广东技术师范学院“ 英语阅读? 广东技术师范学院“本科插班生”?英语阅读?课程考试大纲
一．考试目的 ?英语阅读?课程考试的目的是测试学生通过阅读获取有关信息的能力， 以 及测试学生细致观察语言的能力和假设判断、分析归纳、推理检验等逻辑思维能 力，考核学生相关阅读策略和技巧的程度。既要求准确性，也要求一定的速度。 阅读速度为每分钟 120-180 个词。
二．考试要求 （1）能读懂英美国家出版的中等难度的文章和材料。 （2）能读懂难度相当于美国 Newsweek 的国际新闻报道。 （3）能读懂难度相当于 Sons and Lovers 的文学原著。 （4）能掌握所读材料的主旨大意，了解说明主旨大意的事实和细节；既理解字 面意义，又能根据所读材料进行判断和推理；既理解个别句子的意义，也 理解上下文的逻辑关系。 （5）能在阅读中根据需要自觉调整阅读速度的阅读技巧。
三．考试形式及考试参考书目 考试形式为闭卷、笔试，考试时间为 120 分钟，试卷满分为 100 分。试卷的 题型以客观题为主，有单项选择题，判断题等。 考试参考书目为： 《英语阅读教程》 ，第二版，1—4 册，黄源深、虞苏美等 主编，高等教育出版社
（2）体裁多样，包括记叙文、描写文、说明文、议论文、广告、说明书、图表 等。 （3）试题难易度分为易、较易、较难、难四个等级。试卷中四种难易度试题的 分数比例，易约占 20%，较易约占 30%，较难约占 30%，难约占 20%。 （4）试题中关键词汇基本上不超出?高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲?规定的 范围。
五．考试样题 I. Vocabulary Directions: In each sentence, a word or phrase is underlined. Below each sentence are four other words or phrases. You are to choose the one word or phrase which would best keep the meaning of the original sentence if it were substituted for the underlined word. 1. If he insists upon being stubborn, we will have to settle this in court. A. obstinate B. indignant C. abject D. gauche 2. She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading. A. disguised B. absorbed C. suspended D. refined 3. He was an exemplary prisoner despite his past experience. A. model B. sample C. honest D. humble 4. She always gets upset about unimportant matters. A. trenchant B. stunted C. trivial D. prevalent 5. As both a religion and a social force, Puritanism has had a widespread influence in the United States. A. a disturbing B. a complex C. an annoying D. a far-reaching 6. The Constitution guarantees that private homes will not be searched with a written authorization. A. receipt B. warrant C. prescription D. accomplice 7. His former employer recommended him highly as having been a very industrious worker. A. affluent B. cogent C. diligent D. extinct 8. Deems Taylor was distinguished both as a music critic and a composer. A. inventive B. classified C. different D. eminent 9. Many news organizations feel a responsibility to safeguard the rights of citizens. A. protect B. define C. examine D. challenge 10. As nineteenth-century American cultural aspirations expanded, women stepped into a new role as interpreters of art, both by writing works on art history and by
teaching art. A. patronage B. imagination C. ambitions D. opportunities 11. He cannot be in the dormitory now. I saw him heading for the library a few minutes ago. A. walking for B. making for C. going for D. leaving for 12. New towns are springing up to house the ever-increasing population in this country. A. establishing B. inventing C. generating D. increasing 13. The crowd swelled until the noise made could be heard for miles. A. shouted B. cheered C. grew D. scattered 14. He was such a shrewd businessman that he never lost money in any transaction. A. fortunate B. clever C. wealthy D. well-liked 15. The indecisive man was readily persuaded to change his mind again. A. easily B. hardly C. subtly D. abruptly 16. The indecisive man was readily persuaded to change his mind again. A. easily B. hardly C. subtly D. abruptly 17. The two companies are going to merge by the first of the year. A. become one B. divide into two C. dissolve D. change owners 18. The winning team of the World Series often has a jovial attitude. A. merry B. sad C. somber D. laborious 19. He tramped across the cream-colored carpet, leaving a trail of mud behind him. A. limped B. skipped C. walked unsteadily D. walked heavily 20. The world leaders had a chat early this morning at United Nations headquarters. A. friendly, unimportant talk B. disagreement C. serious discussion D. high-level conference 21. I decided to go to the party on the spur of the moment. A. after careful thought B. for only a short time C. without previous thought D. at the earliest possible moment 22. The theory that business could operate totally without the aid of government has proved to be an erroneous belief. A. authentic concept B. argument C. illusion D. asset 23. The clerk had been insolent to his superior once too often; now he was without a job. A. affectionate B. sly C. dishonest D. rude 24. The mother soothed the disappointed child and then promised to take him on a picnic as soon as it stopped raining. A. hugged B. comforted C. whipped D. praised 25. Samuel Morse’s painting ability has been obscured by his other accomplishments.
A. revealed B. popularized C. exposed D. hidden
II. Reading comprehension. Directions: Read the following passages and then choose the best answer for each
item. Passage One In 1892 the Sierra Club was formed. In 1908 an area of coastal redwood trees north of San Francisco was established as Muir Woods National Monument. In the Sierra Nevada mountains, a walking trail from Yosemite Valley to Mount Whitney was dedicated in 1938. It is called John Muir Trail. John Muir was born in 1838 in Scotland. His family name means 搈 oor,?which is a meadow full of flowers and animals. John loved nature from the time he was small. He also liked to climb rocky cliffs and walls. When John was eleven, his family moved to the United States and settled in Wisconsin. John was good with tools and soon became an inventor. He first invented a model of a sawmill. Later he invented an alarm clock that would cause the sleeping person to be tipped out of bed when the timer sounded. Muir left home at an early age. He took a thousand-mile walk south to the Gulf of Mexico in 1867and 1868. Then he sailed for San Francisco. The city was too noisy and crowded for Muir, so he headed inland for the Sierra Nevadas. When Muir discovered the Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevadas, it was as if he had come home. He loved the mountains, the wildlife, and the trees. He climbed the mountains and even climbed trees during thunderstorms in order to get closer to the wind. He put forth the theory in the late 1860s that the Yosemite Valley had been formed through the action of glaciers. People ridiculed him. Not until 1930 was Muir’s theory proven correct. Muir began to write articles about the Yosemite Valley to tell readers about its beauty. His writing also warned people that Yosemite was in danger from timber mining and sheep ranching interests. In 1901 Theodore Roosevelt became president of the United States. He was interested in conservation. Muir took the president through Yosemite, and Roosevelt helped get legislation passed to create Yosemite National Park in 1906. Although Muir won many conservation battles, he lost a major one. He fought to save the Hetch Valley, which people wanted to dam in order to provide water for San Francisco. In the late 1913 a bill was signed to dam the valley. Muir died in 1914. Some people say losing the fight to protect the valley killed Muir. 1. What happened first? A. The Muir family moved to the United States. B. Muir Woods was created. C. John Muir learned to climb rocky cliffs. D. John Muir walked to the Gulf of Mexico. E. Muir visited along the east coast. 2. What did John Muir do soon after he arrived in San Francisco? A. He ran outside during an earthquake. B. He put forth a theory about how Yosemite was formed. C. He headed inland for the Sierra Nevadas. D. He began to write articles about the Sierra Nevadas.
E. He wrote short stories for the local newspaper. 3. When did John Muir meet Theodore Roosevelt? A. between 1901 and 1906 B. between 1838 and 1868 C. between 1906 and 1914 D. between 1868 and 1901 E. between 1906-1907 4. What happened last? A. John Muir died. B. John Muir Trail was dedicated. C. Muir’s glacial theory was proven. D. The Sierra Club was formed. E. John’s family visited him. Passage Two When using a metal file, always remember to bear down on the forward stroke only. On the return stroke, lift the file clear of the surface to avoid dulling the instrument’s teeth. Only when working on very soft metals is it advisable to drag the file’s teeth slightly on the return stroke. This helps clear out metal pieces from between the teeth. It is best to bear down just hard enough to keep the file cutting at all times. Too little pressure uses only the tips of the teeth; too much pressure can chip the teeth. Move the file in straight lines across the surface. Use a vice to grip the work so that your hands are free to hold the file. Protect your hands by equipping the file with a handle. Buy a wooden handle and install it by inserting the pointed end of the file into the handle hole. 1. These directions show you how toA. work with a hammer C. polish a file E. repair shop tools 2. When using a fileA. always bear down on the return stroke B. move it in a circle C. remove the handle D. press down on the forward stroke E. wear protective gloves 3. When working on soft metals, you canA. remove the handle B. clear metal pieces from the teeth C. bear down very hard on the return stroke D. file in circles E. strengthen them with added wood 4. Protect your hands by-
B. use a file D. oil a vise
A. dulling the teeth B. dragging the teeth on the backstroke C. using a vise D. installing a handle E. wearing safety gloves Passage Three Insects’ lives are very short and they have many enemies, but they must survive long enough to breed and perpetuate their king. The less insectlike they look, the better their chance of survival. To look “inedible” by resembling or imitating plants or objects that hold no interest for their enemies is a deception widely practiced by insects. Mammals rarely use this type of camouflage, but many fish and invertebrates do. The stick caterpillar is well named. It is hardly distinguishable from a brown or green twig. This caterpillar is quite common and can be found almost anywhere in North America. It is also called “measuring worm” or “inchworm”. It walks by arching its body, then stretching out and grasping the branch with its front feet, then looping its body again to bring the hind feet forward. When danger threatens, the stick caterpillar stretches its body away from the branch at an angle and remains rigid and still, like a twig, until the danger has passed. Walkingsticks, or stick insects, do not have to assume a rigid, twiglike pose to find protection; they look like inedible twigs in any position. There are many kinds of walkingsticks, ranging in size from the few inches of the North American variety to some tropical species that may be over a foot long. When at rest their front legs are stretched out, heightening their camouflage. Some of the tropical species are adorned with spines or ridges, imitating the thorny bushes or trees in which they live. Leaves also seem to be a favorite object for insects to imitate. Many butterflies can suddenly disappear from view by folding their wings and sitting quietly among the foliage that they resemble. 1. What is the main subject of the passage? A. Caterpillars that live in trees. B. The feeding habits of insects. C. How some insects camouflage themselves. D. Insects that are threatened with extinction. 2. According to the passage, how does the stick caterpillar make itself look like a twig? A. By holding its body stiff and motionless. B. By looping itself around a stick. C. By changing the color of its skin. D. By laying its body flat against a branch. 3. Which of the following is true of stick insects? A. They resemble their surroundings all the time. B. They make themselves look like other insects. C. They are camouflaged only when walking.
D. They change color to make themselves invisible. 4. Which of the following are NOT mentioned in the passage as objects that are imitated as a means of protection? A. thorns B. Flowers C. Leaves D. Sticks Passage Four The nuclear age in which the human race is living, and may soon be dying, began for the general public with the dropping of an atom bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. But for nuclear scientists and for certain American Authorities, it had been known for some time that such a weapon was possible. Work towards making it had been begun by the United States, Canada and Britain very soon after the beginning of the Second World War. The existence of possibly explosive forces in the nuclei of atoms had been known every since the structure of atoms was discovered by Rutherford. An atom consists of a tiny core called the “nucleus” with electrons circling round it. The hydrogen atom, which is the simplest and lightest, has only one electron. Heavier atoms have more and more as they go up the scale. The first discovery that had to do with what goes on in nuclei was radioactivity, which is caused by particles being short out of the nucleus. It was known that a great deal of energy is locked up in the nucleus, but, until just before the outbreak of the Second World War, there was no way of releasing this energy in any large quantity. A revolutionary discovery was that, in certain circumstances, mass can be transformed into energy in accordance with Einstein’s formula which states that the energy generated is equal to the mass lost multiplied by the square of the velocity of light. The A-bomb, however, used a different process, depending upon radioactivity. In this process, called “fission”, a heavier atom splits into two lighter atoms. In general, in radioactive substances this fission proceeds at a constant rate which is slow where substances occurring in nature are concerned. But there is one form of uranium called “U235” which, when it is pure, sets up a chain reaction which spreads like fire, though with enormously greater rapidity. It is this substance which was used in making the atom bomb. The political background of the atomic scientists’ work was the determination to defeat the Nazis. It was held—I think rightly—that a Nazi victory would be a terrible disaster. It was also held, in Western countries, that German scientists must be well advanced towards making an A-bomb, and that if they succeeded before the West did they would probably win the war. When the war was over, it was discovered, to the complete astonishment of both American and British scientists, that the Germans were nowhere near success, and, as everybody knows, the Germans were defeated before any nuclear weapons had been made. But I do not think that nuclear scientists of the West can be blamed for thinking the work urgent and necessary. Even Einstein favored it. When, however, the German war was finished, the great majority of those scientists who had collaborated towards making the A-bomb considered that it should not be used against the Japanese, who were already on the verge of defeat and who, in
any case, did not constitute as great a threat to the world as Hitler did. Many of them made urgent representations to the American Government maintaining that, instead of using the bomb as a weapon of War they should after a public announcement, explode it in a desert, and that future control of nuclear energy should be placed in the hands of an international authority. Seven of the most famous nuclear scientists drew up what is known as “The Frank Report” which they presented to the Secretary of War in June 1945. The is a very admirable and far-seeing document, and if it had won the agreement of the politicians, none of our subsequent terrors would have arisen. 1. We may conclude that the writer’s attitude towards the A-bomb is that _______. A. it is a necessary evil B. it is a terrible threat to the whole of mankind C. it played a vital part in defeating the Japanese D. it was a wonderful invention 2. According to the passage, an atom is heavy if _______. A. it has a large nucleus B. it is radioactive C. its nucleus has many electrons D. its nucleus shoots out many particles 3. The American and British scientists were astonished at the end of the Second World War against Germany because _______. A. The Germans had been defeated without the use of nuclear weapons B. the Western countries had won before they have invented nuclear weapons C. they thought the Germans would probably win the war D. the Germans had made little progress in developing nuclear weapons 4. According to the writer, most scientists who had helped in making the A-bomb considered that it should not be used against the Japanese because ________. A. it was such a dangerous weapon B. its use against the Japanese was unnecessary C. it was very inhumane weapon D. the German war was finished Passage Five My Mother Who Came from China Where She Never Saw Snow Laureen Mar In the huge, rectangular room, the ceiling a machinery of pipes and fluorescent lights, ten rows of women hunch over machines, their knees pressing against pedals and hands pushing the shiny fabric thick as tongues through metal and thread. My mother bends her head to one of these machines. Her hair is coarse and wiry, black as burnt scrub. She wears glasses to shield her intense eyes. A cone of orange thread spins. Around her, talk flutters harshly in Toisan wah. Chemical stings. She pushes cloth
through a pounding needle, under, around, and out, breaks thread with a snap against fingerbone, tooth. Sleeve after sleeve, sleeve. It is easy. The same piece. For eight or nine hours, sixteen bundles maybe, 25- sleeves to ski coats, all the same. It is easy, only once she’s run the needle through her hand. She earns money by each piece, on a good day, thirty dollars. Twenty-four years. It is frightening how fast she works. She and the women who were taught sewing terms in English as Second Language. Dull thunder passes through their fingers.
1. The main idea of the poem is to show that _________. A. the woman has led a heroic life of struggle B. women factory workers do not see the opportunity in America for people who aren’t afraid of a little hard work C. a factory worker faces dull, difficult work every day D. Chinese women are very good at sewing 2. The key idea of the line “breaks thread with a snap against fingerbone, tooth” (line 14) is that ____________. A. women often broke their teeth or fingers doing this kind of work B. the thread was so brittle that sometimes it simply snapped off C. women often broke the thread with their hands and teeth D. women often snapped their fingers to make the day go faster 3. We can infer from this poem that the women were taught sewing terms in English because ____________. A. their employers were Americans with little knowledge of Chinese B. every native speaker of English sews as a hobby C. these were words the women needed to know on the job D. both A and C 4. When the poet says her mother’s hair was “black as burnt scrub” (line 8) she probably means that ____________. A. her hair was often burned by chemicals at work B. her hair was very short C. her hair was worn tied up to keep it out of the spinning machines D. her hair was black and stiff and looked like a burned bush. 5. From the tone of this poem, what can you conclude about how the poet views the experience of working in a factory? A. It is challenging work. B. It is always the same. C. It offers a chance for someone to earn a reasonable working wage. D. It enables the women who work there to get better jobs.
6. The poet uses the basic technique of letting one day at work stand for workdays over many years, because ___________. A. this was a special day at work B. this was the mother’s twenty-fourth anniversary C. one day t work is much like any other D. one day t work was enough for the daughter 7. In the poem, the mood is one of ____________. A. cheerfulness B. unhappiness C. admiration D. repetition 8. The reason that the poet tells us, in the title, that her mother never saw snow is __________. A. to show even more vividly how meaningless is the mother’s job of making sleeves for jackets used in the snow B. to give some background about China’s geography C. to prove that it does not snow anywhere in China D. to show how people can miss the beauties of nature 9. Figurative expressions in this poem may be found in lines ___________. A. 5, 6, 7 and 8 B. 5, 11, 12 and 13 C. 1, 3, 4 ad 10 D. 2, 5, 8 and 26 10. When the poet says “it is frightening” in line 23, she means the word frightening in what sense? A. The mother scares the poet. B. The mother’s ability to stand her job scares the poet. C. The mother looks scary when she works so fast. D. The mother’s work is so dangerous that it scares the poet. 11. Which answer best explains the meaning of line 26, “Dull thunder passes through their fingers”? A. The job is dull. B. The women radiate a power like electricity. C. The noise and the vibrations of the machines sound like the rumbling of thunder. D. all of the above 12. Which of the following statements can be safely inferred from the poem? A. The mother hated her job. B. The American bosses resented the women speaking Chinese. C. The machines made a good deal of noise. D. Chinese women enjoy sewing. Passage Six CRIME: AN EVER-GROWNING PROBLEM Whatever you do, wherever you live, you are a victim of crime whether you like it or not, whether you know it or not.
Of the many problems in the world today, none is as widespread, or as old, as crime. Crime has many forms, including crimes against property, person, and government. There is even a class of crimes called “crimes without victims” (e.g., prostitution). Crime, in all its forms, penetrates every layer of society and touches every human being. You may never have been robbed, but you suffer the increased cost of store-bought items because of others’ shoplifting, and you pay higher taxes because of others’ tax evasion. Perhaps your house is not worth as much today as it was a few years ago because of the increased crime rate in your neighborhood, or maybe your business is not doing as well as it used to because tourism is down due to increased terrorism in your part of the world. Whatever you do, wherever you live, you are a victim of crime whether you like it or not, whether you know it or not. Crime, especially violent crime, has risen to a point where many people are afraid to walk alone in their own neighborhoods, afraid to open their door after dark, afraid to speak out and voice their own opinions. Some citizens have reacted by arming themselves with various weapons, legal and illegal, to defend themselves. Citizen groups have taken the law into their own hands by forming their own vigilante groups to administer “judgement” when they feel that their criminal justice system has not performed its duty. Experts argue whether the number of crimes committed is actually on the rise or whether there is simply a rise in the number of crimes reported. This issue is particularly true in cases of conjugal violence, the abuse of spouse or children. Throughout much of history, cases of family violence and neglect often went unreported because of the attitude of society, which considered family maters to be private. Other experts argue about who is really to blame for criminal behavior: the individual or society. Researchers in the United States and Canada have identified several factors in society that contribute to the crime rate: massive urbanization, unemployment and poverty, and a large immigrant population. Other countries are more affected by factors such as politics, government corruption, and religion. The most important question that still remains unanswered, however, is how to stop crime from happening. In this chapter, we will look at a number of specific crimes and see what types of solutions are being proposed to combat them. In doing this, we shall see how problems are presented and how solutions are offered. ( ) 1. Decide which of the following expresses the main idea. A. Crime has many forms, including crimes against property, person, and government. B. Crime, in all its forms, penetrates every layer of society and touches every human being. C. Everybody is a victim of crime whether he is aware of it or not. D. There is much debate about who is really to blame for criminal behavior. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).
( ) 2. Everyone is a victim of crime. ( ) 3. Your house may lose part of its value as a result of crime. ( ) 4. There is indication that the criminal justice systems fails to perform their duties. ( ) 5. Experts agree that the crime rate is rising. ( ) 6. Many cases of crime want reported. ( ) 7. Diversified factors contribute to the crime rate. ( ) 8. This passage is an introduction to a detailed discussion of crimes and their solutions.
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