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2013届高考英语实战演练专题阅读理解(81-85)《附详析》


2013 届高考英语实战演练专题阅读理解(81-85) 《附详析》

(第 81 篇)
Bananas are one of the world’ s most important food crops. They are also one of the most valuable exports. Bananas do not grow from seeds. Instead, they grow from existing plants. Bananas are threatened by disease because all the plants on a farm are copies of each other. They all share the same genetic weaknesses. For example, the Cavendish banana is most popular in North American and European markets. However,some kinds of fungus organisms easily infect the Cavendish. Black Sigatoka disease affects the leaves of Cavendish banana plants. The disease is controlled on large farms by putting chemicals on the plant’ s leaves. Farmers put anti-fungal chemicals on their crops up to once a week. Another fungal disease is more serious. Panama disease attacks the roots of the banana plant. There is no chemical treatment for this disease. Infected plants must be destroyed. Panama disease has affected crops in Southeast Asia, Australia and South Africa. There is concern that it may spread to bananas grown in the Americas. This could threaten an important export product for Central and South America. The International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain supports research on bananas. The group has headquarters in France and other offices in the major banana-growing areas of the world. The group says that more research must be done to develop improved kinds of bananas. The group says that fungal diseases mainly affect only one kind of banana. In fact, there are five hundred different kinds of bananas. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has said that the Cavendish banana represents only 10% of world production. The U.N. agency says farmers should grow different kinds of bananas. This protects against diseases that affect only one kind. Experts warn that disease may cause the Cavendish banana to disappear. This happened earlier to another popular banana because of its genetic weakness against disease. [语篇解读] 香蕉由于遗传性的抗病弱点,在不久的将来有的品种可能会消失。文章列 举了两种威胁 Cavendish 香蕉的真菌病,国际组织建议农民种植更多种类的香蕉。 1.What does this passage mainly tell us? A. Bananas are the world’ s most important food crops. B. The risk to a popular banana shows need to grow other kinds. C. There are five hundred different kinds of bananas. D. How to grow bananas in different countries.

[解析] 主旨大意题。根据全文内容和结构判断,文章主要介绍威胁 Cavendish 香蕉的 真菌类疾病,进而显示出种植其他种类香蕉的必要性。故答案为 B。 [答案] B 2.Bananas are threatened by disease because ________. A. they grow from seeds B. they are one of the most valuable exports C. the only way to prevent it is to put chemicals on their leaves D. they have genetic weaknesses against disease [解析] 细节理解题。根据第一段内容可知,香蕉易受病害威胁是因为其遗传上的抗病 弱点。后文也有叙述。 [答案] D 3.Panama disease________. A. doesn’t belong to fungal disease B. affects the leaves of banana plants C. destroys bananas more seriously than Black Sigatoka disease D. has spread to bananas all over the world [解析] 细节判断题。根据第二段前两句可知 A 项错误;根据第二段第二句可知这种疾 病威胁香蕉作物的根部, 项错误; B 根据第二段后三句可知, 这种香蕉疾病已影响到东南亚、 澳大利亚和南非,有可能传播到美洲,D 项错误。由文章前两段分别对两种真菌病的描述可 知,C 项正确。 [答案] C 4.We can infer from Paragraph 3 that ________. A. the center of the group is in the US B. the Cavendish banana covers only a small part of the yield of bananas C. the key to solving the disease is to research all kinds of bananas D. each fungal disease affects five hundred different kinds of bananas [解析] 推理判断题。根据第三段中“The group has headquarters in France”可知其中 心位于法国,A 项错误;根据第三段第三句可知,应对这种疾病的办法是培育改良品种,而 不是调查所有的品种,C 项错误;根据第三段第四句可知 D 项错误。由第三段最后一句可 判断 B 项正确。 [答案] B 5.According to the passage, which information is right? A. The Cavendish banana can mainly be imported from North America and Europe. B. Panama disease affects the leaves of Cavendish banana plants. C. The Cavendish banana won’t die out in the future. D. The Cavendish banana makes up only one tenth of world production.

[解析] 细节认定题。根据第一段中“the Cavendish banana is most popular in North American and European markets”可知这种香蕉在北美和欧洲市场最受欢迎, 而不是从这两 个地区进口,A 项错误;根据第二段第二句可知 B 项错误;根据文章最后一段第三句可知 C 项错误;根据第三段最后一句可以判断 D 项正确。 [答案] D [长难句解读] This happened earlier to another popular banana because of its

genetic weakness against disease.由于天生的抗病弱点,另一种受欢迎的香蕉早些时候灭 绝了。because of 引导原因状语。注意 this 指代的是上一句所说的情况。

(第 82 篇)
“Can I see my baby?” the happy new mother asked. When the bundle was in her arms and she moved the fold of cloth to look upon his tiny face, she gasped. The doctor turned quickly and looked out of the tall hospital window. The baby had been born without ears. Time proved that the baby’ s hearing was perfect. It was only his appearance that was imperfect. When he rushed home from school one day and threw himself into his mother’s arms, she sighed, knowing that his life was to be misfortunate. He cried out the tragedy, “A boy, a big boy... called me a freak (怪人).” He grew up, handsome. A favourite with his fellow students, he might have been class president, but for that. He developed a gift, a talent for literature and music. “But you might communicate with other young people,” his mother blamed him, but felt a kindness in her heart. Two years went by. One day, his father said to the son, “You’ re going to the hospital, son. Mother and I have someone who will donate the ears you need. But it’ s a secret.” The operation was a brilliant success, and a new person emerged. Later he married and entered the diplomatic service. One day, he asked his father, “Who gave me the ears? Who gave me so much? I could never do enough for him or her.” “I do not believe you could,” said the father, “but the agreement was that you are not to know... not yet.” The years kept their secret, but the day did come. He stood with his father over his mother’ s casket. Slowly, tenderly, the father stretched forth a hand and raised the thick, reddish brown hair to reveal the mother had no outer ears. “Mother said she was glad she never let her hair be cut,” his father whispered gently, “and nobody ever thought Mother less beautiful, did they?”

[语篇解读] 本文讲述了一个感人的故事。儿子天生没有耳朵,母亲将自己的耳朵捐献 给了儿子。母亲去世后,父亲才将这个秘密告诉儿子。 1.Why did Mother gasp when she saw her newborn baby? A. Because her son had a tiny face. B. Because she saw her son crying. C. Because her son was born imperfect. D. Because her son was in her arms. [解析] 细节理解题。由第一段最后一句话“The baby had been born without ears.”可 知答案。 [答案] C 2.Which word can describe Mother’ s feeling when the son threw himself into her arms? A. Nervous. C. Proud. B. Sympathetic. D. Angry.

[解析] 细节理解题。由第二段的“When he rushed home from school one day and threw himself into his mother’s arms,she sighed,knowing that his life was to be misfortunate.”可知答案。 [答案] B 3.Who gave the son the ears? A. A doctor. C. His mother. B. His father. D. A stranger.

[解析] 细节理解题。从文章最后可知是母亲献出了自己的耳朵。 [答案] C 4.The underlined word “reveal” in the last but one paragraph means “________”. A. see B. show C. find D. search [解析] 词义推测题。 父亲拨开母亲的头发, 揭示了母亲将自己的耳朵捐给儿子的真相, 因此,此处 reveal 是“显示”的意思。 [答案] B 5.The best title for the passage would be ________. A. Mother’s hair B. An unforgettable memory C. Who gave me the ears? D. Who is my best respectable person? [解析] 标题归纳题。是谁给了我耳朵?这是贯穿文章的线索。故选 C。 [答案] C

[长难句解读] When he rushed home from school one day and threw himself into his mother’s arms,she sighed,knowing that his life was to be misfortunate. When he...arms 是一个时间状语从句,主句是 she sighed,knowing 是现在分词作状语,表示原因,后面又 跟了一个宾语从句,不定式短语 to be misfortunate 作表语,表示他的人生注定不幸。

(第 83 篇)
When times get tough, we all look for ways to cut back. When we’re hungry, we eat at home instead of going out. We take buses instead of taxis. And we wear our old designer jeans just a few months longer. With college expenses at all-time highs, high school students are eager to do anything to cut the cost of a university education. One cost-cutting proposal is to allow college students to get a bachelor’ s degree in three years instead of four. Educational institutions have been actively exploring ways to make the learning process more efficient. But there’s a question: Would the quality of undergraduate(本科生)education suffer? Few US universities have formally approved a “three-year degree” model. I doubt that mainstream North American colleges will carry out a three-year curriculum(课程) any time soon. For one thing, most universities already allow highly qualified students to graduate early by testing out of certain classes and obtaining a number of college credits(学分). In addition, at famous universities, the committee who determine which courses are required and which courses are electives are unlikely to suddenly “throw out” one quarter of the required credits. Professors will resist “diluting(稀 释)” the quality of the education they offer. In my opinion, a quality four-year education is always superior to a quality three-year education. A college education requires sufficient time for a student to become skilled in their major and do coursework in fields outside their major. It is not a good idea to water down education, any more than it’ s not a good idea to water down medicine. If we want to help students find their way through university, we should help them understand early on what knowledge and skills they need to have upon graduation. We should allow students to test out of as many courses as possible. We should give them a chance to earn money as interns(实习生)in meaningful part-time jobs that relate to their university studies, such as the five-year co-op program at Northeastern University. [语篇解读] 本文为议论文。作者认为把大学四年的学制缩短为三年不是一个好主意, 保证足够的时间才能保证大学教育的质量。 1.Which of the following can be the best title? A. It’ s time to shorten the learning process B. Best learning takes place over time

C. University education should be watered down D. College education calls for reform [解析] 主旨大意题。作者认为把大学四年的学制缩短为三年不是一个好主意,学好大 学功课是需要付出时间的,故 B 项最佳。 [答案] B 2.We can learn from the passage that ________. A. most American universities are against the “three-year degree” model B. many famous US universities are considering adopting the “three-year degree” model C. professors are willing to accept the “three-year degree” model D. The “three-year degree” model can make college learning more efficient [解析] 细节理解题。根据第二段中的 Few US universities have formally approved a “three-year degree” model 可知几乎没有几所美国大学认可“三年本科学位”模式。 [答案] A 3.In most US universities,________. A. college students are offered the co-op program B. electives’ credits make up one quarter of the required credits C. all students are required to finish four-year education before graduation D. some excellent students can graduate ahead of time [解析] 细节理解题。根据第三段中的 most universities already allow highly qualified students to graduate early 可知特别优秀的大学生可以提前毕业。 [答案] D 4.We can infer that________. A. the author is a college professor B. the author thinks the cost of a university education is too high for people to afford C. the author considers the university education quality very important D. the author pays special attention to the all-round development of college students [解析] 推理判断题。 在第四段作者给出了自己的观点, 从“A college education requires sufficient time for a student to become skilled in their major...”“It is not a good idea to water down education”等处可以看出作者非常看重大学教育质量。 [答案] C 5.The first paragraph serves as a(n)________. A. explanation C. introduction B. definition D. comment

[解析] 篇章结构题。本题要求学生推断文章的结构。根据第一段的内容可知第一段是 用来引入话题的,故 C 项最佳。

[答案] C

(第 84 篇)
I once had my Chinese MBA students brainstorming on “two-hour business plans”. I separated them into six groups and gave them an example: a restaurant chain. The more original their idea, the better, I said. Finally, five of the six groups presented plans for restaurant chains. The sixth proposed a catering(餐饮) service. Though I admitted the time limit had been difficult, I expressed my disappointment. My students were middle managers, financial analysts and financiers from state-owned enterprises and global companies. They were not without talent or opinions, but they had been shaped by an educational system that rarely stressed or rewarded critical thinking or inventiveness. The scene I just described came in different forms during my two years’ teaching at the school. Papers were often copied from the Web and the Harvard Business Review. Case study debates were written up and just memorized. Students frequently said that copying is a superior business strategy, better than inventing and creating. In China,every product you can imagine has been made and sold. But so few well-developed marketing and management minds have been raised that it will be a long time before most people in the world can name a Chinese brand. With this problem in mind, partnerships with institutions like Yale and MIT have been established. And then there’s the “thousand talent scheme”: this new government program is intended to improve technological modernization by attracting top foreign trained scientists to the mainland with big money. But there are worries about China’s research environment. It’s hardly known for producing independent thinking and openness, and even big salary offers may not be attractive enough to overcome this. At last, for China, becoming a major world creator is not just about setting up partnerships with top Western universities. Nor is it about gathering a group of well-educated people and telling them to think creatively. It’s about establishing a rich learning environment for young minds. It’s not that simple. 1. Why does the author feel disappointed at his students? A. Because there is one group presenting a catering service. B. Because the six groups made projects for restaurant chains. C. Because all the students copied a case for the difficult topic. D. Because the students’ ideas were lacking in creativeness. [解析] 考查推理判断能力。根据第一段整体的信息作出判断和推理。

[答案] D 2. Which of the following scenes is NOT considered as lack of creation? A. Papers were often downloaded from the Internet. B. Students often said that copying is a preferable business strategy. C. Students combine knowledge and critical thoughts to solve a problem. D. Case study debates were written up as well as recited. [解析] 考查判断推理能力。第二段整体判断,特别是最后一句。 [答案] C 3. The underlined word “scheme” in the forth paragraph means________. A. timetable C. project B. theme D. policy

[解析] 考查猜词能力。第四段的第 2 句“this new government program”中 this 指代前 面的“thousand talent scheme”,而 scheme 和 program 为同义词,C 中 project 为 program 同义词。 [答案] C 4. We can infer from the passage that________. A. China can make and sell any product all over the world B. high pay may not solve the problem of China’s research environment C. cooperation with institutions has been set up to make a Chinese brand D. the new government program are aimed at encouraging imagination [解析] 考查推理判断能力。文中没有直接表达出来,根据最后一句得出,“even big

salary offers may not be attractive enough to overcome this.”中 this 指的是 China’s learning environment 存在的问题即 problem,也是指 It’s hardly known for producing independent thinking and openness 这个问题。 [答案] B 5. Which is the best title of the passage? A. Look for a New Way of Learning. B. Reward Creative Thinking. C. How to Become a Creator. D. Establish a technical Environment. [解析] 考查主旨判断题。从整体和最后一段判断,整篇文章是讲关于教育出现的问题 ——有了丰富的学习环境,及新的学习方法,才能有创造性的研究氛围。 [答案] A

(第 85 篇)
Throughout the world, boys and girls prefer to play with different types of toys. Boys typically like to play with cars and trucks, while girls typically choose to play with dolls. Why is this? A traditional sociological explanation is that boys and girls are socialized and encouraged to play with different types of toys by their parents, peers, and the “society”. Growing scientific evidence suggests, however, that boys’ and girls’ toy preferences may have a biological origin. In 2002, Gerianne M. Alexander of Texas A&M University and Melissa Hines of City University in London surprised the scientific world by showing that monkeys showed the same sex ? typical toy preferences as humans. In the study, Alexander and Hines gave two masculine toys (a ball and a police car), two feminine toys (a soft doll and a cooking pot), and two neutral toys (a picture book and a stuffed dog) to 44 male and 44 female monkeys. They then assessed the monkeys’ preference for each toy by measuring how much time they spent with each. Their data showed that male monkeys showed significantly greater interest in the masculine toys, and the female monkeys showed significantly greater interest in the feminine toys. The two sexes did not differ in their preference for the neutral toys. If children’ s toy preferences were largely formed by gender socialization, as traditional sociologists’ claim, in which their parents give “gender ? appropriate” toys to boys and girls, how can these male and female monkeys have the same preferences as boys and girls?They were never socialized by humans, and they had never seen these toys before in their lives. [语篇解读] 本文是科普阅读。男孩和女孩在玩玩具方面具有明显的性别差异。这种差 异是后天习得的,还是与生俱来的呢?科学家对此进行了研究。 1.Traditional sociologists believe boys’ and girls’ toy preferences ________. A. are passed down from their parents B. have a biological origin C. have nothing to do with gender socialization D. are largely formed in later life [解析] 细节理解题。从文章第一段的第四句和最后一段可知,传统的社会学家认为男 孩、女孩对玩具的偏好差异是后天形成的。 [答案] D 2.The study by Alexander and Hines shows that monkeys________. A. also play toys as humans do B. also have a sex ? typical toy preference

C. have no toy preferences D. like to play different toys at different time [解析] 细节理解题。文章第二段的第一句说明,猴子在玩玩具时,也有性别差异。 [答案] B 3.Alexander and Hines carried out the study to ________. A. find out why boys and girls prefer different toys B. test the intelligence of monkeys C. test whether monkeys like to play toys D. find more evidence for traditional sociology [解析] 推理判断题。从文章第一段最后一句和最后一段可知,用猴子做研究的目的是 证明男孩和女孩在玩玩具时所表现出的偏好是与生俱来的,而不是后天习得的。 [答案] A 4.According to the study, if given a stuffed dog, ________. A. only the male monkeys showed interest B. the female monkeys showed more interest C. the male and female monkeys showed the same interest D. neither the male nor the female monkeys showed any interest [解析] 细节理解题。从文章第二段最后一句可知,如果给一种中性的玩具,猴子表现 出的兴趣没有性别差异。 [答案] C 5.Masculine toys are mainly intended for________. A. monkeys C. boys B. adult D. girls

[解析] 细节理解题。从文章第二段可知,这种玩具是跟女孩玩的玩具相对的,因此是 指男孩玩具。 [答案] C


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