辅音字母：[p] [t] [d] [k] [g] [f] [v] [s] [z] [θ] [Б ] [∫] [З] [ts] [dz] [t∫][dЗ] [tr][tr] [dr] [r] [h] [m] [n] [?] [l] [j] [w]
1.不定式：主 表 宾 定 状 宾补
(现在时 被动式 进行时 完成时 完成进行时)
【否定：not/never+ to do】
①主:To do this is unacceptable!
表:It'a to play basketball!
宾:I hate to urinate here!
1.The boys to play hockey is my students!(the boys 做逻辑主语)
2.The pen to use is mine.(做use的宾语)
状:目的[in order-句前/句末,so as to]
1.In order to get laid, she use all kinds of ways to attract him.
2.He has much savings in order to save her mother's life.
3.China develops very fast so as to take back the deserved glories.
4.To find out the error,he was pretty crazy about the instructions.
5.We get here as to pick someone out.
结果[so...as to.../such...as to.../enough to.../only to.../too...to]
1.She was so angry as to be unable to speak.
2.He is not such a fool as to say no.
3.We have enough money to buy food.
4.I hurried to your house only to find you were not.
5.He is too nervous to fall asleep.
同:a.The officials gave the order to stop the attack.
b.He followed the insttrution to walk along a certain street where I picked him up.
c.They had received instrution to watch him.
补:1.带to的宾补语：She promises him never to lie him again!
a.五看notice,find,look at,see,watch observe
#.为主语补足语时，to需要补上：He was made to say sorry.
It做形式主语/形式宾语/ → 现在分词 不定式 主语从句!
②疑问词+to do:what who which how when where whether} + to do:主 表 宾 双宾语!
③For+sb+to do:主 表（为形容词宾语）宾 定 壮!
④It was+Adj+of+sb+to do(对结果进行评论结构)!
1.Go buy a new one.
2.Come have tea with us.
1.All he could do was write her a letter.
2.What they did was wathc TV.
C.I:cannot but,cannot choose but,cannot help but之后的不定式一般皆不带to
1.I (cannot but laugh).
2.They (could not choose but pay) off their debt.
1.Last night we did nothing (but watch) on the door opposite.
2.I will do anything (but work) on a farm.
1.The doctor told him nothing (but to stop) smoking.
2.There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.
I:1.Her job is to take care of children and (wash) clothes.
2.It's just impossible to see him and not (laugh).
1.(To be or not to be)---that is the question.
2.I (cannot to scold),but (to praise) you.
2.现在分词：主 表 宾 定 状 宾补
【否定：not+v-ing】----eg.Not having luch at noon,I am now feeling hungry.
a.令人....的:1.A fascinating girl.2.The attracting sight.
b.供人....的:1.Dressing room(供人使用的房间=更衣室). 2.Dring water(供人喝的水=饮料).
a.正在....的/后置:...的(表动作):1.A crying girl.2.A smiling face.]
（原因 时间 让步 伴随（意为主动） 方式 结果 条件)
a.I saw him playing games in the bar.
#.I think of you doing this./I think about you having fun with a witch.-->动介结构后也可以有宾补！
3.过去分词：定 表 宾补 状(原 时 地 条 让 伴 方)
a.A frighten girl #.The treasures from different cultures displayed in the museum.-->一个词可有多个后置定语
a.In freezing winter,fallen snow can be seen everywhere.
b.They visit some developed countires.
c.She is an resturned sailor(=She is sailor who has resturned)
a.The meeting attended by 5000 people,welcomeed the great hero.
b.This project,designed by the Chinese engineer,was finished in onlu two years.]
1.I make her understood by the people attending the meeting.
2.I am glad to make myself known to you all.
vi的过去分词作宾补时，仅表示动作的完成，宾语与过去分词之间不存在被动关系，表主谓关系，例如:go change fall
1.I found him gone.
2.I I found her changed a lot.
3.I saw the leaves fallen.
1.Done in a hurry,the quality of his paper is not acknowleadge!
1.When it is seen under a mocroscope,a fresh snowflake has a delicated six-pointed shape!
---改：Seen inder a microscope,a fresh snowflake has a delicated six-pointed shape!
2.when it is heated,ice will be change into the water!
---改：when heated,ice will be changed into the water!
3.Asked (When he was asked) what had happened, he lowered his head.
1.Grown (If these seeds are grown) in rich soil, these seeds can grow fast.
2.Given (If we were given) more time, we could do it better.
1.Left (Although he was left) at home, John didn't feel afraid at all.
1.The teacher entered the classroom, (and he was) followed by a group of students. 老师进入教室，后面跟着一帮学生。
1.I made him laugh,given fists by others.
4.动名词：主 表 宾 定 补
needs+v-ing 为被动！your v-ing 做主语/宾语，me v-ing 宾语!
5.状语从句：原 时 地 条 让 方 比 除 程 结 目
a.If it is fine tomorrow,we will go to the Great Wall.
b.I will write to your parents,if you are late again.
1.If I were you,the sutiation will alter!＝were I you,the sutiation will alter!
1.If he had come,my life would have gone on without hating!=had I come here,my life would has gone on without hating!
C.与将来事实不相符（从句:were to/should+v-原/v-过去式(be的过去式用were),并通常要与一个表将来的"时状"连用 .主句:would,should）
1.If I succeed in the future,you should take much money！
1.If we used the computer to control traffic,we would avoid traffic jam.
2.If it were not raining(now),I would not be staying at home.
If I am here,she will be right there,shit.
If I have done this already,I can get you laid right away.
Should another world war break out，what would become of human beings.
1.even if=even though，若主句与从句皆表示将来情况，even if从句可用一般现在时代替将来时
a.We have decided to visit the Museum even if/though it rains tomorrow.
b.Even if/though I leave now,it'will be too late.
c.She understanded whay I was talking about,even thought/if it was the first time wh had spoken together.
2.even if所说的不肯定，而even though从句所说的则是事实.
a.He will not let out the secret even if he knows it(即使他知道这个秘密，却不肯说出来.----他对秘密知道与否不一定)
b.He will let the secret out even though he knows.(他虽然知道这个秘密，却不肯说出来.----他知道这个秘密)
a.she is so beautiful a girl,that everyone loves her.
a.She is such a beautiful girl that everyone loves her.
a.Boy as he is,he knows a lot.
6.名词性从句：关系连词:whether if that 疑问代词：what who which(可带宾语) whom whose 疑问副词:when where why how
主语从句:1.What you do doesn't matter much!
宾语从句:1.You like that you are a solider!
表语从句:1.Whom you like is the problem!
2.(because也可引导表语从句表原因)It is because you are not here!
#.<It's seemed that>you are not a general.
#.<It 's said that>you are not a general.
双宾语式:1.PLS tell me who you like!
同谓语从句:1.He made a policy that the prefects have to come!
*.News come that Britain's old kind had died without a son.
1.What you did depend on which you choose.(T)
2.What you did depend on that you choose.(F)
②介词后不可以直接加名词性从句，如果要加，需加上“the fact”作为并与再在the fact后引出宾语从句：
1.This is something about <the fact> that jacky's death led to the result.
关系代词:指人whome,who,whose(of which)指物which,whose(of which)指人或物what,that
关系副词:when(at/in which),where（in/at which),why（for which)!
1.You are the beautiful girl whom/who I ever saw here!
2.You never the kiss that you like!
3.You just need to find out the box which you made!
#.You must like the kitchen in which you went!
5.You have to tell me the reason why you want to go!
6.You should tell me the time when you went to the USA!
#.There are mamy people [throughout the U.K]who speak a language as their first foreign language.-->在who-定从前可以有一些修饰成分
#@#.This is the book (whose cover/
of which the cover/
the cover of which)is red.
1.You like various skyscrapers,which are built as CBD!
2.The ruins were soon covered by thick forests and were forgotten until 1861, when the French discovered them!
3.Chaplin lived the last years of his life in Switzerland, where he was buried in 1977!
4.We have a good time,when all the girls in our class will sleep with us guys at night on Friday!
5.We love jack,whose father has ever helped us all!
6.Jack is a good boy,who had boycotted the beef from the America by 1991!
7.I like the the kitchen,in which you went!
1.I live a long way from work, as you know!
2.She is extremely popular among students, as is common knowledge!
3.He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent!
④以which引导的非限制性定语从句:They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them!(which代主句)!
a.Don't do anything that is beneath you!
b.Don't believe everything that he tells you!
c.There is something disturbing that/which will scare you!
a.The third tree that I planted was cut down by someone!
b.He gives the driest speech that I have ever listened to!
a.They push open all the windows that remained closed for a whole month!
a.All that should be done has been done.
b.All that should been present have been present.
4.当先行词被the very,the only,the same,the last用that
aThis is the vety book taht I have been looking for!
b.She's the very person that I want to see!
a.He was watching the children parcels that filled the car!
a.Who is the student that was absent form school.
b.Who that knows him wants to make friends with him?
c.Which of the book that you bougth yesterday was writtern by Bacon.
d.What is the feeling you are likely to require.
e.That which you borrowed from me wasn't a real diamond necklace.
(1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous.
The school in which he once studied is very famous.
(2) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for.
Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked.
(3) We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about.
We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
a.Painting is something that(which) I really enjoy doing!
a.He proudly pointed out the biggest sheep which already weighed 150 kilograms!
a.I have many friends, some of whom are painters!
⑥such....as.....句式：He is such a man as does know nothing to do!
(1)1.含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如：look for, look after, take care of等
a. This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T＝正确)
b. This is the watch for which I am looking. (F＝错误)
a. The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T)
b. The man with that you talked is my friend. (F)
c. The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T)
d. The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F)
(3)3.“介词+关系代词”前可有some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few等代词或者数词
a. He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.
b. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad.
c. There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities.
1.He seems a foreigner,as is fact he is.
(他似乎是个外国人，而实际上他的确实是个外国人。--正如他实际上那样) [as在从句中作he is的表语，指代a for-eigner]
2.He was not sick,as some of the other students were.
3.It is wrong to think foreign languages useless,as many people did before.
注意:先行词有the same或such 修饰，或为the same或such，关系代词必须用as。如：
1.They talke about the same topic as we did.
That's the same watch as I have.那块手表个我们那块相似。（不是一块手表）
That'a the same watch that I have.那块手表和我的手表一样（是同一块手表）
(5)许多句子中用the one 作先行词，或称为支撑词，试比较：
Is this the factory that you visited last year?
Is this factory the one you visited last year?
(6)what=all that where...;those who=all those that..。如：
a.ALL(that) I need is a gppd rest.
What Ineed is a good rest.
b.All(that)agree please stand.
Those who agree please stand.
He lives in the room whose window faces to the south.
He lives in the room,the window of which faces to the south.
He paid $10 for wahsing the windows,most of which haven't been cleaned for at least one year.
He paid $10 for wahsing the windows,and most of them haven't been cleaned for at least one year.
(9)当关系代词前有"the only onee of+复数n.”时，则先行词应是the only one,定语从句中谓语应用单数；反之若把the only取消，则先行词应是“复数n.”，从句中谓语动词应用复数,试比较
He is one of the students who have been invited to the English evening.
He is the only one of the students who has been invited to the English evening.
I have the same opinoin as [you].
My opinion is the same as [yours].
There is not much that can be done now.
There is still a point that I can't understand.
Look at the books on the bookshelf. You can see the two that you bought me for my birthday.
They built a factory which produced things that had never been seen.
(##)A.另外，that也可用作关系副词，表示时间、地点、原因和方式，在口语中可以用来代替when, where, why 引导的定语从句。
B.在以下名词day, year, time, moment, reason, place等作先行词时，可用that作关系副词引导定语从句
1.I'll never forget the day (that) I joined the League.
2.We want to find a place (that) we can have a picnic.
3.This is the first time (that) I have been abroad for traveling.
#.I don't the way you (that) speak to her.
(注：当先行词为表示方式的词the way时，可用that引导定语从句, that常可以省略.)
5.Is this the reason (that) they were late for the meeting?
#.So let's take a 12km walk in the hell (that/where) winter truly is...
9.he可用来指代事物的整体，与其他事物区别开来！The train goes faster than the bus !
10.专用名词可以加定冠词或不定冠词来指出一时或新的一种概念！The China ruled by "gang of four" is gone.A modern China will be born !
11.在表示一般意义的名词前加定冠词表示特定的意义！Flowers are sweet,The flower in Mary 's garden seen extraordinary sweet !
12.在序数词之前加定冠词！He is always the first man to come to my house !
13.表示前面已经说过的人或事物的名词前加定冠词！There's a man living at john's home,and the man just plans to stay there and never move !
1.第一次提到的某人或某物，用不定冠词a起介绍作用！---What's your brother?---He'sa policenman !
2.a与名词连用时，通常概括人或事物的整体，表示一类人，即以其中的一个代表一类！A bicycle has two wheels !
3.a与某些词组连用，它是该词组不可缺少的重要组成部分！1.go out for a walk2.a long time3.a few !
4.a与抽象名词连用表示具体介绍的是什么人，是什么样的事物！a+抽象名词起具体化的作用！He regarded his wife a beauty !
5.不定冠词的位置:位于such,many,what,half等词的后方！1.Half a month2.He's such a man3.He's so nice a man
6.在形容词的比较句中:1.He's as great a man as ever lived !2.This's more complex asd idea than the others e presented !
7.副词too,quite,rather等修饰形容词，位于该副词之后！1.That is quite a sudden change!2.We got rather a huge snake!
9.名词:主语 表语 宾语 宾补:一般:I give me three dollors
#:I wish you many many girls/a lot of success.
同位语 定语(前置:wood fox/后置:the children your age/the elect campaign that year) !
修饰adj:It is five degrees hotter than yesterday.
adv:1.All day long.2.Hand in hand with reading.
v:Wait a moment.
the United States（美国）、The United Nations（联合国）
1.a loaf of bread（一条面包） a piece of bread（一块面包）
2. a cup of coffee (一杯咖啡)
3. a sheet of paper（一张纸）
4. a spoonful of sugar（一匙糖）
如:The old machinery is out of date.
②不可直接与a（n）或数词连用。表数量时用much，little，some，a piece of，an article of等。
如:Each room has five pieces of furniture.
如:Do you want to see my jewelry?It is in the box.
如:The police are looking for him.
如:My family is a large one.
My family are all workers.
The team is famous for its(不能用their) long history.
He has joined the football team who are (不可用which is) all famous footballers.
在英语中，有很多量词词组，例如：a group of，a flock of， a bunch of，a bundle of等等。为了方便广大英语学习者更好地掌握，本文对量词词组粗略地归纳了以下的特点，具体表现为：
a couple of（两个、一对）—a couple of days，a couple of players，a couple of times
a cupful of（一满杯）—a cupful of jelly，a cupful of water
a portion of（一份／客）—a portion of duck，a portion of roast beef
a majority of（大多数／大半）—a majority of opinions，a majority of votes
an atom of（一点）—an atom of food，an atom of truth
a spell of（一阵／一段时间）—a spell of fine weather，a spell of coughing
a flood of—a flood of ink（洋洋大篇），a flood of tears（泪如泉涌）
a heap of—a heap of earth（一堆泥土），a heap of customers（许多顾客）
a mountain of—a mountain of debts（债台高筑），a mountain of difficulties（困难重重）
a drop of—a drop of fever（有点热度），a drop of dew（一点露水）
a particle of—a particle of feeling（一丝感情），a particle of dust（一点灰尘）
a shadow of—a shadow of doubt（一点怀疑），a shadow of freedom（一点自由）
a bit of—a bit of English（一点英语），a bit of good advice（一些好意见），a bit of interest（一点兴趣）
a shred of—a shred of evidence（一点证据），a shred of cloth（少量布），a shred of reputation（一点声誉）
a sheet of—a sheet of glass（一块玻璃），a sheet of water（一片汪洋）
a cluster of—a cluster of flowers（一簇花），a cluster of spectators（一群观众），a cluster of bright stars（闪烁群星）
a string of—a string of pearls（一串珠子），a string of curses（连续不断的咒骂），a string of excuses（一连串借口）
a scram of—a scram of mosquitoes（一群蚊子），a scram of geese（一群鹅），a scram of children（一群孩子）
a body of—a body of bees（一群蜜蜂），a body of cold air（一股冷空气），a body of facts（许多事实）
a block of—a block of ice（一大块冰），a block of flats（一幢公寓），a block of houses（一排房子）
a chain of—a chain of ideas（一系列想法），a chain of accidents（一连串事故），a chain of proof（一连串证据）
a barrel of—a barrel of beer（一桶啤酒），a barrel of crude oil（一桶原油）
a basket of—a basket of eggs（一篮鸡蛋），a basket of apples（一篮苹果）
a line of—a line of trees（一行树），a line of poetry（一行诗）
a piece of—a piece of paper（一张纸），a piece of furniture（一件家具），a piece of equipment（一台设备）
a round of—a round of spirit（一巡酒），a round of diplomatic talks（一轮外交谈判），a round of toast（一片烤面包）
a bar of—a bar of chocolate（一块巧克力），a bar of soap（一条肥皂），a bar of light（一束光）
10.代词:人称 物主 宾格 反身 指示 不定 疑问！
时态：A：现在时 过去时 将来时 过去将来时
(1) I’m going. 我要走了。
(2) When are you starting? 你什么时候动身？
(1) I’m meeting you after class. 课后我找你。
(2) What are you doing next Sunday? 下星期你打算干什么？
(3) She is buying a new bike soon. 她不久将买一辆新自行车。
(1) When I grow up, I’m joining the army. 我长大了要参军。
(1) I’m not going. 我不走了。
(2) I’m not waiting any longer. 我不再等了。
I’m backing out. 我要打退堂鼓了。
(1) You are staying. 你留下吧。
(2) Don’t forget: you are taking part too. 不要忘记：你也要参加。
(1) when you are passing my way, please drop in. 你什么时候路过我们家，请进来坐。（用于时间状语从句）
(2) If they are not doing it, what I am I to do? 如果他们不干，那我该怎么办？（用于条件状语从句）
(3) She is going to the dentist tomorrow because she is having a tooth filled.
(1) He said he is going tomorrow. 他说他明天走。
(1) On election night we’ll be telling you what’s happening in various places in this country.
(2) when I have time, I’ll come down to the school to see how you’re both doing.
过去进行时 将来进行时 过去将来进行时
C：现在完成时 过去完成时：(For since before when by after) 将来完成时
【by + 过去的时间点】
1.I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.
【by the end of + 过去的时间点】
1.We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.
【before + 过去的时间点】
1.They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.
D: 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 将来完成进行时 过去将来完成进行时
1.He is a teacher.
持续系动词:keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand (用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度)
1.He always kept silent at meeting. 2.This matter rests a mystery.
表像系动词:seem, appear, look (用来表示"看起来像"这一概念)
1.He looks tired.2.He seems (to be) very sad.
感官系动词:feel, smell, sound, taste (用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度)
1.This kind of cloth feels very soft. 2.This flower smells very sweet.
变化系动词:become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run (这些系动词表示主语变成什么样)
1.He became mad after that.2.She grew rich within a short time.
终止系动词:prove, turn out(to be) (表示主语已终止动作,表达"证实"，"变成"之意)
1.The rumor proved false.2.The search proved difficult.3.His plan turned out(to be) a success.
④情态动词:be to,wil,shall,must,dare,'d better(not),can,need,may,used to,ought to + v原形 ！
1.Obama is to visit China next week. └┈┐
1.You are to finish the work before 6 o'clock
12.形容词:表语 宾补 状语
定语(前置 后置[被修饰词前有best only every all any]/表语形容词放在名词后面:The teachers present will donate their love.)
[可以有逻辑关系上的成分a.There are mountains rich in mineral resources
b.This kind of food full of nutrition]
A.数词+名词(+形容词)[①a five-year-old boy ②a four-hour trip ③100-metre dash ④an 800-metre-long bridge ]
B.形容词+名词-ed[①a white-haired girl ②a warm-hearted woman ③a near-sighted boy ④two middle-aged men ⑤a lighthearted boy]
C.形容词+分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)[①clean-washed clothes ②an ordinary-looking man ③an easy-going man ④fresh-baked bread ⑤fine-sounding]
PLS:现在分词与所修饰的名词是逻辑上的主动关系,前面的形容词相当于表语: ②=a man who looks ordinary ③=a man who goes easy.
PLS:过去分词和所修饰的名词是被动关系,形容词相当于补语:①=clothes which are washed clean ④=bread which is baked fresh.
D.副词+分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)[①hard-working people ②bravely-fighting soldiers ③a well-known singer]
E.名词+分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)[①a man-made satellite ②peace-loving people ③a snow-covered hill ④a man-eating animal]
PLS:现在分词表示与其后的名词的关系是主动的,其前的名词是分词的逻辑宾语,所修饰的名词是分词的逻辑主语:②=the people who love peace,④=an animal which eats man.
PLS:过去分词表示与所修饰的名词之间在逻辑上是被动关系:①=a satellite which is made by man.
F.名词+形容词[①war-weary soldiers ②a watertight watch ③a homesick woman]
G.形容词+名词[①a full-time job ②a second-hand material ③a high-level living standard ④a present-day life]
H.形容词+形容词[①a grey-green car ②a deaf-mute boy ③a socio-economic book]
I.名词+名词-ed[①baby-faced 年轻而纯真的, 生有娃娃脸的 ②one-armed 独臂的]
K.副词+副词[①all-out attempt attempt 全力以赴的努力]
L.动词+副词[①take-home pay （扣税等后的）实得工资]
wait-and-see policy 观望政策 heart-to-heart talk 推心置腹的谈话
wall-to-wall carpet 满铺地毯 well-to-do families 富裕家庭
the day-to-day administration 日常行政工作 an out-of-date driving license 过期驾照
a life-and-death struggle 生死斗争 state-of-the-art technology 尖端科技
an out-of-the-way place 偏僻之地
1.This rope is twice longer than that one.(这根绳子是那根绳子的三倍长---比那根绳子长两倍)
2.The car runs twice faster than that truck.(这量小车的速度比那辆卡车的快两倍---是那辆卡车的三倍)
####:Tokyo has 400 million people more than New York.
1.Asia is four times as large as Europe.(亚洲的面积是欧洲的四倍)
2.The plane flew ten times as high as the kite.(那架飞机的飞行高度是那只风筝的十倍)
####:Americans eat more than twice as many vegetables per person today as they didi in the 1980s.
1.This street is four times the length of that one.(这条街是那条街的四倍长)
1.There are five times more books in our library than in yours.(我们图书馆里的书比你们图书馆多五倍)
2.We have produced twice more grain this year than we did last year.(我们今年生产的粮食比去年多两倍)
②...times as many/much+名词+as+被对比对象
1.This is four times as much water in this pot as in that one.(这只壶里装的水是那只壶里的四倍)
1.This grain output in that village is twice over that of 2002.(那个村的粮食产量是2002年的两倍)
1.In this workshop,the output of july was 4.5 times that of january.(这个车间七月份的产量是1月份的4.5倍)
1.The number of the stundents in our school has increased 4 times comprared with 1980.(我们学校的学生人数比1980年增加了四倍)
1.The production is now three times what it was ten years ago.(现在的产量比十年前增加了两倍)
(3)倍数、百分数（percent）+compared with/up on+被比对对象
1.Our favtory's output of TV sets in the first six months of this year was 10 percent up compared with last year.
a.The production is now double what it was ten years ago.(现在的产量是十年前的两倍)
a.This brought a steady rise in the grain yield.In 2002 it nearly doubled that of 1920.
【否定:Not+介词短语】----eg.People not in England want to come to England!
主 表 宾 定(可以有逻辑关系的成分)
a.The people in the house [every day] said they wanted to get rid of the sharkman one day.
b.The present said that the life in the contorl of Assman [in Shanghai was really not good].
状(原因 时间 让步[despite all this] 伴随 方式 结果 条件 关于 根据 除外 目的) 宾补!
1.in virtue of 2.on account of. 3.in view of 1.respecting 2.with reference of 3.in virtue of 4.in respect to/of
4.in that-clause 5.in the light of 6.in accordance with 5.as/so far as sb/sth is concerned 6.on relation to 7.on the subject of
7.on condition that 8.in consequent of
转折:but while -`-`-`略`-`-`-`-``-`
15.副词:（可修饰形容词，动词，副词，整个句子）宾语（介词后） 表语 定语（后置【可以有逻辑关系的成分】），宾补，状语！
a.the crash accident there [in Beijing] is crazy.
17.被动语态：Be+过去分词= (现在时 过去时 将来时 过去现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 将来完成时 过去将来完成进行时 将来完成进行时) ---所有时态的被动结构！
4.独立主格可以做状语（ 原因 时间 方式 条件 伴随）
1.He feeling down,he decided not to attend the ball.
2.Jackie chan sailing away,he then tured out.
3.The guest having left away,they began to have short rest.
1.He messed up by someone,he bagan to be mad at everyone.
2.All things considered,her paper is of greater value than yours.
1.The exam to be held tomorrow,I couldn't go to the cinema tonight.
2.China to held a ever-largest world expo in 2010,some politicians will catch the point to cause some riots.
3.You to say I love you,I will tell all these things to them.
1.He entered the room,his nose red with cold.
b.此结构也可以写成his nose being red with cold.此结构近似于“主系表”型，being是非谓语(系)动词，往往省略，但being的逻辑主语是人称代词时，being不能省，
1.He entered the room,his nose beiing red with cold.
2.China rich in minerals,I bet the CEO of chinese copration will probably say not to us.
1.A rat there,where daren't to move.
2.The spacecraft up to the sky,we all americans are cheering up.
1.The master was walking up and down the classroom,(with) [the iron] ruler under [his arm].
2.The children came running towards us,(with) flowers in [their hands].
1.Last night I followed him there,and climbed in,sword in hand.
1.He fought the robber,a stick his only weapon.
1.He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raised！
2.The murder was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back！
3.Don't sleep with light on.
there-be有两种非限定形式(1.there to be 2.there being),它们在句子中通常起名词或副词作用，可作主语，宾语，状语.
1.For there to be so few people in the streets was unusual.
2.There being a bus stop so near my work unit is a great advantage.
1.Members like there to be plenty of choice.
2.They planned for there to be another meeting.
c.状语（ 原因 时间 方式 条件 伴随）
1.There having been no rain,the ground was dry.
2.I was sucking nipples,there being a dog.
主语从句:It's+adj+从句,谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
a.It's necessary that you should play this game well!
表语从句:在表示建议 要求 命令等名词的从句中,谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
a.The advice is that you should let me out!
a.在表示建议 要求 命令等动词后的句子中，谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
A.I suggest you should go to call him right now!
A.I wish I were you!
B.I wish I had been here！
C.I wish he would be here soon!
同谓语从句:在与表示建议 要求 命令意义的名词连用,谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
a.He made a policy that you should have more opportunity!
②条件状语从句:[可倒装---将were had should等提到句首]
└┈1.If I were you,I would get up early every morning.
改┈Were I you,I would get up early every morning.
2.If you had you arrived at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday, you could have caught the train.
改┈Had you arrived at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday, you could have caught the train.
1.If I were you,the sutiation will alter!＝were I you,the sutiation will alter!
２.If he had come,my life would has gone on without hating!=had I come here,my life would has gone on without hating!
3.If I succeed,you should take much money！
$不同时间:If I had spoke to him,I should know what to do now!
③方式状语从句:在由as if / as though引导的方式状语中，虚拟语气的谓语动词结构为were或had+过去分词
a.I made such a lot of money as if I were you!
b.I have been everywhere of this town as though I had been here for longer time than you!
c.(as if/as though 也可表示有可能实现的)It looks as if it is going to rain.
a.在以lest,for fear that,in case等所引导的从句中，虚拟语气的形式为should+V-原
1.I ran as fast as possible lest I should be too late !
2.Be careful lest you should fall from the tree!
b.在以in order that,so that,that引导的目的状语从句中，虚拟语气的形式为may/might/could+V-原
1.I order that everyone may understand it,write in simple language!
2.He shouted at the top of his voice,in order that he might be heard!
1.If only I were you!２.If only she could merry me!(用情态动词过去式来表示过去)
2.If only he had come here!
3.If only the rain would stop!
a.It's high time that our athletes shouw their best!
1.that's a wonderful idea,to be sure ！2.in other words,you can call him the scholar !
2.Over time my memory has developed so much that,like an elephant,I never forget anything I have been told !
3.Jack,I think,should have got me !
①名词+代词:We two,jack and me,will get there!
②形容词:All the people,young and old,will be unable to get out of right here!
③副词+名词:The students,mostly girls,were making love with guys!
④同位语提前:A mother of three chindren, she still works hard at computer!
1.It was Lucy that I met in the street yesterday!
2.It was in the street that I met Lucy yesterday!
3.It was yesterday that I met Lucy in the street!
1.It's me who gives you this!
2.It's I who give you this!
②It is not until...that...结构:
1.It was not until 12pm that he finished his homework!
2.It was not until she finished the book that she watched TV!
1.It was Tom that she visited last week!
Ask(问)2.Was it Tom that she visited last week?
Ask(问)3.Who was it that she visited last week?
Ask(问)4.When does Tom go to school every day?-->When is it that Tom goes to school every day?
24.英语倒装：主 谓 宾，若谓语提前到主语前，则为完全倒装[若主语为代词则不能为完全倒装]-----一般只用于一般现在时、一般过去时
a.here he comes. b.here comes a boy.
主 谓 宾，若谓语的助动词或情态动词等提前，则为部分倒装
a.Here comes a boy.
b.there runs a dog.
c.in the door stood a guy.
d.Up comes down a tree.
a.Now is the time to play football.
b.Until that night comes her father.
3.祝愿语a.May you be happy.
#.May you succeed.
疑问句a.where do you want to go?
b.how is that?
c.how are you doing?/how do you do?
1.00.what a beautiful girl she is.
000.what a challenge this is.
0000.what a beautiful jack you have.
2.00.how beautiful you are.
###.how strange that you have forgotten so many years(it is)--句子型感叹句
a.there goes the bell!
b.off you go!
c.away he goes!
a.there is a wathch on the table.
b.there is a wedding banquet.
*.there appeared to be a man in black in the distance.
a.the more...the more...
①.The happier you are,the healthier you will be.
He's not kind,nor are you.
I don't like enjoying the singing,nor do I like computer.
You cannot dance,nor can I,nor can he .
①so+be(do have can...+"S")这一结构倒装说明前面所属的情况也适合于另一个人或物.
I like playing basketball,and so does he.
If you go to the concert his evening, so will Mary.
The boy failed to pass the exam.So did his sister.
②so+"S"+be(be have can...)表示对卡年所说的情况进一步肯定活确认，不需倒装，意为确实如此，正是那样.
It was careless of you to do that.
---So I was.
The students work hard.
---So they do.
③So it is with...=It is the same with...，意为...也一样，表示上下文叙述内容相同，主要用于前后是不同的谓语或既有肯定也有否定的情况.
He is a student and studies in No.1 Middle School.So it is with Mary.
He is quite lazy and never works hard at his lessons.So it is the same his elder sister.
①.Only by showing your sincerity,can you win the confidence!
②.Only though struggles,can we win freedom and happiness!
③.Only then,did he understand it!
④.Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting!
#.Only with his father'car,was he able to drive her home.
#.Only recently,can you ge it.
①.So seriously was the little boy unjured that he was taken to a hospital at once!
②.So easy was the exercise that the student finished it in half an hour!
③.So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch!
④.So exact was he that I went the right way !
e.以often,always,once,many a time,now.and then,every day等表示频度的副词短语放在句首时要倒装
①.Often did we warn them not to do so!
②.Many a time have they been to the beautiful park!
not until,at no time,not only,by no mean,in no time,in no way,no sooner(立即)等位于句首时要倒装 └┈┐
not only 放句首，从句不倒装，主句倒装
1.Not until last week,did they find the bike.(简单句)
2.Not until my son had entered the college,did he realize the importance.(复合句)
①.Never have I seen such a strange person!
②.Scarcely/Hardly can Anyone do it!
③.In no way,can theory be separated from practice!
④.Never have I seen such a performance!
⑤.Nowhere will you find the answer to this question!
⑥.Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.
→At no time is smoking permitted in the meeting-room.
⑦.He found nothing there.
→Nothing did he find.
⑧.At no time can you get her laid.
①.Surrounded as we were by the enemy,we managed to march forward!
②.No matter how busy he is,he is ready to help others!
③.No matter what he gotta be,he is my brother!
3.让步状语从句中，有 though，although时，后面的主句不能有but，但是though 和yet可连用
4.as/though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 （形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前）]
①.Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
②.Slowly as the tortoise walked,he beat the hare.
③.Hard as she worked, she seemed not to do the job well.
④.Swim as/though he can,he can't swim so far.
⑤.Run as/though he did,he didn't run fast enough to catch the bus.
1."Go away!"Mrs.Brown said angrily/said Mrs Brown angrily.
2."What have I done",the boy asked/asked the boy,"that you should get so angry with me?"
1."Where are you going?"asked a man with a car across his face.
2."If you viloate the law,"he said,"you can't get away with it."
a.We tried to pesuade her but (we tried )in vain!
b.I live on the fifth floor and he (lives) on the third floor!
c.He works (in the city),and his son studies in the city!
d.I can (at your service),and will always be ,at your service!
a.Tom speaks French and so does his brother!
b.If you do not go，neither sall I!
c.You don't understand the question,no more shall I!
a.You can have no idea(of) what he said!
b.It all depends (on) how you settle the problem!
4.在when,whenever,while,until,as soon as引导的时间状语从句中,可以省略与主句中相同的┊主语┊和系动词或助动词(时间状语从句）
a.When (he was) a child,he ran wild!
b.They were scolded whenever (they were) late for school!
c.Whild (he was) in prison,he wrote his first novel!
d.As soon as (I am) on board,I always feel sick!
a.Though long power lives,electricity goes where (it is) needed!
b.Where necessary, improvements will be made!
a.If (it is) not well organized the meeting will be a failure!
b.Substances have no tendency to expand unless (they are) heated!
#.(You) please keep silent unless (you are) spoken to (by someone).
7.though,as though,as if等引导的状语从句中,可以省略┊主语┊和┊系动词┊---------whatever,however引导的让步状语从句中可以省略┊系动词┊ （让步状语从句）
a.Though (he is) tall,he is very weak in health! a.He was detenmined to carry out the plan,whatever the cost (was)!
b.He went quickly out of the room as if (he was) in a hurry! b.b.However difficult the test (may be),we must finish it on time!
a.The greater the force (is),the greater the splash (is)!
a.Solid can be turned into liquid and liquid into gas if heated enough. =solid can be turned into liquid and liquid can be turned into gas if it is heated enough.
b.Have a little more if delicious. =You have a little more if it is delicious 如果好吃就多吃一点。
c.Make changes where necessary. =You make changes where it is necessary. 在必要的地方作些修改。
d.I won’t attend his party, though invited a few days ago. = I won’t attend his party, though I was invited a few days ago. 尽管几天前请了我，但我还是不会参加他的聚会。
a.He was very excited when told that he had passed the exam. =He was very excited when he was told that he had passed the exam. 当告诉他考试通过了时，他非常兴奋。
b.If running a little faster, he will take the first place. =If he runs a little faster, he will take the first place. 如果再跑快一点，他就会获得第一名。
c.They began to talk warmly as if being good friends. =They began to talk warmly as if they were good friends. 他们就好像是好朋友一样开始热烈地谈论起来。
a.The weather in the south is much better than in the north. = The weather in the south is much better than the weather in the north is good. 南方的天气比北方的天气好多了。
b.The Beijing you see today is much more beautiful than it was twenty years ago. = The Beijing you see today is much more beautiful than it was beautiful twenty years ago. 你 今天所看到的北京比二十年前的北京漂亮多了。
He likes the dog better than she. 他比她更喜欢那条狗。
He likes the dog better than her. 他喜欢那条狗甚于喜欢她。
He likes his dog better than his wife does. 他比他的妻子更喜欢那条狗。
He likes his dog better than his wife. 他喜欢那条狗甚于喜欢他的妻子。
类型一：if + 形容词
Send the goods now if ready.= Send the goods now if they are ready. 货物如已备好，请即送来。
If true, this will cause us a lot of trouble.= If it is true, this will cause us a lot of trouble. 这事若是事实，它将给我们造成许多麻烦。
注：这类省略结构中有的已构成相对固定的搭配，if necessary (如果需要)，if possible (如果可能)等。如：
If necessary, ring me at home. 如果必要，可往我家里打电话。
If possible, let me know beforehand. 如果可能，可在事前通知我。
类型二：if + 过去分词
He will come if asked.= He will come if he is asked. 他如被邀就会来。
The medicine is quite effective if taken in time.=The medicine is quite effective if it is taken in time. 这药要是能按时服用，效果是很好的
类型三：if + 不定代词
If anyone, he knows. 如果有人知道，那就是他了。
There are few people nowadays, if any, who remember him. 当今记得他的人，如有的话，也不多了。
He seems to have little, if anything, to do with this. 若要说他和这事有什么相关的话，那也似乎是很少的。
类型四：if + 介词短语
这类结构往往要根据具体的语境来理解，但有些经常搭配的惯用结构也值得注意，如if in doubt, if at all, if by any chance等。如：
If in doubt, ask your doctor. He can give you further information. 你若有疑问，可以问问医生. 他会向你作进一步的说明。
Their policies have changed little, if at all, since the last election. 自上次选举以来，他们的政策就算是有所变化，也变得很少。
If by any chance you can’t manage dinner tonight, perhaps we can at least have a drink together. 就算你今晚不吃晚饭，也许我们至少可以一起喝一杯。
类型五：if + ever
if ever 可视为习语，它通常与seldom连用，表示“极少”“难得”。如：
She seldom, if ever, goes to the cinema. 她难得看电影。
He seldom if ever travels abroad. 他到国外旅行，即使有过，也是极少的。
The island is seldom if ever visited by ships. 这个岛难得有船停靠。
If ever you’re in Cambridge, do give me a ring. 万一你来剑桥，一定要给我打电话。
类型六：if + not
if not 可视为一个否定的条件状语从句省略。如：
I might see you tomorrow. If not, then it’ll be Saturday. 我可能明天去看你。如果不是明天，那就在周六。
Ask her if it is a convenient time. If not, can she suggest another possible time? 问问她那个时间方便不方便。要是不方便，那她可不可以提出一个可行的时间??
If not today, tomorrow I’m sure you’ll get an answer. 如果今天得不到回信，明天准能得到。
This is one of the oldest buildings in town, if not the oldest. 这是城里最古老的房屋之一，如果不是最古老的话。
Usually, if not always, we write “cannot” as one word. 我们即使不总是如此，也通常是把cannot作为一个词来拼写的。
类型七：if + so
I may be free this evening. If so, I’ll come round and see you. 今晚我可能有空。要是有空我会过来看你。
They must decide if such a plan can be implemented and if so, when. 他必须决定这样的计划是否能实施，而且要是能实施的话，又得决定何时实施。
注意以下if so与if not连用的情形：
He may be busy. If so, I’ll call later. If not, can I see him now? 他可能忙，如是这样，我以后再来拜访。他如不忙，我现在可以见他吗?
Will you be staying another night? If so, we can give you a better room. If not, could you be out of your room by 12:00? 您要再往一晚吗? 如果是这样，我们可以给您提供条件更好 一点的房间。如果不是，您能在12点前离开这房间吗?
类型八：if need be 如果需要if need be为习语，其含义相当于if it is necessary (如果有必要的话)。如：
I will come if need be. 如有必要我会来。
I’ll work at night if need be. 如果有必要我可以晚上工作。
If need be we can always bring another car. 如果有必要的话我们还可以再开一辆车来。
Only one of us was injured, and he just slightly. 我们当中只有一人受了伤，而且只是轻伤。
We went through the tests on a Monday. Jenny had hers during the day, and I mine after work. 有一个星期一，我们进行了检查。詹尼在白天，我是在下班之后。
I’ll be round as quick as I can. 我将尽快赶来。
I pitied her sincerely, as I would a child of my own. 我真心地爱怜她，就像爱怜我自己的孩子一样。
You better try again. 你最好再试试。
You doing this on purpose? 你是故意在做此事?
They been coming here a long time. 他们很久都想到这里来。
1.ee是由n./v./adj.构成的n.,在vt后表被动,在vi后表主动,以-e结尾的直接加e！[vt-sty<appointee trainee trainee addressee toastee>]
[vi-sty<returnee embarkee meetee escapee divorcee>][-e-sty<retire-retiree advise- advisee invite-invitee>]
3.ation是以ne/ze/re/te结尾的v.去e构成的名词！[donate→donation relate→relation politicize-politicization legislate→legislation rote→rotation]
5.list是由l结尾的adj.加ist,表示....主义![unreal→unrealist social→socialist capital→capitalist actual→actualist]
6.tive是由n.化后带tion的英文单词构成的[competition→competitive invention→inventive action→active]
9.al是由n.或v.构成的adj.,去e加,以c/n结尾的直接加![cultural personal regional musical natural practical]
10.ment是由v.构成的n.,表示是与v.一样的意思!!!![arguement government development improvement]
11.ness是由adj.构成的n,去y为i加ness！[darkness happiness oldness newness hungriness]
13.sion是由d(e)结尾的v.去d(e)后加sion构成的n.！[ division expansion]
15.ens是由adj或n构成的v.表示使......！[wood→wooden sharp→sharpen fast→fasten less→lessen]
17.ward(s)是由方位词后直接加ward(s)构成的adj或adv！[southwards backwards upwards downwards]
18.ed是由n.后直接加ed构成的形容词，表示有.....的！[toothed mouthed footed]
1.Mini-noun[minibus minimall minihotel minicar]
2.Re-vweb[redo recall recycle review]
4.Intra-noun[inracity intracountry intraproduct]
5.Super-noun[supercity supermom supercountry superpower]
6.Un-adjective[unpleasent ungrateful unbleievable]
7.Vice-noun[vice-president vice-minister vice-secretary]
8.Multi-noun/verb[multiplayer multikill multimedia multifuck multi-colored multi-racial]
9.Post-noun[postwar post-exercise post-run post-exam]
10.Micro-noun[microcity microsoft microstar]
11.Trans-noun/adj[transsexual transposition trans-state]
12.Fore-noun[foreleg forehead foreground]
13.Anti-noun[anti-government anti-chinese anti-globalization]
14.Dis-verb[Disaffect Disapper Disagree]
15Mis-verb[Mislead误导 Misunderstand误解 Misfuck误操]
16.En-adjecctive[Enable使能够 Enrich Endanger Enanger使不开心]
I don't even know who I am !
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