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高中英语名词性从句及练习题


高考英语——名词性从句
高中英语名词性从句是高考考查的重点,包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句及同位语 从句。下面来进行一一讲解。 名词性从句(1)主语从句 1. 定义:用作主语的从句叫做主语从句。 2. 构成:关联词+简单句 3.引导主语从句的关联词有三类: (1) 从属连词 that。 如:That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them. 很明 显,她们确是亲姐妹,她们的脸型很相似。 (2) 从属连词 whether。 如: Whether he’ll come here isn’t clear. 他是否会来这里还不清楚。 (3) 连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 连接副词 where, when, how, why。 如: What she did is not yet known. 她干了什么尚不清楚。 How this happened is not clear to anyone. 这事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。 Whoever comes is welcome. 不论谁来都欢迎。 Wherever you are is my home ---- my only home. 你所在的任何地方就是我的家----我唯一 的家。 解释: 1. 主语从句能用 it 作形式上的主语。常以 it 作形式主语的句型有: A. It+be+形容词(obvious, true, natural, surprising, good, wonderful, funny, possible, likely, certain, probable, etc.)+that 从句。如: It is certain that she will do well in her exam. 毫无疑问她 考试成绩会很好。 It is probable that he told her everything. 很可能他把一切都告诉她了。 B. It+be+名词词组(no wonder, an honour, a good thing, a pity, no surprise, etc.)+that 从句。 如: It’s a pity that we can’t go. 很遗憾我们不能去。 It’s no surprise that our team should have won the game. 我们没赢这场比赛真意外。 C. It+be+过去分词(said, reported, thought, expected, decided, announced, arranged, etc.)+that 从句。如: It is said that Mr. Green has arrived in Beijing. 据说格林先生已经到了北京。 It is

reported that China has sent another man-made earth satellite into orbit. 据报道中国又成功地发射 了一颗人造地球卫星。 D. It+seem, happen 等不及物动词及短语+that 从句。如: It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all. Alice 似乎不来参加晚会。 It happened that I was out that day. 碰巧我那天外出 了。 E. It+doesn’t matter (makes no difference, etc.)+连接代词或连接副词引起的主语从句。如: It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not. 她是否来这无关紧要。 It makes no difference where we shall have the meeting. 我们在哪里开会毫无区别。

F. 当 that 引导的主语从句出现在疑问句中时,要以 it 作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。 如: Is it true that the scientist will give us a lecture next week? 下周那位科学家将给我们作报告 是真的吗? Does it matter much that they will not come tomorrow? 他们明天不来很要紧吗?

G. 当主语从句出现在感叹句中时,要以 it 作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。如: How strange it is that the children are so quiet! 孩子们这么安静真奇怪 ! 2. 注意连接代词 whoever, whatever, whichever 等引导主语从句的含义 Whoever comes will be welcome. (whoever=the person who) 来的人将受到欢迎。 Whatever he did was right. (whatever=the thing that) 他所做的 事情是正确的。 Whichever of you comes in will receive a prize. (whichever=anyone of you who) 你们当中不论哪个进来将会得到奖 名词性从句(2)宾语从句 宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容词的宾 语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。 1. 由 that 引导的宾语从句。That 只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语和非正式文体中可 以省略。例如: He said (that) he wanted to stay at home.他说他想呆在家里。 She doesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill.她不知道她病得很严重。 I am sure (that) he will succeed.我确信他会成功。 2. 由连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which 和连接副词 when, where, why, how 引导的宾语 从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。例如: Do you know who (whom) they are waiting for? 你知道他们在等谁吗? He asked whose handwriting was the best.他问谁的书法最好。

Can you tell me where the No.3 bus stop is? 你能告诉我 3 路公共汽车站在哪儿吗? I don’t know why the train is late.我不知道火车为什么晚了。 I can't imagine why he did that thing.我不能想像他为什么做了那件事。 Do you know why we have put off the sports meet till next month? 你知道我们为什么把运动会推 迟到下个月吗? 以上两个例句的宾语从句相当于一个特殊疑问句,分别为:why did he do that thing?和 Why have you put off the sports meet till next month?由于宾语从句要求陈述句语序,故而在从句中它 变成了陈述语序。请看下列两组句子: How much does this coat cost? 这件衣服值多少钱? I want to know how much this coat costs.我想知道这件衣服值多少钱。 Where did you go yesterday? 你昨天去哪儿了? Please tell me where you went yesterday.请告诉我你昨天去哪儿了。 当疑问代词 what,who 在特殊疑问句中做主语时,该特殊疑问句本身就是陈述句语序,所以 当该句用来做宾语时,语序不需要调整。 What's wrong with you? 怎么了? He asked the girl what was wrong with her.他问这个女孩怎么回事了。 What's the matter? 怎么了? He asked the girl what was the matter.他问这个女孩怎么了。 What has happened to him? 他发生什么事了? We want to know what has happened to him.我们想知道他发生了什么事。 同类句式还有:Who broke the window? 谁打破的窗户? Who is in the classroom? 谁在教室里? What made him so angry.什么使得他如此生气。 3. 由 if 或 whether 引导的宾语从句。表示“是否”,二者通常可以互换。例如: Lily asked if/whether she liked it.莉莉问她是否喜欢它。 I want to know if (whether) he lives there.我想知道他是否住在这儿。 He asked me whether (if) I could help him.他问我是否可以帮助他。 但语义有点区别: 1)whether强调犹豫和选择,多见于书面语中;if 只限于条件,常用于口语。例如:

Write and tell me whether I'm to come. 请写信告诉我,我是否该来。 Write and tell me if I'm to come. 如果我该来,请写信告诉我 (相当于说:若我不必来,那就不用费心写信给我了。) 2)whether可引导各种名词性从名和让步状语从句,if 只能引导宾语从句和条件状语从句。由 if引导的从句,首先要弄清楚是宾语从句,还是条件状语从句,然后再确定时态。若是 引导条件状语从句,谓语动词应用一般现在(过去)时代替一般将来(过去将来)时。 例如: If you don't go soon, you’ll be late.如果你不马上去就会迟到。 当if引导一个非真实条件句时,从句的谓语动词应用过去式(如果是be, 则不论主语的人称和 数,一律用were),主句谓语动词用“would+动词原形”。例如: If everyone in the country knew first aid, many lives would be saved. 如果每个国民都懂得急救 (的知识),许多生命就会得以挽救。 3)whether和if都可以与or not连用。但if与or not之间常需要用词语隔开,而whether与or not可 连用,也可隔开。例如: Can you tell me whether or not the train has left?(=Can you tell me whether the train has left or not?) 你能告诉我火车是否离开了吗? I don't care if your car breaks down or not .我不在乎你的汽车是否坏了。 4)下列情况,只用whether作引导词: 引导主语从句、同位语从句、表语从句、让步状语从句。例如: Whether he comes or not doesn't concern me.他来不来与我无关。 I am in doubt whether I ought to give this plan my approval..我决定不了是否该同意这项计划。 What I want to know is whether you can help me.我想知道的是你是否能帮助我。 Whether we go or stay, the result is the same.不管我们是走还是留,其结果是一样的。 5)与不定式连用:例如: I don't know whether to accept or refuse.我不知道是该接受还是该拒绝。 6)在介词后作介宾。例如: I am not interested in whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢那项计划。 4.think,believe,suppose,imagine,guess等表示“认为”、“猜想”等的动词后的宾语从句 1)否定转移

在以上动词之后的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定含义,却不用否定形式,而把主句中 的上述动词变为否定形式,这就叫否定转移。 I don't think the book is worth buying.我认为这本书不值得买。 I don't believe they have finished their work.我相信他们并未完成他们的工作。 I don't suppose he cares.我猜想他们不会介意的。 We don't expect they will have everything done.我们希望他们没有把事全做完。 2)存在这种否定转移现象的句了在作反意疑问句时,具有如下特点: 在宾语从句中,如果主句的谓语动词是 think , believe,suppose , imagine , guess 等,主句 主语是第一人称以外的人称时,反意疑问句应针对主句。 You don't think he can finish his work, do you? 你认为他不能完成他的工作,是吗? He doesn't believe that we have come back,does he? 他认为我们还没回来呢,是吗? 但是如果主句主语是第一人称时,反意疑问词部分的主语和时态要与宾语从句保持一致,并 注意否定转移。 I don't think you are an actor,are you? 我认为你不是一个演员,是吗? I suppose you have been to Beijing,haven't you ?我想你去过北京。是吗? 另外,当think ,suppose,believe,imaging,guess这类表示“认为”、“猜想”的动词作主句谓 语时,常会出现一种以疑问词起头的双重疑问句。 What do you think he is? 你认为他是做什么的? How much time do you suppose I must spend on it? 你认为我得花多少时间来做这件事? 二. 宾语从句的语序 宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如: I hear (that) physics isn’t easy.我听说物理不容易。 I think (that) you will like this school soon.我认为你不久会喜欢这所学校。 Can you tell me how I can get to zoo? 你能告诉我怎么到动物园吗? Please tell me when we’ll have the meeting.请告诉我我们什么时候开会。 三. 宾语从句的时态 1.若主句为一般现在时或一般将来时,则从句的时态不限可视句子意义使用所需要的任何时 态。例如: We all know chicken can't swim.我们都知道鸡不会游泳。

Don't you think Jim is speaking too quick.难道你不认为吉姆讲的太快了吗? He says he will come back.他说他会回来。 2.若主句是祈使句,从句谓语动词也可用所需要的任何时态。例如: Show me which picture is yours.让我看看哪张照片是你的。 Please tell us where we will go.请告诉我要去哪里。 3.若主句是一般过去时,从句必须用过去时态的某一种。例如: I knew she had swept the floor already.我知道她已经扫过地了。 He asked if I was doing my homework this time yesterday.他问我昨天这个时候是否在做作业。 4.若从句叙述的是客观真理、自然现象或永恒不变的规律时,则不受主句时态的限制,仍用 一般现在时。例如: Our teacher told us light travels much faster than sound.老师告诉我们光传播的速度比声音快得 多。 They knew the sun is much bigger than the earth then.他们那时就知道太阳比地球大得多, He said that one and one makes two.他说一加一等于二。

名词性从句(3)表语从句 1. 定义:用作表语的从句叫做表语从句。 2. 构成:关联词+简单句 3. 引导表语从句的关联词的种类: (1) 从属连词 that。没有任何含义,只起连接作用,不可省略。 如: The trouble is that I have lost his address. 麻烦是我把他的地址丢了。 (2) 从属连词 whether, as, as if。 如: He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。 The question is whether they will be able to help us. 问题是他们是否能帮我们。 注:从属连词 if 一般不用来引导表语从句,但 as if 却可引导表语从句, 如: All this was over twenty years ago, but it's as if it was only yesterday. 这都是 20 多年前的事了,但宛如昨天一样。

能跟表语从句的谓语动词一般为系动词 be, seem, look 等。 如: It looked as if it was going to rain. 看起来天要下雨了。 (3)连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 连接副词 where, when, how, why。 如:The problem is who we can get to replace her. 问题是我们能找到谁去替换她呢。 The question is how he did it. 问题是他是如何做此事的。 That was what she did this morning on reaching the attic. 那就是她今晨上了阁楼干的。 解释: 1. 连词 because 可引导表语从句。 如: I think it is because you are doing too much. 我想这是因为你做得太多。 2. 在一些表示“建议、劝说、命令”的名词后面的表语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气。 should+动词原形表示,should 可省略。 如: My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow. 我的建议是我们明天一早就出发。

名词性从句(4)同位语从句 一、含义 在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般用 that, whether,what, which, who, when, where, why, how 等词引导,常放在 fact, news, idea, truth, hope, problem, information, wish,promise, answer, evidence, report, explanation, suggestion, conclusion 等抽象名 词后面,说明该名词的具体内容。换言之,同位语从句和所修饰的名词在内容上为同一关 系,对其内容作进一步说明。 例:The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school. 他们比赛获胜的消息很快传遍了整个学校。 析:they had won the game 说明 The news 的全部内容,因此该句为同位语从句。 二、引导词 1.如同位语从句意义完整,应用 that 引导同位语从句。(即 that 不充当任何成分,只起连 接作用,不可省略) 例:The general gave the order that the soldiers should cross the river at once. 将军下达了战士们立即过河的命令。 析:the soldiers should cross the river at once 是 the order 的全部内容,且意义完整,因此应 用 that 引导同位语从句。

2.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"是否"的含义,应用 whether 引导同位语从句。(if 不能引导同位语从句) 例:We'll discuss the problem whether the sports meeting will be held on time. 我们将讨论运动会是否会如期举行的问题。 析:the sports meeting will be held on time 意义不完整,应加"是否"的含义才能表达 the problem 的全部内容,因此应用 whether 引导同位语从句。 3.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"什么时候"、"什么地点"、"什么方式"等含义,应用 when, where, how 等词引导同位语从句。 例 1:I have no idea when he will be back. 析:he will be back 意义不完整,应加"什么时候"的含义才能表达 idea 的全部内容,因此 应用 when 引导同位语从句。 例 2:I have no impression how he went home, perhaps by bike. 析:he went home 意义不完整,应加"如何"的含义才能表达 impression 的全部内容,因此 应用 how 引导同位语从句。 4.当主句的谓语较短,而同位语从句较长时,同位语从句常后置。 如:The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city. 三、同位语从句和定语从句的区别 同位语从句和定语从句相似,都放在某一名词或代词后面,但同位语从句不同于定语从 句。 同位语从句对名词加以补充说明,是名词全部内容的体现,且名词和同位语从句的引导 词均不在从句中作成分; 定语从句说明先行词的性质与特征,与先行词是修饰与被修饰的关系,且名词和定语从 句的引导词均在从句中作成分。 区分时可以在先行词与与从句之间加一个系动词 be,使之构成一个新句子,如果句子通顺 且符合逻辑,则为同位语从句,反之,则为定语从句。 如:The report that he was going to resign was false. 因为 the report was that he was going to resign 句意通顺,所以,that he was going to resign 是同位语从句。 例 1: 1)Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as

析:答案为 B。more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities 是 Information 的内容,且 Information 不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。应将该句区别于: 2)It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities,this is the information ____ has been put forward. A. what B. that C. when D. as 析:答案为 B。that has been put forward 为 information 的修饰性定语,且 information 在从 句中作主语,所以该句为定语从句。 例 2:She heard a terrible noise,____ brought her heart into her mouth.(MET91) A. it B. which C. this D. that 析:答案为 B。分析语境含义、句子结构和句子成分可知,该句为非限制性定语从句,先 行词为 a terrible noise,且它在从句中作主语。应将该句区别于: I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly. A. it B. which C. this D. that 析:答案为 D。she is crying loudly 是 the terrible noise 的内容,且 the terrible noise 不在从 句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。 同位语从句和定语从句的三点区别 同位语从句和定语从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下三方面: 1. 从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是 idea,fact,news,hope,belief,suggestion,proposal,word,thought,doubt,truth,possibility,promise,order 等 有一定内涵的名词,而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、主句的一部分或是整个主句。 如: The possibility that the majority of the labour force will work at home is often discussed. (同位 语从句) We are not looking into the question whether he is worth trusting.(同位语从句) Word came that he had been abroad. (同位语从句) Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. 我们的队赢了,这让我们很高兴?(定语从句) The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room. 你找的那位医生在房间里面?(定语从句) His mother did all she could to help him with his study.他妈妈尽她的最大努力帮助他的学习? (定语从句,代词 all 作先行词) 2. 从性质上区别

定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句 对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴。如: The news that our team has won the game was true. 我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的(同 位语从句,补充说明 news 到底是一个什么消息) The news that he told me yesterday was true. 昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的(定语从 句,news 在从句中作 told 的宾语) I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich. 我许诺如果谁让我自 由,我就让他非常富有?(同位语从句,补充说明 promise 到底是一个什么诺言) The mother made a promise that pleased all her children. 妈妈做出了一个令她的孩子们高兴 的许诺。(定语从句,promise 在从句中作 pleased 的主语) 3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别 有些引导词如 how, whether, what 可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句。如: That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考 虑。(同位语从句) I have no idea what has happened to him. 我不知道他发生了什么事。(同位语从句) 引导词 that 引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用 which 代替), 并且作宾语时常常省略?that 在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不能省略,也 不能用 which 来代替。如: The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我 们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了。(同位语从句,是对 order 的具体解释,that 虽不作成分,但不能省略。) The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组。(定语从句,是名词 order 的修饰语,that 在从句中作 received 的宾语,可以省略。) 巩固训练题 1. It has been proved _________ eating vegetables in childhood helps to protect you against serious illnesses in later life. A. if B. because C. when D. that

2. The last time we had great fun was ________ we were visiting the Water Park. A. where B. that C. when D. why

3. ________ matters most in learning English is enough practice.

A. What

B. Why

C. Where

D.Which

4. The traditional view is ______ we sleep because our brain is “programmed” to make use do so. A. when B. why C.whether D. that

5. ______ parents say and do has a life -long effect on their children. A. That B. Which C.What D.As

6.________ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy. A. As B. That C. This D. It

7. ______ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. A. No matter what B. No matter which C. Whatever D. Whichever

8. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is ______ I agree. A. why B. where C. what .D how

9. After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth, ____ our astronauts desire to do is walk in space. A. where B. what C. that D. how

10. I think Father would like to know ______ I’ve been up to so far, so I decide to send him a quick note. A. which B. why C. what D. how

11. Our country is developing at an amazing speed, and this is ______ makes me feel so proud. A. what B. which C. that D. why

12. ________ puzzles the scientists is how these creatures can survive in such severe conditions. A. What B. As C. That D. It

13. _____ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. A. Anyone B. Who C. Whoever D. The person

14. Inside the White House, there is a room called the Oval Office. That’s _______ the president works. A. whey B. when C. what D. where

15. ______ you will be admitted to York University will be decided by the Admission Committee. A. That B. Whether C. What D. If

16. The reason ____ I plan to go is _____ she will be disappointed if I don’t. A. why; that B. that; because C. which; because D. why; for

17. We sell handmade gifts. _____gift you order from us is unique for the special person! A. Which that/what 的区别 1._______your father wants to know is________ getting on with your studies. A. What; how are you C. How;that you are B. That;how you are D. What;how you are B. That C.Whichever D. What

2. The trouble is__________we are short of tools. A. what B. that C. how D. why that

3. America was __________was first called “India” by Columbus. A. what B. where C. the place D. there where

4. China is becoming stronger and stronger. It is no longer_________ . A. what it used to be C. what it used to being 5. ________he A. What … that C. What … what really B. what it was used to being D. what it was used to be means is ________he disagrees with B. That … to do their us. what work.

D. That … what makes the cells able

6. The energy is ________ A. that B. which C. what D. such 1-17: DCADC DDBBC

ADCDB

AC DBAAAC

巩固性练习: 1. The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that A. hat A. what B. what B. what B. that C. why D. which C. which C. why D. why D. when 2. The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability. 3. The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly. 4. His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down.

A. which B. that A. when

C./

D. it

5. I have no idea ____ he will start. B. that C. what D./ 6. I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow. A. if B. that C. whether D. which 7. The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him. A. when B. which C. what D. that D. what D. which D. when 8. The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late. A. which B. whether A. that B. as C. that 9. The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease. C. of which 10. He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A. whether B. where C. that


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