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(山东专版)高考英语一轮复习巩固提升 unit4astronomy(附详细解析)新人教版必修3

必修 3 Unit 基础操练

4

Astronomy: the science of the stars

Ⅰ. 单词拼写 1. The government took immediate measures and the disease was p spreading. 2. Our solar s has 8 planets. 3. My new teacher is a very g person. 4. This area has a hot c . 5. As everybody knows, smoking is h to people’s health. 6. He was involved in the (暴力的) fight last night and was arrested by the police. 7. Some advertisements have no (吸引力) at all. 8. This kind of plant only (存在) in Africa. 9. The boss never shouts at his staff in the (在场) of others. 10. There is an (气氛) of peace and calm in the country, quite different from that of a big city. Ⅱ. 用方框内所给单词或短语的适当形式填空 lessen/dissolve/depend on/prevent ...(from ...)/lay 1. Nothing on earth can me loving her. 2. Salt easily in water. 3. The old man his two sons for food and clothing. 4. The cuckoo(杜鹃) its eggs in other birds’nest. 5. The pain already after taking the medicine. Ⅲ. 翻译句子 1. 既然你已经知道这件事了,我不想再谈了。

2. 参观者必须下午四点离开公园。 3. 吸烟有害健康。 4. 他被迫放弃了自己的梦想。 5. 我们要相信形势会好转的。(depend on)

提升练习
Ⅳ.单项填空 从 A、B、C 和 D 四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. It was reported that a plane crash happened last night and most of the passengers were badly and some 10 died.

A. damaged B. injured C. destroyed D. harmed 2. The boiler from excessive pressure of steam . A. exploded B. burst C. explode D. erupt 3. He exists bread and water. A. on B. in C. by D. with 4. The villagers were often in clashes with each other in those years before the agreement was reached. A. interesting B. peaceful C. violent D. spiritual 5. Freezing winter is harmful orange trees. A. for B. to C. of D. at 6. She started as an office junior, and became the director of the whole company. A. in surprise B. in return C. in turn D. in time 7. We suggest that they provide an effective warning system to many of the disasters . A. keep; happening B. prevent; from happening C. stop; from being happened D. prevent; from being happened 8. Everything went well according the plan. A. to B. with C. for D. as 9. She felt about her future. A. puzzle B. puzzling C. puzzled D. puzzles 10. The boy lying under the tree lied to his friends that his cock eggs. A. lied B. laid C. lay D. lain Ⅴ. 完形填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出最佳选项。 It was Mother’s Day, the day we celebrate everything mothers are and everything we do. But I’ll 1 that Sunday in 2000 was bittersweet for me. As a single mother I 2 to think of my shortcomings — how many evenings I couldn’t spend with my children, and how many things I couldn’t 3 my waitress salary to buy. But what 4 kids I had! My daughter Maria was a senior in college, and Denny was home visiting from his freshman year at Harvard University. They were 5 impolite enough to complain, but there was so much more I 6 I had done for them. I just hoped they 7 . As I walked into the 8 quietly to start breakfast, I was greeted by a vase 9 a dozen red roses! When had Denny possibly slipped down to leave them? But even their delicate beauty was overshadowed by the note sitting beside them, in the quick, manly 10 of an eighteen-year-old. It was about a story that happened between Denny and me long ago. It 11 : She took a day off from her busy 12 to take the boy to see his hero in the

flesh at the stadium. It took 3.5 hours just to get there, and they had to be there early 13 he could see his hero take batting practice. 14 their arrival, she took her hard-earned money to buy an overpriced T-shirt on which was 15 his hero making a diving catch. After the game, of course he had to 16 his hero’s signature, so she stayed with the little boy 17 one in the morning ... It took me long enough to 18 it, but I finally know who the 19 hero is. Mom, I love you! And suddenly, it was a 20 Mother’s Day, after all. 1. A. admit B. adopt C. deny D. refuse 2. A. intended B. liked C. tended D. hesitated 3. A. stress B. share C. strengthen D. spend 4. A. poor B. great C. faithless D. pretty 5. A. merely B. usually C. never D. often 6. A. wished B. hoped C. expected D. desired 7. A. supported B. understood C. approved D. disgusted 8. A. living-room B. kitchen C. bed loom D. study 9. A. including B. containing C. possessing D. pinning 10. A. handwriting B. description C. tone D. scratch 11. A. wrote B. recorded C. memorized D. read 12. A. event B. content C. schedule D. circumstance 13. A. or B. for C. but D. so 14. A. At B. In C. On D. By 15. A. impressed B. printed C. presented D. pressed 16. A. buy B. abandon C. get D. swap 17. A. before B. until C. after D. when 18. A. see B. hear C. realize D. tell 19. A. actual B. true C. imaginary D. visual 20. A. sad B. bitter C. happy D. exciting Ⅵ.阅读理解 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出最佳选项。 Every culture has a recognized point when a child becomes an adult, when rules must be followed and tests passed. In China, although teenagers can get their ID cards at 16, many only see themselves as an adult when they are 18. In the US, where everyone drives, the main step to the freedom of adult life is learning to drive. At 16, American teens take their

driving test. When they have their license, they drive into the grown-up world. “Nobody wants to ride the cheese bus to school,” said Eleanor Fulham, 17. She brought the pressure back to memory, especially for kids from wealthier families. “It’s like you’re not cool if you don’t have a car,” she said. According to recent research, 41% of 16 to 19-year-olds in the US own cars, up from 23% in 1985. Although, most of these cars are bought by parents, some teens get part-time jobs to help pay. Not all families can afford cars for their children. In cities with subways and limited parking, some teenagers don’t want them. But in rich suburban areas without subways, and where bicycles are more for fun than transportation, it is strange for a teenager not to have a car. But police say 16-year-olds have almost three times more accidents than 18 to 19-year-olds. This has made many parents pause before letting their kids drive. Julie Sussman, of Virginia, decided that her son Chad, 15, will wait until he is 17 to apply for his learner’s permit. Chad said he has accepted his parents’ decision, although it has caused some teasing from his friends. “They say that I am unlucky,” he said, “But I’d rather be alive than driving, and I don’t really trust my friends on the road, either.” In China as more families get cars, more 18-year-olds learn to drive. Will this become a big step to becoming an adult? 1. Which may serve as the BEST title of the article? A. Cars Helping You to Grow-Up B. Driving into the Grown-Up World C. Teenagers’ Driving in America D. Recognized Point of Becoming an Adult 2. 16-year-old drivers have more accidents possibly because . A. they want to show themselves off B. they are never experienced drivers C. older people always drive better D. they never drive carefully on the road 3. Which may NOT be taken into consideration when deciding whether to buy a car? A. How well off the family is. B. Whether the kid is old enough. C. What traffic condition there is around. D. Whether it’s practically needed. 4. When Chad said “I don’t really trust my friends ...”, he meant that . A. he might run into his friends if he drove B. he didn’t agree with his friends C. he might not be safe if his friends drove D. he was afraid that his friends might well lie to him 5. The passage mainly gives information about . A. an American culture B. a cultural difference between America and China C. a change in the Chinese culture

D. the relationship between driving and a person’s development

答案
基础操练
Ⅰ. 单词拼写 1. prevented 2. system 3. gentle 4. climate 5. harmful 6. violent 7. pull 8. exists 9. presence 10. atmosphere Ⅱ. 用方框内所给单词或短语的适当形式填空 1. prevent; from 2. dissolves 3. depends/depended on 4. lays/laid 5. was; lessening Ⅲ. 翻译句子 1. Now that you have already known the matter, I don’t want to talk about it any more. 2. Visitors are to leave the park at 4 p.m. 3. Smoking is harmful to health. 4. He was forced to give up his dream. 5. We should depend on it that the situation will be better.

提升练习
Ⅳ.单项填空 1. 解析:选 B。考查同义词的辨析。injure 强调在意外事故中 “受伤”, 而 damage 主要 指对物的损害;destroy 指毁坏。 2. 解析: 选 A。 考查同义词的辨析。 explode 强调(火药、 炸药或蒸气压力过高的锅炉)爆炸, 炸裂,突然破裂。由句意“蒸气压力过高的锅炉突然破裂了”可知,用一般过去时最合适, 因此答案选 A。 3. 解析:选 A。考查短语搭配。exist on 靠……活下去(靠……生存);exist in 在……中 存在(或生存); exist by 在(某种思想、品质等)中找到生活的力量;exist with 与……共 存。由句意“他靠面包和水度日”可知,答案选 A。 4. 解析:选 C。句意为:村民们在协议达成之前彼此之间经常发生暴力冲突。由常识可知, 冲突不应是“有趣的” ,也不会是“平安的或和平的” 。 “精神冲突”亦不合适,只有“暴力 的冲突”才符合句意,故选 C。 5. 解析:选 B。考查固定短语。句意为:寒冬对橘子树有害。be harmful to ... 对…… 有害。 6. 解析:选 D。考查短语辨析。in surprise 吃惊地;in return 作为回报;in turn 轮流, 依次;in time 终于,一段时间后。由句意“她起初只是一名办公室职员,最终成了整个公 司的董事”可知,应选 D。

7. 解析:选 B。考查动词短语的用法。prevent ...from doing 意为“阻止……做某事” , 同义短语还有 stop/keep ...from doing,其中 prevent/stop ...from doing 中的 from 可 省略,而 keep ...from doing 中的 from 不能省略,排除 A 项;happen 为不及物动词,不 用被动语态,故选 B。 8. 解析:选 A。句意为:一切按计划进展得很顺利。according to 根据,按照,是固定短语。 9. 解析:选 C。句意为:她对她的将来感到迷惘。puzzled(人)迷惑的、迷惘的; puzzling (物)令人迷惑的。 10. 解析: 选 B。考查 lie (lied,lied)说谎;lie (lay,lain)躺, 平卧; 和 lay (laid,laid) 放置;下蛋这几个词的区别。句意为:躺在树下的那个男孩向他的朋友撒谎说他的公鸡下蛋 了。故选 B。 Ⅴ. 完形填空 1. 解析:选 A。句意为:但我承认 2000 年那个星期天对我而言苦乐参半。 2. 解析:选 C。作为单身母亲, “我”总是不由自主想到自己的缺点。tend to do 意为“倾 向于” 。 3. 解析:选 B。服务员收入微薄,孩子们想要的很多东西“我”都不能匀出钱去买。share 匀出。 4. 解析:选 B。从下文内容可知,孩子们给母亲过了一个美好的母亲节,他们是伟大的孩 子。 5. 解析:选 C。该句句意为“他们从不无理地抱怨。 ” 6. 解析:选 A。但作为母亲,有多少事情我想为他们做却做不到啊。wish 后面的宾语从句 用虚拟语气,表示难以实现的愿望。 7. 解析:选 B。句意为: “我”只是希望孩子们能够理解(我的无奈) 。 8. 解析:选 B。从后面的 to start breakfast 可知,我悄悄走进厨房。 9. 解析:选 B。花瓶里装着一打红玫瑰,表示容器中装有什么东西,只能用 contain。 10. 解析: 选 A。 从下文内容可知, 18 岁的儿子给母亲写了一封短信, 所以此处指的是字迹。 11. 解析:选 D。该句句意为“短信的内容是” ,read 在此处意为“内容如下” 。 12. 解析:选 C。母亲的时间表安排得很满,但还是请了一天假带儿子去见儿子心目中的英 雄。 13. 解析:选 D。根据句意可知上下文之间是因果关系,所以用并列连词 so。 14. 解析:选 C。on 与名词或动名词连用,表示“一……就……” 。 15. 解析:选 B。T 恤衫上印着儿子崇拜的英雄的形象。 16. 解析:选 C。由文意可知,比赛后,儿子当然要索取英雄的签名。 17. 解析:选 B。母亲一直陪伴着儿子直到凌晨一点钟。until 引导时间状语。 18. 解析:选 C。句意为:我过了很长时间才意识到,谁是真正的英雄。realize 意识到。 19. 解析:选 B。true 真正的;actual 实际的;imaginary 想象的;visual 视觉的。 20. 解析:选 C。懂事的儿女让母亲感到欣慰,自然这是一个快乐的母亲节。 Ⅵ.阅读理解 1. 解析:选 B。标题归纳题。从第一段和第二段可知,文章的主要内容是通过让孩子学会 开车,通过测试拿到驾照让他们明白自己是成年人了。 2. 解析:选 B。推理判断题。从第六、七及第八段可推断选 B 项。 3. 解析:选 C。细节理解题。在第五段中讲到了买车的理由,如交通是否便利,家庭开支 等方面的原因,但没有提到交通运转的理由,故选 C。 4. 解析:选 C。由前面的句子“But I d rather be alive than driving ”(让我在开 车和活着之间作选择,我要活着)可以看出,他对他的朋友们的驾驶技术很没有信心。

5. 解析:选 A。主旨大意题。通读全文可知,文章主要讲到了在美国让孩子通过拿驾照意 识到自己已经可以为自己负责任了。这体现了一种文化意识。故选 A。


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