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高中使用语法总结(又修订了,加油)


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新宋,常规,五号!



①非谓语动词


1.不定式:主 表 宾 定 状 宾补
(现在时 被动式 进行时 完成时 完成进行时)
【否定:not/never+ to do】
①主:To do this is unacceptable!
表:It'a to play basketball!
  宾:I hate to urinate here!
定:有逻辑主谓关系
1.The boys to play hockey is my students!(the boys 做逻辑主语)
2.The pen to use is mine.(做use的宾语)
状:目的[in order-句前/句末,so as to]
1.In order to get laid, she use all kinds of ways to attract him.
2.He has much savings in order to save her mother's life.
3.China develops very fast so as to take back the deserved glories.
4.To find out the error,he was pretty crazy about the instructions.
5.We get here as to pick someone out.
原因
结果[so...as to.../such...as to.../enough to.../only to.../too...to]
1.She was so angry as to be unable to speak.
2.He is not such a fool as to say no.
3.We have enough money to buy food.
4.I hurried to your house only to find you were not.
5.He is too nervous to fall asleep.
同:a.The officials gave the order to stop the attack.
b.He followed the insttrution to walk along a certain street where I picked him up.
c.They had received instrution to watch him.
补:1.带to的宾补语:She promises him never to lie him again!
2.以下宾语补足语不加to:
    a.五看notice,find,look at,see,watch observe
    b.三使have,make,let
    c.二听hear,listen to
  d.一感feel
  e.半帮助help
#.为主语补足语时,to需要补上:He was made to say sorry.
It做形式主语/形式宾语/ → 现在分词 不定式 主语从句!
②疑问词+to do:what who which how when where whether} + to do:主 表 宾 双宾语!
③For+sb+to do:主 表(为形容词宾语)宾 定 壮!
④It was+Adj+of+sb+to do(对结果进行评论结构)!
⑤不带to的不定式
A.动词go和come等在口语中可以后接不带to的不定式
1.Go buy a new one.
2.Come have tea with us.
B.含有do的名词性从句用作主语时,其表语如是不定式,常可以去掉to
1.All he could do was write her a letter.
2.What they did was wathc TV.
C.I:cannot but,cannot choose but,cannot help but之后的不定式一般皆不带to
1.I (cannot but laugh).
2.They (could not choose but pay) off their debt.
II:在连词but之前如有动词do,其后的不定式也不用to
1.Last night we did nothing (but watch) on the door opposite.
2.I will do anything (but work) on a farm.
III:连词but之前如果没有do,其后的不定式则一般皆带to
1.The doctor told him nothing (but to stop) smoking.
2.There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.
D.为了避免重复而省去to
I:1.Her job is to take care of children and (wash) clothes.
2.It's just impossible to see him and not (laugh).
II:但两个不定式如有对照或者对比之义,则不可省去to
1.(To be or not to be)---that is the question.
2.I (cannot to scold),but (to praise) you.

2.现在分词:主 表 宾 定 状 宾补
【否定:not+v-ing】----eg.Not having luch at noon,I am now feeling hungry.

[①Vt的现在分词为主动的意义:
a.令人....的:1.A fascinating girl.2.The attracting sight.
b.供人....的:1.Dressing room(供人使用的房间=更衣室). 2.Dring water(供人喝的水=饮料).
②Vi的现在分词没有主动的意义:
a.正在....的/后置:...的(表动作):1.A crying girl.2.A smiling face.]

(原因 时间 让步 伴随(意为主动) 方式 结果 条件)
宾补
a.I saw him playing games in the bar.
#.I think of you doing this./I think about you having fun with a witch.-->动介结构后也可以有宾补!

3.过去分词:定 表 宾补 状(原 时 地 条 让 伴 方)

[①Vt的过去分词仅表示被动意义,前置/后置:
a.A frighten girl #.The treasures from different cultures displayed in the museum.-->一个词可有多个后置定语
②Vi的过去分词没有主动意义只表示动作的完成,前置/[极极极极极极其罕见[[[[[[[[[[后置(但要加上必要的介词)]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]:
a.In freezing winter,fallen snow can be seen everywhere.
b.They visit some developed countires.
c.She is an resturned sailor(=She is sailor who has resturned)
③定语从句做非限定性定语从句
a.The meeting attended by 5000 people,welcomeed the great hero.
b.This project,designed by the Chinese engineer,was finished in onlu two years.]
宾补
vt的过去分词作宾补时,宾语与过去分词之间只存在被动关系
1.I make her understood by the people attending the meeting.
2.I am glad to make myself known to you all.
vi的过去分词作宾补时,仅表示动作的完成,宾语与过去分词之间不存在被动关系,表主谓关系,例如:go change fall
1.I found him gone.
2.I I found her changed a lot.
3.I saw the leaves fallen.
状-原因
1.Done in a hurry,the quality of his paper is not acknowleadge!
时间
1.When it is seen under a mocroscope,a fresh snowflake has a delicated six-pointed shape!
---改:Seen inder a microscope,a fresh snowflake has a delicated six-pointed shape!
2.when it is heated,ice will be change into the water!
---改:when heated,ice will be changed into the water!
3.Asked (When he was asked) what had happened, he lowered his head.
地点
------------------------少见
条件
1.Grown (If these seeds are grown) in rich soil, these seeds can grow fast.
2.Given (If we were given) more time, we could do it better.
让步
1.Left (Although he was left) at home, John didn't feel afraid at all.
伴随(意为被动)
1.The teacher entered the classroom, (and he was) followed by a group of students. 老师进入教室,后面跟着一帮学生。
方式
1.I made him laugh,given fists by others.
4.动名词:主 表 宾 定 补
needs+v-ing 为被动!your v-ing 做主语/宾语,me v-ing 宾语!




②各类从句

5.状语从句:原 时 地 条 让 方 比 除 程 结 目
条件:(真实条件句;非真实条件句)
①假设的情况有可能发生的条件句叫[真实条件句],在真实条件句中用陈述语气
a.If it is fine tomorrow,we will go to the Great Wall.
b.I will write to your parents,if you are late again.
②假设的情况完全是一种建设或发生的可能性不大的条件句,叫[非真实条件句]
A.与现在事实不相符(从句:V-过 .主句:would,might,should)
1.If I were you,the sutiation will alter!=were I you,the sutiation will alter!
B.与过去事实不相符(从句:had+过去分词. 主句:would+have+过去分词)
1.If he had come,my life would have gone on without hating!=had I come here,my life would has gone on without hating!
C.与将来事实不相符(从句:were to/should+v-原/v-过去式(be的过去式用were),并通常要与一个表将来的"时状"连用 .主句:would,should)
1.If I succeed in the future,you should take much money!
D.在表示与事实相反的条件句中,所用动词一般为be,have,know等状态动词.
[1.若用动作动词时,用一般式表示一个与事实相反的反复性动作,2.用进行时则表示是一个与事实相反的正在进行的动作],如
1.If we used the computer to control traffic,we would avoid traffic jam.
2.If it were not raining(now),I would not be staying at home.
注意:
1.a.If+一般现在时,主语为一般将来时
If I am here,she will be right there,shit.
b.If+现在完成时,一般现在时
If I have done this already,I can get you laid right away.
#.Should引导条件状语从句,表示万一,一般把should放在句首
Should another world war break out,what would become of human beings.
让步:
1.even if=even though,若主句与从句皆表示将来情况,even if从句可用一般现在时代替将来时
a.We have decided to visit the Museum even if/though it rains tomorrow.
b.Even if/though I leave now,it'will be too late.
c.She understanded whay I was talking about,even thought/if it was the first time wh had spoken together.
2.even if所说的不肯定,而even though从句所说的则是事实.
a.He will not let out the secret even if he knows it(即使他知道这个秘密,却不肯说出来.----他对秘密知道与否不一定)
b.He will let the secret out even though he knows.(他虽然知道这个秘密,却不肯说出来.----他知道这个秘密)
3.even so/尽管如此
----------------
---------
----------------------
1.so+adj+a+n.+that
a.she is so beautiful a girl,that everyone loves her.
2.such+a.+adj+n.+that
a.She is such a beautiful girl that everyone loves her.
4.as可以引导方式状语从句
a.Boy as he is,he knows a lot.

6.名词性从句:关系连词:whether if that 疑问代词:what who which(可带宾语) whom whose 疑问副词:when where why how
主语从句:1.What you do doesn't matter much!
宾语从句:1.You like that you are a solider!
表语从句:1.Whom you like is the problem!
2.(because也可引导表语从句表原因)It is because you are not here!
#.<It's seemed that>you are not a general.
#.<It 's said that>you are not a general.
双宾语式:1.PLS tell me who you like!
同谓语从句:1.He made a policy that the prefects have to come!
*.News come that Britain's old kind had died without a son.
注意:①介词后应用原型:
1.What you did depend on which you choose.(T)
2.What you did depend on that you choose.(F)
②介词后不可以直接加名词性从句,如果要加,需加上“the fact”作为并与再在the fact后引出宾语从句:
1.This is something about <the fact> that jacky's death led to the result.

7.定语从句:
关系代词:指人whome,who,whose(of which)指物which,whose(of which)指人或物what,that
关系副词:when(at/in which),where(in/at which),why(for which)!
①限定式定语从句:
1.You are the beautiful girl whom/who I ever saw here!
2.You never the kiss that you like!
3.You just need to find out the box which you made!
#.You must like the kitchen in which you went!
5.You have to tell me the reason why you want to go!
6.You should tell me the time when you went to the USA!
#.There are mamy people [throughout the U.K]who speak a language as their first foreign language.-->在who-定从前可以有一些修饰成分
#@#.This is the book (whose cover/
of which the cover/
the cover of which)is red.
注意: 1.用of修饰的分词带有the,而whose修饰的分词则不可用冠词
2.of短语放在所修饰的分词的前、后均可,而whose只能放在名词前
②非限定式定语从句:
1.You like various skyscrapers,which are built as CBD!
2.The ruins were soon covered by thick forests and were forgotten until 1861, when the French discovered them!
3.Chaplin lived the last years of his life in Switzerland, where he was buried in 1977!
4.We have a good time,when all the girls in our class will sleep with us guys at night on Friday!
5.We love jack,whose father has ever helped us all!
6.Jack is a good boy,who had boycotted the beef from the America by 1991!
7.I like the the kitchen,in which you went!
③以as引导的非限制性定语从句:(带整句)
1.I live a long way from work, as you know!
2.She is extremely popular among students, as is common knowledge!
3.He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent!
④以which引导的非限制性定语从句:They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them!(which代主句)!
⑤关系代词that与which的区别:(带整句)
1.anything,nothing,everything,all ,any,little,few.none,much,one为先行词时,用that;但something,that和which均可用
a.Don't do anything that is beneath you!
b.Don't believe everything that he tells you!
c.There is something disturbing that/which will scare you!
2.当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,用that
a.The third tree that I planted was cut down by someone!
b.He gives the driest speech that I have ever listened to!
3.当先行词被all,any, every,each,few,no,some等修饰时,关系代词用that
a.They push open all the windows that remained closed for a whole month!
注意:不定代词all作先行词,后只能用关系代词that;all若指物,作主语时谓语动词应用单数;若指人时作主语,谓语动词用复数
a.All that should be done has been done.
b.All that should been present have been present.
4.当先行词被the very,the only,the same,the last用that
aThis is the vety book taht I have been looking for!
b.She's the very person that I want to see!
5.当先行词有人又有物时,用that
a.He was watching the children parcels that filled the car!
6.当先行词本身是who或者what,或主句中含有who或what时,关系代词用that=a.b.d.;当先行词本身是that时,则关系代词指物时应用which=c.
a.Who is the student that was absent form school.
b.Who that knows him wants to make friends with him?
c.Which of the book that you bougth yesterday was writtern by Bacon.
d.What is the feeling you are likely to require.
e.That which you borrowed from me wasn't a real diamond necklace.
7.介词+关系代词引导的定语从句,关系代词在定语从句中做介词宾语时
 从句常由介词+关系代词引导
 (1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous.
The school in which he once studied is very famous.
 (2) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for.
Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked.
 (3) We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about.
  We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
8.当先行词为something时,用that,也可用which
a.Painting is something that(which) I really enjoy doing!
9.引导非限定性定语从句,用which,不用that
a.He proudly pointed out the biggest sheep which already weighed 150 kilograms!
10.whom在非限制性定语从句中,不能省略:
a.I have many friends, some of whom are painters!
⑥such....as.....句式:He is such a man as does know nothing to do!
⑦使用定语从句时应注意的问题
(1)1.含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用,如:look for, look after, take care of等
  a. This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T=正确)
  b. This is the watch for which I am looking. (F=错误)
(2)2. 若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时用whom,不可用who或者that;指物时用which,不能用that;关系代词是所有格时用whose
 a. The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T)
 b. The man with that you talked is my friend. (F)
 c. The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T)
 d. The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F)
(3)3.“介词+关系代词”前可有some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few等代词或者数词
  a. He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.
 b. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad.
 c. There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities.
(4)
[A]as作关系代词
a.关系代词as比较特殊,它一方面像that,which一样,引导定语从句,同时在从句中作成分;另一方面其本身意义,作“像……一样”、“正如……”解。如:
1.He seems a foreigner,as is fact he is.
(他似乎是个外国人,而实际上他的确实是个外国人。--正如他实际上那样) [as在从句中作he is的表语,指代a for-eigner]
2.He was not sick,as some of the other students were.
(他没有像其他同学那样卧病在床。) [as作were的表语,指代sick]
3.It is wrong to think foreign languages useless,as many people did before.
(认为外语无用是错误的,不少人过去有这种想法。)[as指代前句的不定式]
注意:先行词有the same或such 修饰,或为the same或such,关系代词必须用as。如:
1.They talke about the same topic as we did.
(他们谈论的话题同我们一样。)
b.先行词有The same修饰,可以跟as,也可以跟that作关系代词,其意义有区别。试比较:
That's the same watch as I have.那块手表个我们那块相似。(不是一块手表)
That'a the same watch that I have.那块手表和我的手表一样(是同一块手表)
(5)许多句子中用the one 作先行词,或称为支撑词,试比较:
Is this the factory that you visited last year?
Is this factory the one you visited last year?
(6)what=all that where...;those who=all those that..。如:
a.ALL(that) I need is a gppd rest.
What Ineed is a good rest.
b.All(that)agree please stand.
Those who agree please stand.
(7)定语从句中指物时,whose+n.=the+n.+of which,试比较
He lives in the room whose window faces to the south.
He lives in the room,the window of which faces to the south.
(8)当句中有连词and,but,or等连接两个简单句构成并列句时,就不能再用定语从句或非谓语动词形式;反之,则可以使用,试比较
He paid $10 for wahsing the windows,most of which haven't been cleaned for at least one year.
He paid $10 for wahsing the windows,and most of them haven't been cleaned for at least one year.
(9)当关系代词前有"the only onee of+复数n.”时,则先行词应是the only one,定语从句中谓语应用单数;反之若把the only取消,则先行词应是“复数n.”,从句中谓语动词应用复数,试比较
He is one of the students who have been invited to the English evening.
He is the only one of the students who has been invited to the English evening.
(10)在the same...as定语从句中,as后的主语应与前面主句中的主语保持一致,
I have the same opinoin as [you].
My opinion is the same as [yours].
(11)当主句是there be句型,关系代词多用that,试比较
There is not much that can be done now.
There is still a point that I can't understand.
(12)当先行词为数词时,关系代词多用that
Look at the books on the bookshelf. You can see the two that you bought me for my birthday.
(13)如果which引导的定语从句中又含有一个定语从句,为避免重复,第二个定语从句用that
They built a factory which produced things that had never been seen.
(##)A.另外,that也可用作关系副词,表示时间、地点、原因和方式,在口语中可以用来代替when, where, why 引导的定语从句。
B.在以下名词day, year, time, moment, reason, place等作先行词时,可用that作关系副词引导定语从句
1.I'll never forget the day (that) I joined the League.
2.We want to find a place (that) we can have a picnic.
3.This is the first time (that) I have been abroad for traveling.
(注:先行词是time,前面有序数词或last修饰时,常用that引导定语从句或者省略.)
#.I don't the way you (that) speak to her.
(注:当先行词为表示方式的词the way时,可用that引导定语从句, that常可以省略.)
5.Is this the reason (that) they were late for the meeting?
#.So let's take a 12km walk in the hell (that/where) winter truly is...




③各类词性
8.冠词:
①定冠词:
1.用在杂志,报刊的名称前!
2.用在“一家人”的专有名词前!
3.用在专有名词前(江河,山脉)
4.用在独一无二的专有名词前(太阳,宇宙,月亮,地球...)
5.在形容词或副词的最高级前加the,副词可以省略!
6.在乐器的名词钱加the!
7.用定语从句或of的词组修饰的名词前加the!
8.用在表示“语法名词”的名词前!
9.he可用来指代事物的整体,与其他事物区别开来!The train goes faster than the bus !
10.专用名词可以加定冠词或不定冠词来指出一时或新的一种概念!The China ruled by "gang of four" is gone.A modern China will be born !
11.在表示一般意义的名词前加定冠词表示特定的意义!Flowers are sweet,The flower in Mary 's garden seen extraordinary sweet !
12.在序数词之前加定冠词!He is always the first man to come to my house !
13.表示前面已经说过的人或事物的名词前加定冠词!There's a man living at john's home,and the man just plans to stay there and never move !
14.与形容词连用表示一类人!
15.表示来自某处,名词前要加the!
16.在谈话双方都知道的事物,用the指代!
②不定冠词:
1.第一次提到的某人或某物,用不定冠词a起介绍作用!---What's your brother?---He'sa policenman !
2.a与名词连用时,通常概括人或事物的整体,表示一类人,即以其中的一个代表一类!A bicycle has two wheels !
3.a与某些词组连用,它是该词组不可缺少的重要组成部分!1.go out for a walk2.a long time3.a few !
4.a与抽象名词连用表示具体介绍的是什么人,是什么样的事物!a+抽象名词起具体化的作用!He regarded his wife a beauty !
5.不定冠词的位置:位于such,many,what,half等词的后方!1.Half a month2.He's such a man3.He's so nice a man
6.在形容词的比较句中:1.He's as great a man as ever lived !2.This's more complex asd idea than the others e presented !
7.副词too,quite,rather等修饰形容词,位于该副词之后!1.That is quite a sudden change!2.We got rather a huge snake!
③零冠词:
1.国名,人名前不用!
2.泛指“一类人或事物”不用!
3.季节,月份,节日,假日,日期,星期等表示时间的名词不用!
4.在称呼或官衔,职位的名词前不用
5.在三餐,球类,娱乐前不用!
6.两个或以上名词并用时,不用!

9.名词:主语 表语 宾语 宾补:一般:I give me three dollors
#:I wish you many many girls/a lot of success.
同位语 定语(前置:wood fox/后置:the children your age/the elect campaign that year) !
状语(修饰三个词性,表时间/距离/温度/倍数/单位/价值/程度/比较/方法)
修饰adj:It is five degrees hotter than yesterday.
adv:1.All day long.2.Hand in hand with reading.
v:Wait a moment.
名词的种类:
普通名词:表示具有一定形状的个体,为可数名词,有单数、复数之分,例如:
book、pencil、dog、spaceship、table

专有名词:如人名、地名等,用来表示其一特定的名称。零冠词,第一个字母必须大写,例如:
Bob(鲍伯)、Smith(斯密斯)、April(四月)、London(伦敦)、China(中国)
※下列专有名词需要加上定冠词the,例如:
the United States(美国)、The United Nations(联合国)

物质名词:表示不具有一定形状的物质名词,如材料、食物、气体、液体等。一律用单数,但前面不加a或者an,例如:
glass、wood、paper、butter、fruit、meat、sugar、air、gas、water
※物质名词在计算数量时,用容器或度量衡的单位来表示。即:数字+容器(度量衡)+of+物质名词,例如:
1.a loaf of bread(一条面包) a piece of bread(一块面包)
2. a cup of coffee (一杯咖啡)
3. a sheet of paper(一张纸)
4. a spoonful of sugar(一匙糖)

抽象名词:表示观念、性质、动作、过程、状态等。原则上与[数]无关。前面不加a或an,没有复数形式,例如:
beauty、honesty、love、patience、happiness、music

集合名词:表示一群人或物的名词叫集体(或集合)名词。为便于弄清其特点,我们不妨把它们分为表示无生命的物的“类”和表示主要是由人(有少数是低等动 物)构成的“群”的集体名词.
 ⑴表示“类”的集体名词,常见的有
 clothing,furniture,baggage/luggage,jewelry,merchandise,machinery,infomation,traffic,produce,scenery
 它们指同一类的许多东西,其用法与不可数名词相当:
 ①形式上总是单数,没有复数形式,作主语时,谓语用单数。
 如:The old machinery is out of date.
②不可直接与a(n)或数词连用。表数量时用much,little,some,a piece of,an article of等。
 如:Each room has five pieces of furniture.
 ③若需用代词,用单数代词。
 如:Do you want to see my jewelry?It is in the box.
 ⑵表示“群”的集体名词常见的有
 (Ⅰ)
 people,police,cattle,poultry,vermin,clergy,militia
 (Ⅱ)
family,class,team,government,crowd,committee,crew,jury,party,firm,couple,board,group,enemy,gang,union,audience,mankind,public,humanity,youth
▲上述(Ⅰ)部分的词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。
如:The police are looking for him.
▲▲上述(Ⅱ)部分的词把集体当作一个整体时,用作单数;若考虑构成这些集体的各个成员时,看作复数。
如:My family is a large one.
  My family are all workers.
▲▲▲上述(Ⅰ)部分的词以及public,church,audience,mankind,humanity等通常只有单数形式,也不能直接加a(n)(audience除外);其中clergy, public,church,youth,police等的前面通常要加the。
▲▲▲▲把一个集体名词看作单数或复数,要注意前后一致。如:
The team is famous for its(不能用their) long history.
He has joined the football team who are (不可用which is) all famous footballers.

在英语中,有很多量词词组,例如:a group of,a flock of, a bunch of,a bundle of等等。为了方便广大英语学习者更好地掌握,本文对量词词组粗略地归纳了以下的特点,具体表现为:
特点一:英语量词词组所表示的数或量,大致可归纳为四种类型,即定量、不定量、大量和少量。
1.表示定量的量词词组,譬如:
a couple of(两个、一对)—a couple of days,a couple of players,a couple of times
a cupful of(一满杯)—a cupful of jelly,a cupful of water
a portion of(一份/客)—a portion of duck,a portion of roast beef
2.表示不定量的量词词组,譬如:
a majority of(大多数/大半)—a majority of opinions,a majority of votes
an atom of(一点)—an atom of food,an atom of truth
a spell of(一阵/一段时间)—a spell of fine weather,a spell of coughing
3.表示大量的量词词组,譬如:
a flood of—a flood of ink(洋洋大篇),a flood of tears(泪如泉涌)
a heap of—a heap of earth(一堆泥土),a heap of customers(许多顾客)
a mountain of—a mountain of debts(债台高筑),a mountain of difficulties(困难重重)
4.表示少量的量词词组,譬如:
a drop of—a drop of fever(有点热度),a drop of dew(一点露水)
a particle of—a particle of feeling(一丝感情),a particle of dust(一点灰尘)
a shadow of—a shadow of doubt(一点怀疑),a shadow of freedom(一点自由)
特点二:有些数量词组修饰可数名词,有些数量词组修饰不可数名词,还有些则两者均可修饰。
1.修饰不可数名词的量词词组,譬如:
a bit of—a bit of English(一点英语),a bit of good advice(一些好意见),a bit of interest(一点兴趣)
a shred of—a shred of evidence(一点证据),a shred of cloth(少量布),a shred of reputation(一点声誉)
a sheet of—a sheet of glass(一块玻璃),a sheet of water(一片汪洋)
2.修饰可数名词的量词词组,譬如:
a cluster of—a cluster of flowers(一簇花),a cluster of spectators(一群观众),a cluster of bright stars(闪烁群星)
a string of—a string of pearls(一串珠子),a string of curses(连续不断的咒骂),a string of excuses(一连串借口)
a scram of—a scram of mosquitoes(一群蚊子),a scram of geese(一群鹅),a scram of children(一群孩子)
3.修饰(不)可数名词的量词词组,譬如:
a body of—a body of bees(一群蜜蜂),a body of cold air(一股冷空气),a body of facts(许多事实)
a block of—a block of ice(一大块冰),a block of flats(一幢公寓),a block of houses(一排房子)
a chain of—a chain of ideas(一系列想法),a chain of accidents(一连串事故),a chain of proof(一连串证据)
特点三:有些数量词组的搭配是固定的,而有些搭配则比较灵活。
1.搭配固定的量词词组,譬如:
a barrel of—a barrel of beer(一桶啤酒),a barrel of crude oil(一桶原油)
a basket of—a basket of eggs(一篮鸡蛋),a basket of apples(一篮苹果)
a line of—a line of trees(一行树),a line of poetry(一行诗)
2.搭配较灵活的量词词组,譬如:
a piece of—a piece of paper(一张纸),a piece of furniture(一件家具),a piece of equipment(一台设备)
a round of—a round of spirit(一巡酒),a round of diplomatic talks(一轮外交谈判),a round of toast(一片烤面包)
a bar of—a bar of chocolate(一块巧克力),a bar of soap(一条肥皂),a bar of light(一束光)




 
10.代词:人称 物主 宾格 反身 指示 不定 疑问!

11.动词:
时态:A:现在时 过去时 将来时 过去将来时
B:现在进行时:现在进行时表将来(现在进行时除表现在外,还可以表示将来。现在进行时表将来时常有“意图”“安排”或“打算”的含义。这种现在进行时比较生动,给人一种期待感)
1.它常表【最近或较近的将来,所用动词多是转移动词】。
(1) I’m going. 我要走了。
(2) When are you starting? 你什么时候动身?
2.表将来的现在进行时除用于转移动词外,【亦可用于某些非转移动词】。come go转移v?
 (1) I’m meeting you after class. 课后我找你。
(2) What are you doing next Sunday? 下星期你打算干什么?
(3) She is buying a new bike soon. 她不久将买一辆新自行车。
3.但偶尔也表示【较远的将来】。
(1) When I grow up, I’m joining the army. 我长大了要参军。
4.表将来的现在进行时有时含有【“决心”】的意思,多用【在否定结构中】。
(1) I’m not going. 我不走了。
   (2) I’m not waiting any longer. 我不再等了。
(3)【有时也用在肯定结构中】。
I’m backing out. 我要打退堂鼓了。
   5.用这种现在进行时与【对方讲话时可变成命令,不过语气比较温和】。
   (1) You are staying. 你留下吧。
   (2) Don’t forget: you are taking part too. 不要忘记:你也要参加。
   6.同现在一般时一样,现在进行时也可【在时间、条件或原因状语从句中表示将来】。
   (1) when you are passing my way, please drop in. 你什么时候路过我们家,请进来坐。(用于时间状语从句)
   (2) If they are not doing it, what I am I to do? 如果他们不干,那我该怎么办?(用于条件状语从句)
   (3) She is going to the dentist tomorrow because she is having a tooth filled.
   7.表示将来的现在进行时也可用在【间接引语中,表示说话人相信它将是事实】。
   (1) He said he is going tomorrow. 他说他明天走。
   8.表将来的现在进行时【有时从属于将来时态】。
   (1) On election night we’ll be telling you what’s happening in various places in this country.
(2) when I have time, I’ll come down to the school to see how you’re both doing.
过去进行时 将来进行时 过去将来进行时
C:现在完成时 过去完成时:(For since before when by after) 将来完成时
【by + 过去的时间点】
1.I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.
【by the end of + 过去的时间点】
1.We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.
【before + 过去的时间点】
1.They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.
将来完成时 过去将来完成时
D: 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 将来完成进行时 过去将来完成进行时

①系动词:
状态系动词:be(用来表示主语状态,只有be一词)
1.He is a teacher.

持续系动词:keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand (用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度)
1.He always kept silent at meeting. 2.This matter rests a mystery.

表像系动词:seem, appear, look (用来表示"看起来像"这一概念)
1.He looks tired.2.He seems (to be) very sad.

感官系动词:feel, smell, sound, taste (用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度)
1.This kind of cloth feels very soft. 2.This flower smells very sweet.

 变化系动词:become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run (这些系动词表示主语变成什么样)
1.He became mad after that.2.She grew rich within a short time.

终止系动词:prove, turn out(to be) (表示主语已终止动作,表达"证实","变成"之意)
1.The rumor proved false.2.The search proved difficult.3.His plan turned out(to be) a success.

②实义动词:及物及不及物-------`--`-``-`-`-`-`--``-`-略略略略``-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-```..````.`......``..`.`

③助动词have,be,shall,do!

 ④情态动词:be to,wil,shall,must,dare,'d better(not),can,need,may,used to,ought to + v原形 !
└┈┐
a.--代补充--b.表示计划,安排要做的事情c.表示义务,命令,应该做
1.Obama is to visit China next week. └┈┐
1.You are to finish the work before 6 o'clock
needn't+现在完成时:(表示做了不必要做的事)
shouldn't+现在完成时:(表示做了不该做的事)
must+现在时(表示对现在的猜测)must+现在完成时(表示对过去的猜测)must+现在进行时(表示对现在正在进行和未来的猜测)
oughtn't+现在完成时:(表示完成了不该完成的动作)
 
12.形容词:表语 宾补 状语
定语(前置 后置[被修饰词前有best only every all any]/表语形容词放在名词后面:The teachers present will donate their love.)
[可以有逻辑关系上的成分a.There are mountains rich in mineral resources
b.This kind of food full of nutrition]
合成形容词:
A.数词+名词(+形容词)[①a five-year-old boy ②a four-hour trip ③100-metre dash ④an 800-metre-long bridge ]

B.形容词+名词-ed[①a white-haired girl ②a warm-hearted woman ③a near-sighted boy ④two middle-aged men ⑤a lighthearted boy]

C.形容词+分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)[①clean-washed clothes ②an ordinary-looking man ③an easy-going man ④fresh-baked bread ⑤fine-sounding]
PLS:现在分词与所修饰的名词是逻辑上的主动关系,前面的形容词相当于表语: ②=a man who looks ordinary ③=a man who goes easy.
PLS:过去分词和所修饰的名词是被动关系,形容词相当于补语:①=clothes which are washed clean ④=bread which is baked fresh.

D.副词+分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)[①hard-working people ②bravely-fighting soldiers ③a well-known singer]
这类合成形容词中的副词相当于状语修饰分词,用现在分词表示其动作是所修饰的名词执行的;用过去分词表示其动作是所修饰的名词承受的.

E.名词+分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)[①a man-made satellite ②peace-loving people ③a snow-covered hill ④a man-eating animal]
PLS:现在分词表示与其后的名词的关系是主动的,其前的名词是分词的逻辑宾语,所修饰的名词是分词的逻辑主语:②=the people who love peace,④=an animal which eats man.
PLS:过去分词表示与所修饰的名词之间在逻辑上是被动关系:①=a satellite which is made by man.

F.名词+形容词[①war-weary soldiers ②a watertight watch ③a homesick woman]

G.形容词+名词[①a full-time job ②a second-hand material ③a high-level living standard ④a present-day life]

H.形容词+形容词[①a grey-green car ②a deaf-mute boy ③a socio-economic book]

I.名词+名词-ed[①baby-faced 年轻而纯真的, 生有娃娃脸的 ②one-armed 独臂的]

J.数词+名词-ed[①one-eyed 独眼的]

K.副词+副词[①all-out attempt attempt 全力以赴的努力]

L.动词+副词[①take-home pay (扣税等后的)实得工资]

M.名词+介词[①child-like 孩子般的]

N.介词+名词[①downhill]

O.一些三个或更多词构成的合成形容词
wait-and-see policy 观望政策 heart-to-heart talk 推心置腹的谈话
wall-to-wall carpet 满铺地毯 well-to-do families 富裕家庭
the day-to-day administration 日常行政工作 an out-of-date driving license 过期驾照
a life-and-death struggle 生死斗争 state-of-the-art technology 尖端科技
an out-of-the-way place 偏僻之地

形容词表倍数:
(1)当我们要表达甲是乙的几倍的时候,通常用下面三个句型来表示:
①A+谓语+倍数+形容吃或副词的比较级+than+B,表示A比B大(长,高,宽等)多少倍++++
1.This rope is twice longer than that one.(这根绳子是那根绳子的三倍长---比那根绳子长两倍)
2.The car runs twice faster than that truck.(这量小车的速度比那辆卡车的快两倍---是那辆卡车的三倍)
####:Tokyo has 400 million people more than New York.
②A+谓语+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as+B
1.Asia is four times as large as Europe.(亚洲的面积是欧洲的四倍)
2.The plane flew ten times as high as the kite.(那架飞机的飞行高度是那只风筝的十倍)
####:Americans eat more than twice as many vegetables per person today as they didi in the 1980s.
③A+谓语+倍数+the size/height/length/width+of+B
1.This street is four times the length of that one.(这条街是那条街的四倍长)
2.+++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(2)常规句型的变形:
①...times+more+名词(可数或不可数)+than+被对比对象
1.There are five times more books in our library than in yours.(我们图书馆里的书比你们图书馆多五倍)
2.We have produced twice more grain this year than we did last year.(我们今年生产的粮食比去年多两倍)
②...times as many/much+名词+as+被对比对象
1.This is four times as much water in this pot as in that one.(这只壶里装的水是那只壶里的四倍)
③...times+over+被对比对象
1.This grain output in that village is twice over that of 2002.(那个村的粮食产量是2002年的两倍)
④...times+that+of+被对比对象
1.In this workshop,the output of july was 4.5 times that of january.(这个车间七月份的产量是1月份的4.5倍)
⑤...times+compared with+被比对象
1.The number of the stundents in our school has increased 4 times comprared with 1980.(我们学校的学生人数比1980年增加了四倍)
⑥...times+what+从句
1.The production is now three times what it was ten years ago.(现在的产量比十年前增加了两倍)
(3)倍数、百分数(percent)+compared with/up on+被比对对象
1.Our favtory's output of TV sets in the first six months of this year was 10 percent up compared with last year.
(今年头六个月,我们厂电视机的产量与去年相比增加了10%)
(4)用double表示倍数:
1.double用做形容词,表示"两倍的"
a.The production is now double what it was ten years ago.(现在的产量是十年前的两倍)
2.double用作动词,表示"是......的两倍"
a.This brought a steady rise in the grain yield.In 2002 it nearly doubled that of 1920.
(这使粮食产量稳定增长,到2002年产量已经比1980年翻了一番)

13.介词:
【否定:Not+介词短语】----eg.People not in England want to come to England!
主 表 宾 定(可以有逻辑关系的成分)
a.The people in the house [every day] said they wanted to get rid of the sharkman one day.
b.The present said that the life in the contorl of Assman [in Shanghai was really not good].

状(原因 时间 让步[despite all this] 伴随 方式 结果 条件 关于 根据 除外 目的) 宾补!
┊ └┈┐
1.in virtue of 2.on account of. 3.in view of 1.respecting 2.with reference of 3.in virtue of 4.in respect to/of
4.in that-clause 5.in the light of 6.in accordance with 5.as/so far as sb/sth is concerned 6.on relation to 7.on the subject of
7.on condition that 8.in consequent of

14.连词:并列:and --``-`-`-`-略`-`-```-`
转折:but while -`-`-`略`-`-`-`-``-`
因果:since-`-``-`-`-`-`略-`-`-``-`-`--`
选择:or otherwise`-`-`-``略-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-`-

15.副词:(可修饰形容词,动词,副词,整个句子)宾语(介词后) 表语 定语(后置【可以有逻辑关系的成分】),宾补,状语!
a.the crash accident there [in Beijing] is crazy.
b.\

16.数词:`---`-`-`-````-`-`-`-略`-`-`-`````-`---------`-`-`-`-`-`




④各类语法

17.被动语态:Be+过去分词= (现在时 过去时 将来时 过去现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 将来完成时 过去将来完成进行时 将来完成进行时) ---所有时态的被动结构!

18.独立主格:名词(代词)+现在分词,过去分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词短语,名词
[独立主格结构的特点]:
1.独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在!
2.名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系!
3.独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开!
4.独立主格可以做状语( 原因 时间 方式 条件 伴随)
A.①名词或代词+分词(现在分词/过去分词)
a.主语与分词为主谓关系时用现在分词
1.He feeling down,he decided not to attend the ball.
2.Jackie chan sailing away,he then tured out.
3.The guest having left away,they began to have short rest.
b.主语与分词为动宾关系时用过去分词
1.He messed up by someone,he bagan to be mad at everyone.
2.All things considered,her paper is of greater value than yours.
②名词或代词+不定式
注:不定式在独立主格结构中多表示将来的行为,表示“企图”,“约定”等,指的是按计划安排要做的事.
1.The exam to be held tomorrow,I couldn't go to the cinema tonight.
2.China to held a ever-largest world expo in 2010,some politicians will catch the point to cause some riots.
3.You to say I love you,I will tell all these things to them.
③名词或代词+形容词
a.形容词在独立主格结构中表伴随状语或对细节起补充作用,形容词与名词或代词之间逻辑上有主表关系.
1.He entered the room,his nose red with cold.
b.此结构也可以写成his nose being red with cold.此结构近似于“主系表”型,being是非谓语(系)动词,往往省略,但being的逻辑主语是人称代词时,being不能省,
1.He entered the room,his nose beiing red with cold.
2.China rich in minerals,I bet the CEO of chinese copration will probably say not to us.
④名词或代词+副词
1.A rat there,where daren't to move.
2.The spacecraft up to the sky,we all americans are cheering up.
⑤名词或代词+介词短语
a.在这种独立主格结构中,有his,her,my,their,a,an,the等词分别修饰前后两个名词或名词本身为复数时,有时有with引导,这时一种习惯用法.
1.The master was walking up and down the classroom,(with) [the iron] ruler under [his arm].
2.The children came running towards us,(with) flowers in [their hands].
b.另一种习惯用法是,在这种结构中,名词或代词和介词后面的名词没有任何冠词或所有格修饰,也不用with引导
1.Last night I followed him there,and climbed in,sword in hand.
⑥名词或代词+名词
注:逻辑主语与后面所跟名词在逻辑上也有主谓关系,表伴随或进一步补充说明.
1.He fought the robber,a stick his only weapon.
B.加With的复合结构作独立主格:with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语/名词
注:独立主格的逗号可有可无,多数时候是没有的.
1.He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raised!
2.The murder was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back!
3.Don't sleep with light on.

19.there-be句型的非限定形式极其作用
there-be有两种非限定形式(1.there to be 2.there being),它们在句子中通常起名词或副词作用,可作主语,宾语,状语.
a.主语
1.For there to be so few people in the streets was unusual.
2.There being a bus stop so near my work unit is a great advantage.
b.宾语
1.Members like there to be plenty of choice.
2.They planned for there to be another meeting.
c.状语( 原因 时间 方式 条件 伴随)
1.There having been no rain,the ground was dry.
2.I was sucking nipples,there being a dog.

20.虚拟语气:①名词性从句:
主语从句:It's+adj+从句,谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
a.It's necessary that you should play this game well!
表语从句:在表示建议 要求 命令等名词的从句中,谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
a.The advice is that you should let me out!
宾语从句:
a.在表示建议 要求 命令等动词后的句子中,谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
A.I suggest you should go to call him right now!
b.在I wish+1.从句中谓语动词结构为:V-过(与现在事实不相符)
A.I wish I were you!
2.从句中谓语动词结构为:had+过去分词(与过去事实不相符)
B.I wish I had been here!
3.从句中谓语动词结构为:would /might+v-原(表示对于将来的主观愿望,有可能实现)
C.I wish he would be here soon!
同谓语从句:在与表示建议 要求 命令意义的名词连用,谓语动词的结构为should+v-原,表示必要 命令 要求
a.He made a policy that you should have more opportunity!
②条件状语从句:[可倒装---将were had should等提到句首]
└┈1.If I were you,I would get up early every morning.
改┈Were I you,I would get up early every morning.
2.If you had you arrived at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday, you could have caught the train.
改┈Had you arrived at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday, you could have caught the train.
$A.与现在事实不相符(从句:V-过.主句:would,might,should)
1.If I were you,the sutiation will alter!=were I you,the sutiation will alter!
B.与过去事实不相符(从句:had+过去分词.主句:would+have+过去分词)
2.If he had come,my life would has gone on without hating!=had I come here,my life would has gone on without hating!
      C.与将来事实不相符(从句:were to,should+v-原.主句:would,should)
3.If I succeed,you should take much money!
$不同时间:If I had spoke to him,I should know what to do now!
③方式状语从句:在由as if / as though引导的方式状语中,虚拟语气的谓语动词结构为were或had+过去分词
a.I made such a lot of money as if I were you!
b.I have been everywhere of this town as though I had been here for longer time than you!
c.(as if/as though 也可表示有可能实现的)It looks as if it is going to rain.
④目的状语从句:
a.在以lest,for fear that,in case等所引导的从句中,虚拟语气的形式为should+V-原
1.I ran as fast as possible lest I should be too late !
2.Be careful lest you should fall from the tree!
b.在以in order that,so that,that引导的目的状语从句中,虚拟语气的形式为may/might/could+V-原
1.I order that everyone may understand it,write in simple language!
2.He shouted at the top of his voice,in order that he might be heard!
   一般句式:
$If only+a.b.c.表示但原,要是...就好:
a.V-过-表示与现在事实相反
1.If only I were you!2.If only she could merry me!(用情态动词过去式来表示过去)
b.had+过去分词-表示与过去事实相反
         2.If only he had come here!
c.would+v-原-表示与将来事实相反
       3.If only the rain would stop!
$It's (high)time+(that)+从句的虚拟语气:
a.It's high time that our athletes shouw their best!

21.插入语:在叙事中途插入一个单词或短语以表明所持的态度或看法等解释性的词语!
1.that's a wonderful idea,to be sure !2.in other words,you can call him the scholar !
2.Over time my memory has developed so much that,like an elephant,I never forget anything I have been told !
3.Jack,I think,should have got me !

22.同位语:对前一个名词进行修饰!注意:两个单词以上的同位语用逗号隔开.
①名词+代词:We two,jack and me,will get there!
②形容词:All the people,young and old,will be unable to get out of right here!
③副词+名词:The students,mostly girls,were making love with guys!
④同位语提前:A mother of three chindren, she still works hard at computer!

23.It做强调用语:
①A.It's后的短语做先行词为从句的一部分(人可用who/that,先行词为句子一部分时通用that)
1.It was Lucy that I met in the street yesterday!
2.It was in the street that I met Lucy yesterday!
3.It was yesterday that I met Lucy in the street!
B.It's后为宾格代词时,谓语动词用单三;为主格代词时,谓语动词用复数形式
1.It's me who gives you this!
2.It's I who give you this!
②It is not until...that...结构:
1.It was not until 12pm that he finished his homework!
2.It was not until she finished the book that she watched TV!
③强调句的提问:
1.It was Tom that she visited last week!
Ask(问)2.Was it Tom that she visited last week?
Ask(问)3.Who was it that she visited last week?
Ask(问)4.When does Tom go to school every day?-->When is it that Tom goes to school every day?

24.英语倒装:主 谓 宾,若谓语提前到主语前,则为完全倒装[若主语为代词则不能为完全倒装]-----一般只用于一般现在时、一般过去时
┊ ┊
a.here he comes. b.here comes a boy.
主 谓 宾,若谓语的助动词或情态动词等提前,则为部分倒装
1.地点状语(副词、介词短语)位于句首时---常用的v有:be,go,lie,run,come
a.Here comes a boy.
b.there runs a dog.
c.in the door stood a guy.
d.Up comes down a tree.
2.时间状语(副词、介词短语)位于句首时
a.Now is the time to play football.
b.Until that night comes her father.
3.祝愿语a.May you be happy.
#.May you succeed.
疑问句a.where do you want to go?
b.how is that?
c.how are you doing?/how do you do?
感叹句基本1.2.
1.00.what a beautiful girl she is.
000.what a challenge this is.
0000.what a beautiful jack you have.
2.00.how beautiful you are.
###.how strange that you have forgotten so many years(it is)--句子型感叹句
非基本a.b.c.
a.there goes the bell!
b.off you go!
c.away he goes!
there be句型
a.there is a wathch on the table.
b.there is a wedding banquet.
*.there appeared to be a man in black in the distance.
4.一般句式的倒装
a.the more...the more...
①.The happier you are,the healthier you will be.
b.so,neither,nor等副词置于句首时(常在后面的分句),全句常需倒装
I. neither,nor
*常规句.
He's not kind,nor are you.
①当两个句子的主语相同,则用nor.
I don't like enjoying the singing,nor do I like computer.
②当否定的并列分句有两个以上时,也只能用nor.
You cannot dance,nor can I,nor can he .
II.so
①so+be(do have can...+"S")这一结构倒装说明前面所属的情况也适合于另一个人或物.
I like playing basketball,and so does he.
If you go to the concert his evening, so will Mary.
The boy failed to pass the exam.So did his sister.
②so+"S"+be(be have can...)表示对卡年所说的情况进一步肯定活确认,不需倒装,意为确实如此,正是那样.
It was careless of you to do that.
---So I was.
The students work hard.
---So they do.
③So it is with...=It is the same with...,意为...也一样,表示上下文叙述内容相同,主要用于前后是不同的谓语或既有肯定也有否定的情况.
He is a student and studies in No.1 Middle School.So it is with Mary.
He is quite lazy and never works hard at his lessons.So it is the same his elder sister.
c.only+状语位于句首表示強調時用倒裝,以only开头的倒装{如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装}
①.Only by showing your sincerity,can you win the confidence!
②.Only though struggles,can we win freedom and happiness!
③.Only then,did he understand it!
④.Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting!
#.Only with his father'car,was he able to drive her home.
#.Only recently,can you ge it.
d.当so/such...that...结构中的so/such位于句首,表示加强语气时,第一分句要倒装
①.So seriously was the little boy unjured that he was taken to a hospital at once!
②.So easy was the exercise that the student finished it in half an hour!
③.So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch!
④.So exact was he that I went the right way !
e.以often,always,once,many a time,now.and then,every day等表示频度的副词短语放在句首时要倒装
①.Often did we warn them not to do so!
②.Many a time have they been to the beautiful park!
f.当表示否定的副词及短语,如:never,soldem,rarely,hardly(几乎,简直没有),scarcely,
not until,at no time,not only,by no mean,in no time,in no way,no sooner(立即)等位于句首时要倒装 └┈┐
not only 放句首,从句不倒装,主句倒装
1.Not until last week,did they find the bike.(简单句)
2.Not until my son had entered the college,did he realize the importance.(复合句)
注意:部分倒装是指谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词到装至主语之前,如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do,does或did,并将其置于主 语之前.
①.Never have I seen such a strange person!
②.Scarcely/Hardly can Anyone do it!
③.In no way,can theory be separated from practice!
④.Never have I seen such a performance!
⑤.Nowhere will you find the answer to this question!
⑥.Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.
→At no time is smoking permitted in the meeting-room.
⑦.He found nothing there.
→Nothing did he find.
⑧.At no time can you get her laid.
g.在以as,no matter+疑问词,whatever,however引导的让状语从句中
①.Surrounded as we were by the enemy,we managed to march forward!
②.No matter how busy he is,he is ready to help others!
③.No matter what he gotta be,he is my brother!
h.以as, though引导的倒装[1.句首名词不能带任何冠词
2.句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前
3.让步状语从句中,有 though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是though 和yet可连用
4.as/though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)]
①.Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
②.Slowly as the tortoise walked,he beat the hare.
③.Hard as she worked, she seemed not to do the job well.
④.Swim as/though he can,he can't swim so far.
⑤.Run as/though he did,he didn't run fast enough to catch the bus.
i.直接引语的引述分句如果出现在引语之前或者夹在引语当中,既可用正常的词序,也可以用倒装词序
1."Go away!"Mrs.Brown said angrily/said Mrs Brown angrily.
2."What have I done",the boy asked/asked the boy,"that you should get so angry with me?"
j.如果主语是代词则很少倒装
1."Where are you going?"asked a man with a car across his face.
2."If you viloate the law,"he said,"you can't get away with it."

25.省略句式:
A.并列从句的省略:
1.在并列句中,后面分句中与前面分句中相同部分常可省略
a.We tried to pesuade her but (we tried )in vain!
b.I live on the fifth floor and he (lives) on the third floor!
c.He works (in the city),and his son studies in the city!
d.I can (at your service),and will always be ,at your service!
2.以so,nor,neither,no more开头的分句,句子常出现省略和倒装
a.Tom speaks French and so does his brother!
b.If you do not go,neither sall I!
c.You don't understand the question,no more shall I!
B.名词从句中的省略:
3.宾语从句前中的介词有时可以省略
a.You can have no idea(of) what he said!
b.It all depends (on) how you settle the problem!
C.状语从句中的省略:
4.在when,whenever,while,until,as soon as引导的时间状语从句中,可以省略与主句中相同的┊主语┊和系动词或助动词(时间状语从句)
a.When (he was) a child,he ran wild!
b.They were scolded whenever (they were) late for school!
c.Whild (he was) in prison,he wrote his first novel!
d.As soon as (I am) on board,I always feel sick!
5.在where,wherever引导的地点状语从句中可以省略┊主语┊和┊系动词┊或┊助动词┊ (地点状语从句)
a.Though long power lives,electricity goes where (it is) needed!
b.Where necessary, improvements will be made!
6.在If,unless,once等引导的条件状语从句中,可以省略条件句中的┊主语┊和┊系动词┊(条件状语从句)
a.If (it is) not well organized the meeting will be a failure!
b.Substances have no tendency to expand unless (they are) heated!
#.(You) please keep silent unless (you are) spoken to (by someone).
7.though,as though,as if等引导的状语从句中,可以省略┊主语┊和┊系动词┊---------whatever,however引导的让步状语从句中可以省略┊系动词┊ (让步状语从句)
a.Though (he is) tall,he is very weak in health! a.He was detenmined to carry out the plan,whatever the cost (was)!
b.He went quickly out of the room as if (he was) in a hurry! b.b.However difficult the test (may be),we must finish it on time!
8.the+比较级,the+比较级,可以省略┊系动词┊
a.The greater the force (is),the greater the splash (is)!
9.表示时间、条件、让步、方式等状语从句中,如果从句的主语跟主句的主语一致或从句的主语是it,而谓语动词是系动词be时,就可将从句的主语及系动词be省略。
a.Solid can be turned into liquid and liquid into gas if heated enough. =solid can be turned into liquid and liquid can be turned into gas if it is heated enough.
如果加到足够的热,固体会变成液体,而液体又会变成气体。
b.Have a little more if delicious. =You have a little more if it is delicious 如果好吃就多吃一点。
c.Make changes where necessary. =You make changes where it is necessary. 在必要的地方作些修改。
d.I won’t attend his party, though invited a few days ago. = I won’t attend his party, though I was invited a few days ago. 尽管几天前请了我,但我还是不会参加他的聚会。
10.表示时间、条件、让步、方式等状语从句中,如果从句的主语跟主句的主语一致,就可将从句的主语省略,同时,将从句中的谓语动词变为分词形式。
a.He was very excited when told that he had passed the exam. =He was very excited when he was told that he had passed the exam. 当告诉他考试通过了时,他非常兴奋。
b.If running a little faster, he will take the first place. =If he runs a little faster, he will take the first place. 如果再跑快一点,他就会获得第一名。
c.They began to talk warmly as if being good friends. =They began to talk warmly as if they were good friends. 他们就好像是好朋友一样开始热烈地谈论起来。
11.比较状语从句中,常将从句中与主句中的相同成分省略。
a.The weather in the south is much better than in the north. = The weather in the south is much better than the weather in the north is good. 南方的天气比北方的天气好多了。
b.The Beijing you see today is much more beautiful than it was twenty years ago. = The Beijing you see today is much more beautiful than it was beautiful twenty years ago. 你 今天所看到的北京比二十年前的北京漂亮多了。
注意:当比较的主句和从句都为及物动词带宾语时,从句省略后,留下的代词用主格或宾格时,意思不同。如:
He likes the dog better than she. 他比她更喜欢那条狗。
He likes the dog better than her. 他喜欢那条狗甚于喜欢她。
因此,从句的主语若为名词,省略谓语部分后须加助动词do 的适当形式,否则就会产生歧义。如:
He likes his dog better than his wife does. 他比他的妻子更喜欢那条狗。
He likes his dog better than his wife. 他喜欢那条狗甚于喜欢他的妻子。
12.含if的八种省略结构.
类型一:if + 形容词
这类结构通常可视为在if与形容词之间省略了“主语+动词be的适当形式”。如:
Send the goods now if ready.= Send the goods now if they are ready. 货物如已备好,请即送来。
If true, this will cause us a lot of trouble.= If it is true, this will cause us a lot of trouble. 这事若是事实,它将给我们造成许多麻烦。
注:这类省略结构中有的已构成相对固定的搭配,if necessary (如果需要),if possible (如果可能)等。如:
If necessary, ring me at home. 如果必要,可往我家里打电话。
If possible, let me know beforehand. 如果可能,可在事前通知我。
类型二:if + 过去分词
其中的过去分词可视为是被省略的被动结构,即在if与形容词之间省略了主语和助动词be。如:
He will come if asked.= He will come if he is asked. 他如被邀就会来。
The medicine is quite effective if taken in time.=The medicine is quite effective if it is taken in time. 这药要是能按时服用,效果是很好的
类型三:if + 不定代词
这类省略通常要根据具体的上下文来理解。如:
If anyone, he knows. 如果有人知道,那就是他了。
There are few people nowadays, if any, who remember him. 当今记得他的人,如有的话,也不多了。
He seems to have little, if anything, to do with this. 若要说他和这事有什么相关的话,那也似乎是很少的。
类型四:if + 介词短语
这类结构往往要根据具体的语境来理解,但有些经常搭配的惯用结构也值得注意,如if in doubt, if at all, if by any chance等。如:
If in doubt, ask your doctor. He can give you further information. 你若有疑问,可以问问医生. 他会向你作进一步的说明。
Their policies have changed little, if at all, since the last election. 自上次选举以来,他们的政策就算是有所变化,也变得很少。
If by any chance you can’t manage dinner tonight, perhaps we can at least have a drink together. 就算你今晚不吃晚饭,也许我们至少可以一起喝一杯。
类型五:if + ever
if ever 可视为习语,它通常与seldom连用,表示“极少”“难得”。如:
She seldom, if ever, goes to the cinema. 她难得看电影。
He seldom if ever travels abroad. 他到国外旅行,即使有过,也是极少的。
注:有时ever后面还修饰有其他词语。如:
The island is seldom if ever visited by ships. 这个岛难得有船停靠。
另外,它有时还可引出一个句子。如:
If ever you’re in Cambridge, do give me a ring. 万一你来剑桥,一定要给我打电话。
类型六:if + not
if not 可视为一个否定的条件状语从句省略。如:
I might see you tomorrow. If not, then it’ll be Saturday. 我可能明天去看你。如果不是明天,那就在周六。
Ask her if it is a convenient time. If not, can she suggest another possible time? 问问她那个时间方便不方便。要是不方便,那她可不可以提出一个可行的时间??
注:有时not还可修饰另一个词语。如:(www.yygrammar.com)
If not today, tomorrow I’m sure you’ll get an answer. 如果今天得不到回信,明天准能得到。
This is one of the oldest buildings in town, if not the oldest. 这是城里最古老的房屋之一,如果不是最古老的话。
Usually, if not always, we write “cannot” as one word. 我们即使不总是如此,也通常是把cannot作为一个词来拼写的。
类型七:if + so
if so的意思是“如果是那样的话”。如:
I may be free this evening. If so, I’ll come round and see you. 今晚我可能有空。要是有空我会过来看你。
They must decide if such a plan can be implemented and if so, when. 他必须决定这样的计划是否能实施,而且要是能实施的话,又得决定何时实施。
注意以下if so与if not连用的情形:
He may be busy. If so, I’ll call later. If not, can I see him now? 他可能忙,如是这样,我以后再来拜访。他如不忙,我现在可以见他吗?
Will you be staying another night? If so, we can give you a better room. If not, could you be out of your room by 12:00? 您要再往一晚吗? 如果是这样,我们可以给您提供条件更好 一点的房间。如果不是,您能在12点前离开这房间吗?
类型八:if need be 如果需要if need be为习语,其含义相当于if it is necessary (如果有必要的话)。如:
I will come if need be. 如有必要我会来。
I’ll work at night if need be. 如果有必要我可以晚上工作。
If need be we can always bring another car. 如果有必要的话我们还可以再开一辆车来。
13.英语谓语的省略
■在有些特殊语境中,有时可以省去句子的谓语。如:
Only one of us was injured, and he just slightly. 我们当中只有一人受了伤,而且只是轻伤。
分析:he后省去谓语was injured。
We went through the tests on a Monday. Jenny had hers during the day, and I mine after work. 有一个星期一,我们进行了检查。詹尼在白天,我是在下班之后。
分析:I之后省去谓语had。
■有时可省去谓语中的主要动词。如:
I’ll be round as quick as I can. 我将尽快赶来。
分析:can之后省去主要动词be。
I pitied her sincerely, as I would a child of my own. 我真心地爱怜她,就像爱怜我自己的孩子一样。
分析:would之后省去主要动词pity。


10.[纵观省略]
http://www.yygrammar.com/Article/elli/Index.html


涉及省略的几类典型陷阱
http://www.yygrammar.com/Article/200811/677_2.html

助动词的省略

在口语中有时可以省略句中的助动词。如:

You better try again. 你最好再试试。

分析:you之后省去助动词had。

You doing this on purpose? 你是故意在做此事?

分析:you之后省去助动词are。

They been coming here a long time. 他们很久都想到这里来。

分析:they 后省去助动词have。

26.英语后缀:
1.ee是由n./v./adj.构成的n.,在vt后表被动,在vi后表主动,以-e结尾的直接加e![vt-sty<appointee trainee trainee addressee toastee>]
[vi-sty<returnee embarkee meetee escapee divorcee>][-e-sty<retire-retiree advise- advisee invite-invitee>]

2.ize是由名词和形容词构成的动词,表示使…化,使成为…,变成……状态,去e/y加ise(ize)!
[normalize, (sympathy→sympathize),modernize,(organ→organize组织起来),(dramatic→dramatize强调以ize结尾)]

3.ation是以ne/ze/re/te结尾的v.去e构成的名词![donate→donation relate→relation politicize-politicization legislate→legislation rote→rotation]

4.ible是由v.以mit结尾改为miss,再加ible/以nd结尾变为ns再加-ible[respond→responsible defend→defensible]

5.list是由l结尾的adj.加ist,表示....主义![unreal→unrealist social→socialist capital→capitalist actual→actualist]

6.tive是由n.化后带tion的英文单词构成的[competition→competitive invention→inventive action→active]

7.(i)/(a)bility是由adj.构成的n.,表示.....性质,去able/ible加(i)/(a)bility![able→ability,flexible→flexibility]

8.sive是由n.化后带sion的英文单词构成的!!![expression→expressive,division→divisive,decision→decisive]

9.al是由n.或v.构成的adj.,去e加,以c/n结尾的直接加![cultural personal regional musical natural practical]

10.ment是由v.构成的n.,表示是与v.一样的意思!!!![arguement government development improvement]

11.ness是由adj.构成的n,去y为i加ness![darkness happiness oldness newness hungriness]

12.able是由vt.构成的,去e/y为i,直接加able[deniable (deceive→deceivable)

13.sion是由d(e)结尾的v.去d(e)后加sion构成的n.![ division expansion]

14.less是由v.和n.构成的adj.,表示缺....的![hopeless careless]

15.ens是由adj或n构成的v.表示使......![wood→wooden sharp→sharpen fast→fasten less→lessen]

16.ify是由以y.e结尾的n.或adj去y,e后加ify构成的V.表示使.....化![beauty→beautify simple→simplify]

17.ward(s)是由方位词后直接加ward(s)构成的adj或adv![southwards backwards upwards downwards]

18.ed是由n.后直接加ed构成的形容词,表示有.....的![toothed mouthed footed]

19.spoken是由adj.后直接加spoken构成的形容词,表示以....为说话特点的![plain-spoken直言不讳的 soft-spoken说话温柔的]

20.friendly是由n.后直接加friendly构成是形容词,表示....友好的,亲什么的![user-user-friendly,environment-friendly]

27.英语前缀:
1.Mini-noun[minibus minimall minihotel minicar]
2.Re-vweb[redo recall recycle review]
3.Im-b.m.p[imbalance impatience]
4.Intra-noun[inracity intracountry intraproduct]
5.Super-noun[supercity supermom supercountry superpower]
6.Un-adjective[unpleasent ungrateful unbleievable]
7.Vice-noun[vice-president vice-minister vice-secretary]
8.Multi-noun/verb[multiplayer multikill multimedia multifuck multi-colored multi-racial]
9.Post-noun[postwar post-exercise post-run post-exam]
10.Micro-noun[microcity microsoft microstar]
11.Trans-noun/adj[transsexual transposition trans-state]
12.Fore-noun[foreleg forehead foreground]
13.Anti-noun[anti-government anti-chinese anti-globalization]
14.Dis-verb[Disaffect Disapper Disagree]
15Mis-verb[Mislead误导 Misunderstand误解 Misfuck误操]
16.En-adjecctive[Enable使能够 Enrich Endanger Enanger使不开心]
17.Non-adjective/noin[Non-stop不停的 Non-smoker不吸烟者]
18.Ex-noun[Expresident Ex-minister]
备用:①―②―③―④―⑤―⑥―⑦―⑧―⑨―⑩


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