaller D. taller 4. Computers can do _______. A. everything B. anything C. nothing D. lots of things 5. The scientists of today _______ how to use the computers of tomorrow. A. may decide B. must decide C. can make D. needn’t make 历史类 （4） Napoleon agreed to plans for a tunnel(隧道) under the English Channel in 1802. The British began digging one in 1880. Neither tunnel was completed. Europe has had to wait until the end of the 20th century for the Channel Tunnel. After nearly two centuries of dreaming, the island of Great Britain is connected to Continental Europe for the first time since the Ice Age, when the two land masses moved apart. On May 6, 1994, Britain’s Queen Elizabeth and France’s President Mitterrand carried out the official opening. The Queen was accompanied(陪同) on her train journey through the historic tunnel by one of her Rolls-Royce cars which was placed on the train. The following day saw
celebration taking place in Folkestone and Calais. Regular public services did not start until the latter part of 1994. 1. The island of Great Britain is _______. A. connected to France all the time B. separated from France with a tunnel C. separated from France all the time D. joined to France with the tunnel 2. Queen Elizabeth _______ at the opening. A. took her car Rolls-Royce through the tunnel B. took her car which was placed on her train through the tunnel C. took her train through the tunnel D. took Mitterrand’s train through the tunnel 3. Before 1994, one could go to Britain from France _______. A. only by ship B. by ship or plane C. by car or train D. by ship, car or train 4. Which of the following is right? A. Napoleon made plans for the tunnel. B. The public could pass through the tunnel by train after May 6, 1994. C. The tunnel was built for two centuries. D. The tunnel will do great good to Britain and France. 人物类 （5） Nick Petrels is a doctor in Montreal. He works 60 hours a week. He takes care of 159 patients a week in the hospital and at his office. He’s been a doctor for ten years. Dr. Petrels gives his patients good medical advice. But he doesn’t just tell his patients what to do. He also sings to them on television! Dr. Petrels has his own TV show. The show is in Italian, English and French. The doctor starts the show with a song and then gives medical advice. He explains a medical problem or disease in simple language. After that, he sings another song. Dr. Petrels produces and performs in his own show every week. The program is very popular with his patients and with people who enjoy his singing. His dream is to perform(表演) in Las Vegas. His favorite songs are love songs, and he has a compact disk of love songs that he wrote. Dr. Petrels says, “I always loved to sing. All my problems are gone when I sing.” But when Dr. Petrels was young, his father didn’t want him to be a singer, so he went to medical school. Some people tell Dr. Petrels he can help people more as a doctor. But Dr. Petrels says he helps people when he sings, too. “I like to make people smile. Sometimes it’s difficult to make a sick person smile. Medicine and entertainment(娱乐) both try to do the same thing. They try to make people feel good.” 1. Dr. Petrels works 60 hours a week, because he _______. A. gives his patients medical advice B. takes care of 159 patients a week C. sings on television D. has his own TV show 2. Dr. Petrels _______, so he is called a singing doctor. A. has been a doctor for ten years B. always loved to sing C. is popular with his patients D. also sings to his patients on TV 3. In his TV show, Dr. Petrel _______. A. sings and gives medical advice B. sings about different diseases C. starts to explain diseases with a song D. sings love songs he wrote 4. Dr. Petrels’ show is popular _______.
A. in Las Vegas. C. with people who like his singing 5. Dr. Petrels says he likes to _______. A. help people sing C. do the same thing
B. at medical school D. with patients in Montreal B. make people feel better D. make difficult people smile
一、人物类 In October 1961 at Crowley Field in Cincinnati Ohio an old deaf gentleman named William E. Hoy stood up to throw the first ball of the World Series. Most people at Crowley Field on that day probably did not remember Hoy because he had retired(退休) from professional baseball 58 years earlier in 1903. However he had been an outstanding player and the deaf people still talk about him and his years in baseball. William E. Hoy was born in Houckstown Ohio on May 23, 1862. He became deaf when he was two years old. He attended the Columbus Ohio School for the deaf. After graduation he started playing baseball while working as a shoemaker. Hoy began playing professional baseball in 1886 for Oshkosh(Wisconsin) of the Northwestern League. In 1888 he started as an outfielder(外场手) with the old Washington Senators. His small figure and speed made him an outstanding base runner. He was very good at stealing bases during his career. In the 1888 major league season he stole 82 bases. He was also the Senators’ leading hitter in 1888. Hoy was clever and he threw right-handed and batted left-handed. On June 19,1889 he threw out three batters(击球手) at the plate from his outfield position. The arm signals used by judges today to show balls and strikes began because of Hoy. The judge lifted his right arm to show that the pitch was a strike and his left arm to signal that it was a ball. For many years people talked about Hoy’s last ball game in 1903. He was playing for Los Angeles of the Pacific Coast Winter League. It was a memorable game because Hoy hit a wonderful ball which won the game. It was a very foggy day and therefore very hard to see the ball. In the ninth inning(棒球的一局) with two men out, Hoy managed to catch a fly ball to make the third out in spite of the fog. Los Angeles defeated their opposition and won the game. After he retired Hoy stayed busy. He ran a dairy farm near Cincinnati for 20 years. He also became a public speaker and traveled giving speeches. Until a few years before his death he took 4-10 mile walks several mornings a week. On December 15, 1961 William Hoy died at the age of 99. 1. In which order did the following things happen in Hoy’s life? a. Hoy worked as a shoemaker. b. Hoy began to run a diary farm. e. Hoy became deaf. D. e a b c d c. Hoy played a memorable game in the heavy fog. d. Hoy threw the first ball of the World Series. A. d e a c b A. became famous B. e a c b d C. d a e c b B. led a relaxed life
2. We can infer from the last paragraph that Hoy _______ in his late years.
C. traveled around the world
D. was in good physical condition B. baseball game rules and important players
3. This passage is mainly about _______. A. a deaf player devoted to the game of baseball C. the rise in the social position of the deaf people D. where the baseball judge hand signals came from 4. What can be inferred from this passage? A. Hoy was the greatest baseball player in his time. B. Speaking and listening are not necessary in baseball games. C. The judge had to study the hand signals very seriously. D. Hoy’s family encouraged him to become a baseball player. 二、故事类 Mr. Peter Johnson, aged twenty-three, battled for half an hour to escape from his trapped car yesterday when it landed upside down in three feet of water. Mr. Johnson took the only escape route—through the boot(行李箱). Mr. Johnson’s car had finished up in a ditch(沟渠) at Romney Marsin, Kent after skidding on ice and hitting a bank. “Fortunately, the water began to come in only slowly,” Mr. Johnson said. “I couldn’t force the doors because they were jammed against the walls of the ditch and dared not open the windows because I knew water would come flooding in.” Mr. Johnson, a sweet salesman of Sitting Home, Kent, first tried to attract the attention of other motorists by sounding the horn and hammering on the roof and boot. Then he began his struggle to escape. Later he said, “It was really a half penny that saved my life. It was the only coin I had in my pocket and I used it to unscrew the back seat to get into the boot. I hammered desperately with a hammer trying to make someone hear, but no help came.” It took ten minutes to unscrew the seat, and a further five minutes to clear the sweet samples from the boot. Then Mr. Johnson found a wrench and began to work on the boot lock. Fifteen minutes passed by. “It was the only chance I had. Finally it gave, but as soon as I moved the boot lid, the water and mud poured in. I forced the lid down into the mud and scrambled clear as the car filled up.” His hands and arms cut and bruised(擦伤), Mr. Johnson got to Beckett Farm nearby, where he was looked after by the farmer’s wife, Mrs. Lucy Bates. Huddled in a blanket, he said, “That thirty minutes seemed like hours.” Only the tips of the car wheels were visible, police said last night. The vehicle had sunk into two feet of mud at the bottom of the ditch. 1. What is the best title for this newspaper article? A. The Story of Mr. Johnson, A Sweet Salesman B. Car Boot Can Serve As The Best Escape Route C. Driver Escapes Through Car Boot A. The hammer. B. The coin. D. The Driver Survived A Terrible Car Accident D. The horn. 2. Which of the following objects is the most important to Mr. Johnson? C. The screw. 3. Which statement is true according to the passage? A. Mr. Johnson’s car stood on its boot as it fell down. B. Mr. Johnson could not escape from the door because it was full of sweet jam.
C. Mr. Johnson’s car accident was partly due to the slippery road. D. Mr. Johnson struggled in the pouring mud as he unscrewed the back seat. 4. “Finally it gave” (Paragraph 5) means that _______. A. Luckily the door was torn away in the end C. The lock came open after all his efforts A. the ditch was along a quiet country road B. At last the wrench went broken D. The chance was lost at the last minute B. the accident happened on a clear warm day
5. It may be inferred from the passage that _______. C. the police helped Mr. Johnson get out of the ditch D. Mr. Johnson had a tender wife and was well attended 三、新闻类 June 26, 2000 — the Human Genome(基因组) Project, a great $3 billion, 15-year task aimed at drawing the genetic(遗传的) map of humans, is now more than 90 percent completed. The scientific and medical communities(团体) are very excited about the chances genetic research provides for getting rid of diseases and prolonging(延长) human life. But those communities and policy(政策) makers also are careful about the scientific door they are opening as the project uncovers the mysteries of life. For the last few years, the genetic advances in the developing field of biotechnology(生物技 术) have provides material for all kinds of work, but the developments of modern science in unlocking the secrets of the human genetic code(密码) have opened a world of possibilities for human health, as well as for the popular imagination. While European and Japanese researchers are making rapid progress in decoding(解码) human DNA, the leading organization for genetic research is in the United States, which began in 1990, is “unlocking the code” of the human body to learn how to defeat fatal(致命的)diseases. Already, the Human Genome Project has become widely known and praised for finding the genes(基因) connected with terrible diseases as yet(迄今), and making progress toward separating the genes that show a sign of breast cancer or AIDS. Once these genes are found and studied, researchers can develop new ways to attack infections(传染), and genetic diseases. Medical companies are very interested in mapping the human genome, as they expect to develop a lot of new drugs for these illnesses. 1. Why did the scientists work hard at mapping the human genome? A. Because the human genome can destroy many illnesses. B. Because the human genome's completion can help them get rid of many diseases. C. Because they wanted to be better known than others. D. Because the human genome can provide a lot of chances of work. 2. Which country studied the genes most rapidly in the world? A. Japan. B. Germany. C. The United States. D. China. 3. Which of the following is NOT true? A. If the genes can be found, scientists can study many new ways to cure illnesses. B. The scientists have made great progress in connecting the genes with the cancers. C. Many medical companies show great interest in drawing the human genome map. D. The United States began the Genes Study early in the 19th century. 4. The author suggests that the Human Genome Project can cause _______.
A. the policy makers to feel very worried and careful C. many people to find work easily A. unlocking genetic code C. the great human genome 四、科技类 5. The main idea of this article is about _______.
B. the scientists to work harder
D. a lot of companies to produce many new drugs B. the genes' discovery D. the genes and the scientists
With only about 1, 000 pandas left in the world, China is desperately trying to clone(克隆) the animal and save the endangered species(物种). That’s a move similar to what a Texas A & M University researchers have been undertaking for the past five years in a project called “Noah’s Ark”. Noah’s Ark is aimed at collecting eggs, embryos(胚胎), semen and DNA of endangered animals and storing them in liquid nitrogen. If certain species should become extinct, Dr. Duane Kraemer, a professor in Texas A & M’s College of Veterinary Medicine, says there would be enough of the basic building blocks to reintroduce the species in the future. It is estimated that as many as 2, 000 species of mammals, birds reptiles will become extinct in over 100 years. The panda, native only to China, is in danger of becoming extinct in the next 25 years. This week, Chinese scientists said they grew an embryo by introducing cells from a dead female panda into the egg cells of a Japanese white rabbit. They are now trying to implant the embryo into a host animal. The entire procedure could take from three to five years to complete. “The nuclear transfer(核子移植) of one species to another is not easy, and the lack of available(capable of being used) panda eggs could be a major problem,” Kraemer believes. “They will probably have to do several hundred transfers to result in one pregnancy (having a baby). It takes a long time and it’s difficult, but this could be groundbreaking science if it works. They are certainly not putting any live pandas at risk, so it is worth the effort,” adds Kraemer, who is one of the leaders of the Project at Texas A& M, the first-ever attempt at cloning a dog. “They are trying to do something that’s never been done, and this is very similar to our work in Noah’s Ark. We’re both trying to save animals that face extinction. I certainly appreciate their effort and there’s a lot we can learn from what they are attempting to do. It’s a research that is very much needed.” 1. The aim of “Noah’s Ark” project is to _______. A. make efforts to clone the endangered pandas C. collect DNA of endangered animals to study _______. A. available panda eggs B. host animals A. China’s Success in Pandas Cloning C. Exploring the Possibility to Clone Pandas 4. From the passage we know that _______. A. Kraemer and his team have succeeded in cloning a dog C. qualified researchers D. enough money B. The First Cloned Panda in the World D. China —the Native Place of Pandas Forever 3. The best title for the passage may be _______. B. save endangered animals from dying out D. transfer the nuclear of one animal to another
2. According to Professor Kraemer, the major problem in cloning pandas would be the lack of
B. scientists try to implant a panda’s egg into a rabbit C. Kraemer will work with Chinese scientists in clone researches D. about two thousand of species will probably die out in a century 五、文化类 A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made man — the man who has risen to the top through his own efforts, usually beginning by working with his hands. While the leader in business or industry or the college professor occupies a higher social position and commands greater respect in the community than the common laborer or even the skilled factory worker, he may take pains to point out that his father started life in America as a farmer or laborer of some sort. This attitude toward manual(体力的) labor is now still seen in many aspects of American life. One is invited to dinner at a home that is not only comfortably but even luxuriously (豪华地) furnished and in which there is every evidence of the fact that the family has been able to afford foreign travel, expensive hobbies, and college education for the children; yet the hostess probably will cook the dinner herself, will serve it herself and will wash dishes afterward, furthermore the dinner will not consist merely of something quickly and easily assembled from contents of various cans and a cake or a pie bought at the nearby bakery. On the contrary, the hostess usually takes pride in careful preparation of special dishes. A professional man may talk about washing the car, digging in his flowerbeds, painting the house. His wife may even help with these things, just as he often helps her with the dishwashing. The son who is away at college may wait on table and wash dishes for his living, or during the summer he may work with a construction gang on a highway in order to pay for his education. 1. From paragraph 1, we can know that in America _________. A. people tend to have a high opinion of the self-made man B. people can always rise to the top through their won efforts C. college professors win great respect from common workers D. people feel painful to mention their fathers as labors. 2. According to the passage, the hostess cooks dinner herself mainly because _________. A. servants in American are hard to get B. she takes pride in what she can do herself C. she can hardly afford servants D. It is easy to prepare a meal with canned food 3. The expression “ wait on table” in the second paragraph means “_________”. A. work in a furniture shop B. keep accounts for a bar C. wait to lay the table D. serve customers in a restaurant 4. Which of the following may serve as the best title of the passage? A. A Respectable Self-made Family B. American Attitude toward Manual Labor C. Characteristics of American Culture D. The Development of Manual Labor 六、教育类 So long as teachers fail to distinguish (differ) between teaching and learning, they will continue to undertake to do for children that which only children can do for themselves. Teaching children to read is not passing reading on to them. It is certainly not endless hours spent in activities about reading. Douglas insists that “reading cannot be taught directly and schools should stop trying to do the impossible”.
Teaching and learning are two entirely different processes. They differ in kind and function. The function of teaching is to create the conditions and the climate that will make it possible for children to plan cleverly the most efficient(有效的) system for teaching themselves to read. Teaching is also a public activity: It can be seen and observed. Learning to read involves all that each individual does to understand the world of printed language. Almost all of it is private, for learning is an occupation of the mind, and that process is not open to public scrutiny. If teacher and learner roles are not interchangeable, what then can be done through teaching that will aid the child in the long search for knowledge? Smith has one principle rule for all teaching instructions. “Make learning to read easy, which means making reading a meaningful, enjoyable and frequent experience for children.” When the roles of teacher and learner are seen for what they are, and when both teacher and learner fulfill them properly, then much of the pressure and feeling of failure for both is got rid of. Learning to read is made easier when teachers create an environment where children are given the chance to solve the problem of learning to read by learning. 1. The problem with the reading course as mentioned in the first paragraph is that_______. A. too much time is spent in teaching about reading B. reading tasks are given with little guidance C. it is one of the most difficult school courses D. students spend limited hours in reading 2. The teaching of reading will be successful if _______. A. teachers can make their teaching activities observable B. teachers can teach their students how to read C. teachers can improve conditions at school for the students D. teachers can enable students to develop their own way of reading 3. The word “scrutiny” (Paragraph 3) most probably means “_______”. A. unbelief B. control C. inquiry D. observation 4. The main idea of the passage is that_______. A. reading is more complicated than believable B. reading ability is something gained rather than taught C. teachers should encourage students to read as widely as possible D. teachers should do as little as possible in helping students learn to read 七、社会类 The Internet has led to a huge increase in credit-card (信用卡) fraud. Your card information could even be for sale in an illegal web site(非法网站). Web sites offering cheap goods and services should be regarded with care. On-line shoppers who enter their credit-card information may never receive the goods they thought they bought. The thieves then go shopping with your card number — or sell the information over the Internet. Computers hackers( 黑客 ) have broken down security( 安全 ) systems, raising questions about the safety of cardholder information. Several months ago, 25, 000 customers of CD Universe, an on-line music retailer(零售商), were not lucky. Their names, addresses and credit-card numbers were posted on a Web site after the retailer refused to pay US
$157, 828 to get back the information. Credit-card firms are now fighting against on-line fraud. Mastercard is working on plans for Web — only credit card, with a lower credit limit. The card could be used only for shopping on-line. However, there are a few simple steps you can take to keep from being cheated(欺骗). Ask about your credit-card firm’s on-line rules: Under British law, cardholders have to pay the first US $78 of any fraudulent(欺骗性的) spending. And shop only at secure sites; Send your credit-card information only if the Web site offers advanced secure system. If the security is in place, a letter will appear in the bottom right-hand corner of your screen. The Website address may also start https: //—the extra “s” stands for secure. If in doubt, give your credit-card information over the telephone. Keep your password(密码) safe: Most on-line sites require a user name and password before placing an order. Treat your passwords with care. 1. What do most people worry about the Internet according to this passage? A. A lot of stolen credit-cards were sold on the Internet. C. Many Web sites are destroyed. 2. What is the meaning of “fraud”? A. Cheating. B. Sale. C. Payment. D. Safety. 3. How can the thieves get the information of the credit card? A. The customers give them the information. B. The thieves steal the information from Web sites. C. The customers sell the information to them. D. The thieves buy the information from credit-card firms. 4. How many pieces of advice does the passage give to you? A. Four. B. Three. C. Five. D. Six. 5. You are shopping on the site: http: // www. Shopping. com, and you want to buy a TV set, what does this article suggest to do? A. Order the TV set at once. C. E-mail the site your credit-card information. D. Tell the site your password and buy the TV set for you. B. Do not buy the TV set on this site. B. Fraud on the Internet. D. Many illegal Web sites are on the Internet.
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