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高三非谓语动词讲义


非谓语动词
非谓语动词是指在句子中不是谓语的动词: A: 是动词的特殊形式,有时态、语态的变化;功能可分为 1、2、3; B: 不受制于主语,没有人称和数的变化 C:种类

动名词( 起名词作用 起名词作用) 动名词(1—起名词作用)

现在分词(表主动、进行) 现在分词(表主动、进行)

非 谓 语 动 词

分词( 起形容词 副词作用) 起形容词、 分词(2—起形容词、副词作用) 过去分词(表被动、完成) 过去分词(表被动、完成)

动词不定式( —起名词、形容词、副词作用) 动词不定式(3—起名词、形容词、副词作用)

动名词
动名词既具有动词的一些特征、有时态语态变化,又具有名词的句法功能,在句中做主语、宾语、 表语、 定语

时态 一般式

语态

主动式 doing

被动式 being done

(谓语动词同时发生) 完成式 (谓语动词发生之前) 否定式:not + 动名词 逻辑主语:物主代词(有时用宾格代词)、名词所有格(有时用名词普通格) Eg. 1 .He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old(宾语、完成式) having done having been done

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2. His not being praised

upset

him a lot.(主语、被动式)

3. In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. (表语) 4.He can't walk without a walking-stick(定语) 5.The cave, his hiding-place is secret (同位语) 动名词的习惯用法 (1)要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承 认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk(冒险), appreciate(感激), be busy, b e worth, feel like, can't stand, can't help(情不自禁地), prevent\keep\stop…(from), ,protect…fro m, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pa y attention to, insist on, feel like、 have difficulty/trouble/problem doing sth 、have a good/great/wond erful time doing sth

② It`s +

no use no good no fun a shame a waste of time/money useless dangerous

+ doing

③ There is no + doing... eg: There is no joking about the matter. There is no point/sense/harm/ use doing sth (4)主动形式表被动含义: want (需要) doing need (需要) require (需要) Sb\ Sth. + stand (经受) + bear (忍受) be + past (超过) be worth (值得) to be done be + in need of (需要) e.g. The boy needs taking good care of= The boy needs to be taken good care of . 比较 The boy needs to have a good rest This pair of shoes is past mending. The problem is in need of working out. The question is well worth discussing

动词不定式
动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 否定式:not /never + (to) do 逻辑主语:of\for sb+to do sth 以 do 为例,动词不定式的构成如下:
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时态/语态 一般时 进行时 完成时 完成进行时

主动语态 to do to be doing to have done to have been doing

被动语态 to be done to be being done to have been done

(1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后. 例如: The patient asked to be operated on at once. 病人要求马上手术。 The teacher ordered the work to be done. 老师要求完成工作。 (2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如: The boy pretended to be working hard. 男孩假装工作得很努力。 (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如: I happened to have been taken to the cinema. 我偶然被带去过电影院。 (4)完成进行时:不定式的完成进行式表示谓语动作之前一直在进行的动作, to + have been + v-ing ,例如: The battle was said to have been going on for two days. 不定式的句法功能: (1)作主语 To lose your heart means failure. 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后 常用句式有:1、It+be+名词+to do。2、It takes sb.+some time+to do。3、It+be+形容词+of \for sb +to do。 careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评 的形容词,不定式前的逻辑主语用 of sb 。 (2)作表语:He appears to have caught a cold. (3) 作宾语: 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有: want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, afford,agree,arrange,plan,forget Eg. How did you manage to finish it so soon? 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放 在宾语补足语后面,常见的词有:think feel expect make suppose imagine …例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here. He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike. 有些动词常用代疑问词的不定式作宾语,例如:teach,remember,advise,show, advise,show,know,forget,learn,understand,see,hear,find out,explain,decide, discuss 等动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. They haven’t decided when to leave so far. (4)作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,补充说明作宾语的名词或代词的动作或状态, 如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow,
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prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite, invite, warn, expect, prefer, encourage 等 Their parents prefer them to be home early. My parents don’t allow me to go out at night. (5)作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: 1.动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式: Have you got anything to send? 你要送什么东西吗? (你自己去送) Have you got anything to be sent? 你有什么东西需要送吗? (别人替你送) 2.被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语: He is the first to get here. 6)作状语: ①表目的,常译成 为了 ,不定式一般放在被修饰词之后,但为了强调目的也可放在句首。为 了加强语气,还可用 in order to 或 so as to. We should do whatever we can to help them. We took an umbrella so as not to get wet. 注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right:To save money, he has tried every means. wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ②表结果(往往是与预期愿望相反的结果): only to do sth He arrived late only to find the train had gone. I visited him only to find him out. ③表原因: They were very sad to hear the news. ④表程度: It's too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. (7)作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked. 不定式省略 to 的几种情况: (1)在 cannot but, cannot choose but 与 cannot help but 之后的不定式一般都不带 to, 常翻译 为“不得不”。例如:
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I can’t but admire her courage. 我不能不钦佩她的勇气。 He can’t choose but do it. 他只好做这件事了。 I can’t help but love her. 我不禁爱上了她。 (2)在连词 but 之前如有动词 do, 其后的不定式不用 to, 即:do nothing but+动词原形,译 为“只……”;但如果连词 but 之前的动词不是 do,其后的不定式一般要带 to,例如: He does nothing but complain. The workers do nothing but drink tea and talk to each other. He had no choice but to accept the fact. (3) 有些动词如 make, let, have 等使役动词后用作宾语补足语的不定式必须省略 to 如: He had his son clean the car. Rain makes plants grow. 当使役动词用于被动语态时,要补上在主动语态中省略的 to (主要指 make), He was made to work long hours. (4)在 see, hear, observe, notice, feel, watch 等感官动词后用作宾语补足语的不定式必须省略 to. She noticed the man look at her a couple of times. I felt something crawl up my arm. 注:若这些动词用于被动语态或不定式用于完成式,其后的不定式要带 to, 如: I noticed her to have come early. He was seen to enter the building. 注:若动词 feel 后用作宾语补足语的不定式为 to be, 则要带 to, 如 They felt the plan to be unwise. (5)在动词 help 后用作宾语或宾语补足语的不定式可以不带 to, I helped him (to) repair his bike. 当 help 用于被动语态时,不定式前的 to 不能省。 The boy was helped by a woman to collect his scattered coins. (6)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略 to。 He wished to study medicine and become a doctor. (7)不定式的省略:保留 to 省略 do 动词。 If you don't want to do it, you don't need to. 不定式用主动表示被动的几种常见情形 (1)不定式 to blame, to let 用作表语时,通常要用主动表被动。如: The house is to let. 此屋出租。 Mr Green stood up in defence of the 16-year-old boy, saying that he was not the one to blame (2)某些”be+adj+to do”结构中的不定式通常要用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: The book is difficult to understand. The work is impossible to finish in a week. 注:这类结构的特点是句子主语就是其后不定式的逻辑宾语,按理说其中的不定式要用被 动形式,但习惯上却要用主动表被动。这类形容词常见的有 awkward, convenient,dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, impossible, interesting, nice, pleasant, safe, tough, tricky, unpleasant 等。 (3) too…to do sth 和…enough to do sth 这两个结构中, 在 若句子主语与其后的不定式 to do sth 为被动关系,则该不定式通常用主动形式表示被动意义(但有时也可直接用被动式)。如: The writing is too faint to read (to be read). 这笔迹太模糊,看不清。 These boxes are not strong enough to use (to be used) as a platform.

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注意 : 句型: cannot help but do sth cannot but do sth but do sth have no choice/alternative but to do sth

cannot choose but do sth

can do nothing

上述句型的意思接近,即“不得不做”、“不禁做”、“不由自主地做”、“不能不做”、“只能做”。其共同的特点 是都有一个否定词和 but。 如:Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction. When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift.

现在分词
现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,有时态和语态的变化,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能,在句中做表语、 定语、状语、补语。 1.现在分词的形式: 现在 分词 一般式 完成式 否定式:not + 现在分词 (1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生;完成式表 示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。 e.g.They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。 做完作业,他开始打篮球。 及 物 动 词 write 主动语态 writing having written 被动语态 being written having been written 不及物动词 go 主动语态 going having gone

Having done his homework, he played basket-ball.

(2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式(being done)表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式(having been done)表示发生在谓语动词之前的被动的动作。 e.g.The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。

Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake. 被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。 2.现在分词的句法功能 (1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语放在

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名词后。 e.g.In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。

The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor’s father.

现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed, the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher. (2)现在分词作表语: e.g.The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. The present situation is inspiring. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。

当前的形势鼓舞人心。

“be + doing”既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于“be + doing”表示进行 的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词 be 与现在分词构成系表结构。 (3)作宾语补足语 以下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语:see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。 e.g.Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? He kept the car waiting at the gate. (4)现在分词作状语 ①作时间状语 e.g.(While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. ②作原因状语 e.g.Being a League member, he is always helping others. ③作方式状语,表示伴随 e.g.He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. ④作条件状语 e.g.(If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。 虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。 在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗?

他让小汽车在门口等着。

⑤作结果状语:e.g.He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. ⑥作让步状语 e.g.Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon.
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过去分词
过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed 构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一 的规则 过去分词的句法功能: 1.过去分词作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。 Those selected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次 会。 注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去 分词做 定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2.过去分词作表语: The window is broken. 窗户破了。 They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别: The window is broken.(系表) The window was broken by the boy.(被动) 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如: boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶) newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳) the changed world(变了的世界) 这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3.过去分词作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。 4.过去分词作状语: Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents. 受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因) Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间) Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示 条件) Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之有危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步) Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。

独立主格结构
独立主格结构(Independent Genitive)有两部分组成,前一部份是名词或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词(不 定式、动名词和分词)或形容词、副词、或介词短语。前后两部分具有逻辑主谓关系。独立主格结构在句中 做状语,多用于书面语。 独立主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随、 目的等。 形式: 1.名词/主格代词+现在分词 名词/主格代词与现在分词之间是主谓关系。如: The girl staring at him (= As the girl stared at him, 表原因), he didn't know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他, 他不知道说什么好。 Time permitting (= If time permits,表条件), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。

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2.名词/主格代词+过去分词 名词/主格代词与过去分词之间是动宾关系。如: The problems solved (= As the problems were solved, 表时间), the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决, 质量已经提高了。 Her glasses broken (= Because her glasses were broken,表原因), she couldn't see the words on the blackboard. 由于眼镜摔坏了,她看 不见黑板上的字。 3.名词/主格代词+不定式 名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系,且强调的是一次具体性的动作。如: He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。 They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. 他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书 店。 4.名词/主格代词+形容词 如: An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive. 那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还。 So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。 5.名词/主格代词+副词 如: The meeting over, they all went home. 会议一结束,他们就都回家了。 6.名词/主格代词+介词短语 如: The boy goes to the classroom, book in hand. 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。 the fire, her back towards the door. 玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。 7. There being +名词(代词) 如: There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。 There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。 8. It being +名词(代词) 9. 如: It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。 10. It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。 * 注意固定结构的分词独立成分作状语:现在分词独立成分一般已形成固定结构,表示说话人对说话内容 所持的态度或看问题的态度。 e.g.Generally speaking, we don’t agree with you. Considering his age, the child reads quite well. 一般说来,我们不同意你的看法。 鉴于他的年龄,这个孩子读得相当好。 Mary was sitting near

Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed. 根据你所说的来看,他应当成功。

非谓语动词用法对比、区别 非谓语动词用法对比、
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1. 分词、动名词和不定式作定语的区别 a running horse 现在分词 = a horse that is running a fallen leaf 过去分词 = a leaf that has already fallen a walking stick 动名词 = a stick for walking something to do 不定式 = something that I should do 2.不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别 1)不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。 To do two things at a time is to do neither.--次做两件事等于未做。 (2)动名词作表语:表示抽象的一般性的行为。 Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。 (3)分词作表语 分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing 形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed 形式。 The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。 The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。 3. 有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别 1)can’t help to do…不能帮助做某事 can’t help doing … 情不自禁做某事 2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事 3)remember\forget to do 记住\忘记去做某事(未做) remember\forget doing 记得\忘记做过某事(已做) 4) regret to do 对要做的事遗憾 regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔 5)try to do 努力、企图做某事 try doing 试验、试一试某种办法 6) mean to do 打算,有意要… mean doing 意味着 7)go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情) go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情) 8)propose to do 打算(要做某事) proposing doing 建议(做某事) 9)learn to do … 学着去做某事 learn doing … 学会做某事 10) like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表示具体行为;+doing sth 表示抽象、倾向概念 (注)如果这些动词前有 should 一词,其后宾语只跟不定式,不能跟动名词。 例如: I should like to see him tomorrow. 11) need, want, require 、deserve +动名词表被动意义;+不定式被动态表示“要(修、清理等)”意思。

练习答案: 练习答案: DDCBA CCDBA

BCDCB DCAAC CBACA DBCCC ABBBA BADBC BACDB CDCBB BCABC D

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